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THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY BULLETIN

The Bromeliad Society Bulletin is the official publication of the Bromeliad Society, a non-profit corporation organized in 1950. The Bulletin is issued six times a year. Subscription to the Bulletin is included in the annual membership dues. There are four classes of membership: Annual, $4.00; Sustaining, $6.00; Fellowship, $12.00; and Life, $100.00. All memberships start with January of the current year. For membership information, write to Mrs. Jeanne Woodbury, 1811 Edgecliff Drive, Los Angeles 26, California. Please submit all manuscripts for publication to the editor, 647 South Saltair Avenue, Los Angeles 49, California.

OFFICERS
PresidentJames N. Giridlian Editorial SecretaryVictoria Padilla
Vice PresidentCharles A. Wiley Membership SecretaryJeanne Woodbury
Treasurer           Jack M. Roth

Board of Directors
David Barry, Jr.
Ralph Davis
Nat de Leon
Mulford B. Foster
James N. Giridlian
Morris H. Hobbs
Ed Hummel
Eric Knobloch
Fritz Kubisch
Marcel Lecoufle
J. G. Milstein
Julian Nally
Frank Overton
Victoria Padilla
E. H. Palmer
Jack M. Roth
Dr. Russell Seibert
O. E. Van Hyning
Charles A. Wiley
Wilbur G. Wood
Jeanne Woodbury

Honorary Trustees
Mrs. Adda Abendroth
Teresopolis, Brazil

W. B. Charley
Bilpin, N.S.W., Australia

Monsieur Charles Chevalier
Esneux, Belgium

Mulford B. Foster
Orlando, Florida

A. B. Graf
E. Rutherford, New Jersey

Charles H. Lankester
Cartago, Costa Rica

Harold Martin
Auckland, New Zealand

Richard Oeser, M. D.
Kirchzarten, Brsg, West Germany

P. Raulino Reitz
Itajai, Brasil

Walter Richter
Crimmitschau, E. Germany

Dr. Lyman B. Smith
Washington. D. C.

Henry Teuscher
Montreal, Canada

Affiliated Societies and their Presidents
The Bromeliad Guild, Los Angeles, California Jack M. Roth
Louisiana Bromeliad Society, New Orleans, Louisiana Mrs. Nell Emery
Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society, St. Petersburg, Florida Mrs. B. E. Roberts
South Florida Bromeliad Society, Miami, Florida Ralph W. Davis
Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand William Rogers
Bromeliad Society of Australia, Sydney, Australia J. S. Martin
Bromeliad Society of Greater New York J. G. Milstein
Bromeliad Guild of Tampa Bay, Tampa, Florida Ervin J. Wurthmann
Bromeliad Society of La Ballona Valley, Culver City, California Warren Cottingham
The Bay Area Bromeliad Society, San Franciso, California Kurt Peters

(No article appearing in this bulletin may be reproduced without the permission of the editor.)


THE CASE OF THE PRODIGIOUS GUZMANIA

LOUIS ARIZA JULIA

Author

WELL-GROWING PLANT of Guzmania monostachia, even though out of flower, is always attractive because of its many narrow, pointed leaves, usually light green, which give a decorative touch wherever it appears in the wild. As a result, one tends to collect especially nice plants, which may be set in the center hole of the tree fern supports for other bromels or Vandas, where they promptly take root. This I did with a plant from the mountain back of town.

The time came for the plant to flower, and lo and behold, it produced a spike with several smaller branches near the base, thereby completely upsetting the usual form of flowering for the species, and so winning a place in the herbarium of Dr. Jose de J. Jimenez in Santiago de los Caballeros.

No such luck with its twin plant, however, which flowered later in the orthodox fashion. There remains an offshoot to show eventually if the branched inflorescence will be inherited or if it was just the one effort.

—Puerta Plata, Republica Dominicana.


Dr. Lyman B. Smith has this interesting comment to make on Mr. Ariza Julia's bromeliad:

Mr. Ariza Julia's specimen is an interesting example of a reversion or throwback, since most of the evidence available indicates that in the Bromeliaceae the inflorescence was primitively much branched. It has since evolved by reduction to a simple unbranched inflorescence and finally to a one-flowered one as in Tillandsia usneoides. Some species, like Tillandsia fasciculata, may have branched or simple inflorescences according to the vigor of the growth. To borrow from bacterial terminology we might call these "facultative" simple species because they can be simple or not. Other species seem to have passed the point of no return and are "obligate" simple species in that they always produce a single spike no matter what the conditions. Until Mr. Julia's discovery, Guzmania monostachia would have been in the "obligate" category, but now no longer.

—Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.


BROMELIADS ARE GOING PLACES

From E. H. Palmer, of Largo, Florida, comes the following:

"Recently, a friend from Circleville, Ohio, took back with her a mounted Bromeliad (Cryptbergia meadii). Now she writes: "Last week we had a horticulturist from Ohio State University speak on houseplants. He brought lots of plants and among them was a bromeliad . . . I felt real smart since I was the only one in the group that had one."

Word also came that another mounting (several bromeliads on driftwood) was doing fine and the "Vriesea is in bloom" (A Vriesea hyb. Marie).

The other day a visitor bought, to take back to friends in Delaware, three mountings, identical, of Aechmea orlandiana on tree-fern slabs.

It is a pleasure to know that bromeliads, mounted in various ways but particularly on driftwood, can go forth into northern climes and be prized possessions and live and bloom in the homes 'up north'."


A DEPENDABLE TECHNIQUE IN THE GERMINATION AND
SUBSEQUENT CARE OF EPIPHYTIC AECHMEA SEEDS

JOSEPH CARRONE, JR.

AVE YOU EVER GROWN EPIPHYTIC AECHMEAS from seed? It can be a most fascinating and rewarding hobby! The most important aspect of germinating these seeds, however, is the preparation of a suitable medium on which to start them.

After experimenting with dozens of different materials, we are firmly convinced that the all-round best material is tropical American tree fern cut into slabs or plaques an inch to an inch and a half thick. The surface of these slabs is firm, and it retains moisture while draining away an excess. There is a small but totally ample supply of nutrients in tree fern to give the youngsters a fine start. Slabs remain porous, thus aiding aeration of the roots which even tiny seedlings require.

Other media, such as peat moss, sphagnum, screened barks, decayed sawdust, soils, sands, etc., have been tried. All of these materials, alone or mixed in varying combinations, must be watered with the greatest of care lest they shift about or come apart, float or wash away, or become soggy staying wet too long. Some of the fluffy or granular materials I have not mentioned because they are trade names. These are especially difficult to wet if they are accidentally allowed to dry out. Your only hope with most of them is to water from the bottom and allow capillarity to distribute moisture throughout the seed bed. Most of us, however, would prefer to use a medium that would allow top watering.

Well, to cut our slabs, I try to select a tree fern log that is firm with fibers about the diameter of broom straws, set closely together, and without any of the woody sections attached. The logs are sawed across the grain of the fibers or somewhat diagonally rather than horizontally and with the grain. This gives a finished plaque with the grain running up and down, enabling the tender roots of the germinating seeds to penetrate to the heart of the medium with greater ease and speed. If the fibers were to run sideways, the roots, which tend to follow the grain of the medium, would be slow in entering the slab. This could lead to a loss of some seedlings from drying, since the surface of a slab will dry much faster than the inner area. Greater attention to watering would be necessary until a good root system became imbedded.

To prepare the slabs further for the seeds, we soak them in clear tap water to wet them through. They are allowed to drain and are shaken vigorously to remove any water that would drip out during the sowing operation. When I have a slab that is particularly "open," I like to rub into its top surface some dry osmunda screenings that are always available after chopping osmunda. If you use this method for germinating epiphytic Aechmea seeds, though, be sure to rub the osmunda screenings into the slabs only after the slabs have been wetted and drained. The screenings will adhere better to the slab and will not float away with subsequent wettings.

Osmunda dust is preferred to tree fern dust for filling in between the fibers of the slabs because it retains moisture somewhat longer, it is more easily wetted, and it contains more organic nutrients than does tree fern dust.

In just a few minutes after rubbing in the osmunda screenings, the whole slab will be evenly moist, and no additional wetting of the slab will be necessary until it dries off somewhat and really shows a need for more moisture. Any loose osmunda on top of a slab can be brushed away, leaving a fine, smooth surface. Your slab is now ready for the seeds.

Now let's turn our attention to the preparation of the seeds. As the capsules show signs of ripening, they are collected along with the individual label hung over each flower at the time of hand pollination. Capsules or seeds resulting from the same identical parents are grouped as though they were all from the same capsule. Reciprocal crosses are kept separated, as are crosses involving a different paternal plant or clone. This I feel is most important if records are to be kept straight!

Later the capsules are squeezed into small vials of clear tap water. These vials are capped and shaken vigorously to free the seeds from all remaining pulp and sticky fluid. Then the entire contents of the vial are poured into a tea strainer and flushed well with water from the tap. Any pulp that is not washed through the strainer can be pressed through with your fingers. Finally, only the seeds remain. If you desire to sow them immediately, tap the strainer upon a few thicknesses of paper toweling to dislodge the seeds from the bottom of the strainer. Then spread them evenly and thinly over the surface of the tree fern slabs and label each slab with the information on the labels you made at time of pollination of the flowers. Perhaps you will want to record the sowing date as well.

The method of sowing I prefer is to make slight depressions in the surface of the slab with the rounded end of a pecan pick. With the pointed end I pick up a seed and place it into one of the slight depressions. This is a very tiresome job, but the results are more fruitful in more evenly spaced plants that grow stronger because they are spaced better. Make no effort to cover the seeds; I do believe they germinate better if not covered. You may sprinkle the plaque lightly with a fine mist or you may wait until the fiber shows signs of drying.

Place the plaques in a protected place — a lath house or greenhouse is preferred — and give them strong light but no direct sunlight. Increase the humidity by sprinkling the area around the plaques with a hose. Until germination is well along, it will be necessary to keep the seed beds moist. Germination will take from two to five days with fresh seed depending on temperature and humidity. Between 75° and 90° is the best temperature for rapid germination; below 60° germination is apt to be retarded.

After two weeks or so, diluted liquid fertilizer of an inorganic nature can be given. I like to use one level teaspoonful of 20-20-20 to a gallon of water and to saturate the slabs with this at ten-day intervals. Of course, regular watering is necessary in between times.

As the seedlings grow, they are given more light. When they crowd or are about three to four inches tall, they can be transplanted to individual pots. Since each of us has his own pet growing medium, there is no need to suggest what material to use. You may remember a previously published article on my plastic container method of growing on seedlings. Coarse tree fern fiber is an ideal medium to substitute for the fir bark if you wish to use this method for growing on your seedlings.

We have found tropical American tree fern slabs to be such an excellent germinating medium for these bromeliads that we have suspended the use of all other media and techniques. Germination is consistently good. We never experience any problem with damp-off, even when the seedlings become quite crowded. Why don't you give this method a try?

—New Orleans, Louisiana.


PERUVIAN DISCOVERY

HAROLD SLINGERLAND

Jack Holmes
Checking the Day's Finds

N THE SUMMER OF 1961 A PERSONAL "EXPEDITION OF DISCOVERY" into the jungles of Peru became a compelling necessity for Jack Holmes, well-known nurseryman of Tampa, Florida. It was he who had introduced to the public the variety of Aechmea chantinii know as "Pink Goddess," a plant which proved to be more than twice the size of the ordinary Aechmea chantinii and startling because of the vivid pink color of its bracts. If a plant like this had existed in Peru and no one had known of it, Holmes wondered how many more astounding bromeliads were yet to be discovered. He determined to go to Peru himself to see whether the jungles held any more unknown beauties. Being a nurseryman and a businessman, he felt his appraisal of such plants would be knowing, practical, and discriminating.

Such a trip would have to penetrate deep into the jungles, not just skirt the edges. It was his contention that the bromeliads which had been introduced into cultivation were those that were quickly and easily available; in other words, they were those plants that grew near towns or roads. But what kinds existed deep in the rain forests, far up the rivers, secreted in grassy clearings? With all this to find out, the intrigue and romance of far-away places became irresistible.

The hazards, toil, preparation, and expense of such a trip, too, may have been the reason that a national authority on bromeliads had made the statement "no great bromeliad has ever been found in the Peru-Amazon basin area." Quite possibly, Jack Holmes thought, the reason was that no one had really wanted to face the risks or trouble to find out.

Holmes had all the "makings" of such a trip ready and at hand. It was his financing of airplane searches by Lee Moore in 1961 and 1962 that had brought out the "Pink Goddess." When in the winter of 1962-63, Moore reported the finding of a new and equally sensational bromeliad he called "Fabulous Orange," Holmes' mind was made up. Moore stated that this new plant had much larger blooms, which opened to a cherry red and softened to a brilliant orange, a color it held for months.

So it was, after instructing Moore to make all arrangements, that Jack Holmes and Carl Cowgill, another leading Florida nurseryman, flew to Lima, Peru, in July, 1963. After a three-day tour of this now modern city, resembling Los Angeles with its buildings, wide streets, mountains and canyons, during which tour they traveled from sea level to over 10,000 feet altitude between breakfast and dinner, they took off on a four-hour flight across the Andes to Iquitos, some 800 miles north and east, on the banks of the Amazon River. This jungle city, over 2,300 miles up the Amazon, is the port for ships from the Atlantic Ocean, although it is just a few hundred miles from the Pacific on the other side of the Andes.

Here, they met Lee Moore and completed all preparations. A large, low motor launch with a crew of three and with ample supplies took them out on their "hardening up" cruise for four days, during which time they ranged the Amazon's two to four-mile width and penetrated its shore, collecting plants and learning of the hazards of insects, animals, vines, plants, swamps, and low lands.

They learned that the "Fabulous Orange" was the only plant of its kind that Moore or his wife had ever found, and they could not find any other. This one plant had been found high on a tree, far back on a jungle road. Given the opportunity to examine this bromeliad closely in Moore's Nursery, both Holmes and Cowgill were certain that they had never seen anything to match its size, color and lush growth. To find the source of this wonderful bromeliad became their passion.

Within a week the search was on its way. They went some sixty miles down the Amazon to the mouth of the Napa River up whose course Moore had found the "Pink Goddess." The explorers decided that if they did no more than search this area for finer kinds of "Pink Goddess," the trip would pay for itself.

Floating along the ever-widening, sluggish brown Amazon, all members of the party were glued to their binoculars, searching the trees along the shore for bright splashes of color — evidence of native bromeliad colonies that could lead to new discoveries. They also sought native villages to question the inhabitants about the plants in the area and to replenish food supplies, because their limited cargo space made it necessary to "live off the country."

Surprisingly, they found that while their food purchases were native products, such as yucca roots, which are boiled or fried like potatoes, and bananas, papaya, pineapple, dried fish, eggs and chickens, the bread was "United States," being made from flour imported from here! Water they dipped from the Amazon, let "settle" overnight, when as much as two inches of silt would drop to the bottom of a five-gallon jug, then filtered and boiled it.

Jack Holmes
Streptocalyx holmesii — Plant still thirty days from maturity

Jack Holmes
Streptocalyx holmesii — Orange pods indicate plant is 60 days past maturity

All along the Amazon they found their questions about the huge flowers they sought brought answers telling them that the promising treasures were farther down the river or in inaccessible jungles. They also learned about the trochas, which are machete-cut trails leading back through the forests to natural clearings, where the Indians grow little patches of yucca, corn, bananas, and other produce. Except for these farming patches at the end of the trochas, all life is along and within a half mile of the rivers, and seldom if ever do white men penetrate deeper. A trocha, later, was to bring the explorers to one of their most inspiring finds.

At the mouth of the Napa River, the Amazon is so wide that the far shore cannot be seen, and the party found that turning from the Amazon into the Napa was no Sunday afternoon excursion. Here the relatively fast flowing Napa is stopped by the giant Amazon and deposits its silt in a huge muddy delta, where the motor with its whirling propeller could do little more than stir the mud like a Mixmaster stirring a cake batter. The guides, therefore, had to go over the side of the boat to wade and push, while the others poled like galley slaves.

But the reward for this early morning labor, the half mile of "puddling" and the two hours' work was quick in coming. They had hardly begun to enjoy the motor's purring when they spied a huge mass of red high up in a giant tree, which towered over its fellows in the jungle. The embankment rose at least a hundred feet above the river, and the mass of red was 125 feet up the trunk of the 200-foot tree. Careful scrutiny by all three members of the party led to the verdict that here was something different, and the time had come to land and investigate.

Here they learned why Moore had been so insistent upon one qualification of his guides — they must be good climbers. The boss guide quickly earned a change from his given name of Elroy to Tarzan. For the first fifty or sixty feet the trunk of the tree was too huge and too smooth to scale, but draped from its branches was the kind of vine that made Tarzan famous and was now to do the same for Elroy. Climbing these convenient vines as if they were ropes, Elroy was soon up in the branches gracefully swinging his way upwards. From below, the watchers were fascinated by the graceful way he progressed, almost daintily, seeming to investigate each handhold and foothold with nimble and exploratory touches. The reason for this caution was soon obvious when an avalanche of ants, tarantulas and, in one case, a tree sloth, tumbled down. All of these can bite, and do, particularly the ants, which are a special breed, often one inch long with stingers half their length.

Elroy lowered the plant carefully, Moore's first exclamation was "We've found the 'Fabulous Orange'!" And truly, they had. It checked out in every way. It was an almost perfect plant, at the height of its bloom. Within a few hours, a score of similar plants were located in nearby trees, and with a large assortment to choose from, only the most perfectly developed specimens were kept. Camp was made and the finds were carefully packed.

In honor of Jack Holmes and his expedition, this new plant was identified and named Streptocalyx holmesii. The inflorescence of the collected plants was always over two feet tall, with several measuring as much as thirty inches. The lower ten to twelve inches were covered with petals two to three inches wide and up to six inches long, so that the bloom measured eleven to twelve inches through. Above the petals arose 12 to 15 inches of brilliant bracts loaded with plump yellow pods, each ending in a curled white tip like a candle flame, from which small white flowers spouted. The upper petals were a bright cherry red, with the lower petals mellowing to a brilliant orange, a color which lasted for weeks. The broad leaves were four to five inches wide and over two feet long and opened in a vase-like formation. The leaves varied from bright red when grown in the sun to deep green when shaded by overhanging foliage. So consistently alike were all the plants that Holmes felt assured that he had obtained a true strain that would never disappoint him.

Jack Holmes
Streptocalyx holmesii — Young bloom, 60 days ahead of maturity. The wide spreading leaves have been colored red by the sun.

Jack Holmes
Aechmea poitaei

Jack Holmes
Aechmea nidularioides growing in forest.

Jack Holmes
Jack Holmes holding Aechmea nidularioides, which he had gathered from ground in forest.

This treasure trove had its exciting effect on all three men. They felt nothing but the urge to push on, for they believed that the next mile or ten miles would surely unveil other wonderful finds. So with completely undue haste, they broke camp to seek more bromeliads.

The party's next find was a lucky accident. They had stopped at a tiny village to shop and talk about and show their new bromeliad and to ask where other plants might be found. The Indians were friendly, and this was most important, because at previous stops the party had encountered nothing but wild cries and apparently abusive language. They had found to their deep disappointment that the tales of unfriendly savages were not just for tourist entertainment. But in this instance, the natives were cooperative and told about huge red flower balls growing on the ground along the village's trocha about a mile in the jungle.

Threading one's way through this jungle trocha was a real thrill, and the party felt as if they were Spanish conquistadores exploring the unknown wilds. Often barely wide enough for a man's shoulders and often so low it was necessary to duck and crouch, the path was bathed in green luminosity untouched by direct sunlight. The spell was complete when suddenly the men walked into a brilliant cathedral-like clearing, the ceiling consisting of the blue sky and the floor a carpet of lush green studded with the biggest, reddest "roses" they had ever seen.

These red "roses" proved to be bromeliad blooms of a kind and shape no one in the party had ever seen before. Centered in the heart of a spray of low-spread leaves a few inches wide and over two feet long was a fat round pine cone of blazing red. What they had found was Aechmea nidularioides, a plant which had been lost for years. Each bloom was a cone-shaped rosette, as much as ten inches across at the bottom and ten inches high, with triangulated petals, folded straight down along each edge, so that each one fitted against the one below it, to present a solidity of shape and fleshy thickness. The members of the party stood in awe at the edge of the clearing, looking down on what must have been thousands of plants growing so closely together that their foliage made them look like a fern covered entanglement. The afternoon was spent finding the best specimens. And that night was again an evening of relaxation and congratulations.

Finding two such spectacular plants within the matter of a few days brought the trip to an anti-climax — the party felt that nothing more could be found. This proved true when the original "Pink Goddess" grounds were reached and explored. In spite of thorough searching, inspecting, and checking, nothing else of any consequence could be found. Instead it was Holmes' conclusion that the new clones of this Aechmea that he had developed in his nurseries had progressed far beyond the original plant and that his careful hybridizing had developed the inflorescence to its maximum. Whereas native plants still show the usual green and white striped leaves, his "Ash Blond" provides a dull pewter grey foliage, entirely new to this variety. His developing plum shades and other colorings give promise of other intriguing variations. No plants were taken out.

Lee Moore flew to Tampa in December of 1963, to help with this article and he and Holmes discussed improved kinds of fine bromeliads they found in addition to the above. They brought out Aechmea tillandsioides, the first specimens to be taken from this area, so they believe. This particular Aechmea carries its flower spike high above the foliage, instead of hiding it in the leaves as in most varieties. It has been identified as "Perumazon," to differentiate its appearance.

Jack Holmes holding Ae. poetaei

They also brought out a better form of Aechmea poitaei (This plant has been misnamed A. nidularioides in Wilson's book Bromeliads in Cultivation.) This Aechmea was far superior to any they had previously seen in mass, size, and flower. Its 12 to 18-inch inflorescence is a column of compact, tightly fitted petals, seemingly projecting one from another, giving a dense, thick and fleshy appearance.

They are equally enthusiastic about a startling new Streptocalyx poeppegii, that is lavender pink instead of red and is much larger than the ordinary red type. Excellent stud plants of Lee Moore's own spectacular find, Aechmea mooreana, were brought back. This bromeliad with its upright vase of clearest green leaves has huge erect flowers similar to those of A. chantinii.

Although the finds on this expedition represent a real stride in bromeliad beauty, they possibly are just an indication of the wonders that can be found in the Upper Amazon and Peru region. The difficulties and expense of entering this area certainly seem justified, and as indicated earlier, may be the only reason that no great bromeliads had come from there before. But the future of bromeliads seems bright, for once the ground has been broken, others will thread their way through the jungle trochas to bring back unknown beauties.

—P.O. Box 528, Wheaton, Illinois.


NOMENCLATURE

(An address given before the Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society)

E. H. PALMER

N ONE OF THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY BULLETINS, Mrs. Mulford Foster told of using a dictionary and five botanical volumes to aid her in tracing the many changes in nomenclature of all members of the Bromeliaceae Family. A great deal of research has gone into this matter, particularly by Dr. Lyman B. Smith, of the Smithsonian Institution. The information then that I offer has come almost entirely from these researches as given, from time to time, in the pages of the Society's Bulletins.

To begin with, the real start of an attempt to name properly some of the plants of this family came in 1623. This, of course, was some 150 years after Columbus, and already other explorers were discovering much difference in the flora and fauna of the new land. One of these explorers was Banhius, who discovered the pineapple plant and named it "Cardus brasilianus folius aloes." Cardus refers to a card, or comb, such as the "card" used for "carding" wool. This undoubtedly was suggested by the appearance of the spines, which could be compared to combs. Brasilianus is Brazil. Folius is foliage. Aloes indicates that it was thought that the plant was a succulent. Thus Banhius indicated that this plant was a succulent with a spiny foliage native to Brazil.

Some years later Charles Plumier, a Franciscan brother and explorer, found these plants in the West Indies and, apparently deciding they were but one genus, gave them a specific generic name. Olaf Bromel, a Swedish botanist, was apparently well known in Europe at that time, and Plumier honored him in this group of new plants by naming them Bromelias. Bromel, plus the Latin suffix used in such cases, "ia," gives us Bromelia. In 1754 Dr. Carl von Linne (Latinized form—Linneaus), who is credited with establishing the systematic botany and zoology of modern times and was then at work on nomenclature, accepted this generic name, "Bromelia" with the added descriptive words folius sinosis fructibus connatus. Thus the pineapple, a spiny-leaved plant with cone-like fruit, came to be listed as a genus known as Bromelia among many of the New World discoveries.

At any rate, even though it is doubtful whether Olaf Bromel ever saw a pineapple, his name became definitely attached to these plants. So, though South American Indians called it "abacasi" and the Indians of the West Indies called it "karatas," it became a Bromelia, that is, until much later when it was taken from the other plants in this genus and put into a classification almost of its own — that of Ananas (from a Guarani Indian word) with its distinctive additive "comosus" or fruit with a tuft of leaves.

However, while still in the Bromelia genetical classification, the French botanist, Jaume St. Hilaire, observed this plant as but one of a large family. Eventually, and supplementing the work of Linneaus, Bromel was further honored by the generic name of Bromelia being used in the "family" name in this way:

Bromel, Latinized, becomes Bromelius

Bromelius, as a generic name, becomes Bromelia

Bromelia, when advanced to a sub-family name, becomes Bromelioideae

Bromelioideae, advanced to the family name, becomes Bromeliaceae.

Gradually, of course, it became necessary to divide the entire family into three separate sub-groups or sub-families, according to definite differentiation in organic structure. Three such sub-families were established. The largest of these was that containing the Bromelia genus which, as we have noted, became the Bromelioideae sub-family. "Oideae" means "like," so this group are all similar in certain respects to the Bromelia genus. Another group was similar to one of its genera which had been named after Dr. Pitcairn, an English physician and botanist, and called Pitcairnia, and those similar in structure to this genus were then included in the sub-family Pitcairnioideae. Then another group had a genus named after a Finnish professor. Dr. Tillands, who, in his native land, was known to travel a long, round-about journey of 200 miles, rather than go a mere 8 miles across water. These plants in this group, at that time, were thought to dislike water and became known as Tillandsias, and the sub-family, like Tillandsias, became the Tillandsioideae.

Now we turn to the genera in these three sub-families, the largest number being in the Bromelioideae section, or sub-family No. 3. As we have seen, many plants are named after a person, in which case, that particular genus carries that person's name plus the Latin suffix "ia," as we have seen with Bromel, Tillands, and Pitcairn. Roughly, this suffix may be taken to mean "sons of" or "named after." As we glance down the list of generic names, we see some well known, some little known, and some of comparatively unknown persons. There are Cottendorfia, Navia, Fernseia, Dyckia, Hohenbergia, all honoring German nobles. Heinrich Wawra von Fernsee found a single species on a Brazilian mountain top and it was named after him. But take Deuterocohnia — Dr. Ferdinand Julius Cohn had been honored by having a group of lilies named after him — the Cohnia lilies. A second honor came when a group of these plants were named after him. Deutero means second, so we have Deuterocohnia!

Let us take a look, then, at the listings of genera as given in the Society's Handbook:

In the Pitcairnioideae sub-family:

Abromietiella — Obscure. One species found in Bolivia by Mez, 1927.
Brocchinia — for G. B. Brocchi, Italian student of biology.
Connellia — for Frederick McConnell, English ornithologist and biologist.
Cottendorfia — for the German botanist, Baron Cotta von Cottendorf.
Deuterocohnia — second honor for Ferdinand Julius Cohn.
Dyckia — for Prince Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck, patron of botany.
Encholirium — meaning sword lily.
Hechtia — for Counselor Julius Hect of Potsdam.
Lindmania — for Carl Axel Magnus Lindman, Swedish botanist.
Navia — for Bernard S. von Nau, student of natural history and physics.
Pitcairnia — for Dr. William Pitcairn, English physician.
Puya — from the Chilean Mapuche Indians, meaning point.

In the Tillandsioideae sub-family:

Catopsis — Greek for view, possibly by growing on trees.
Glomeropitcairnia — a cluster similar to the Pitcairnia
Guzmania — for A. Guzman, a Spanish naturalist.
Mezobromelia — for Carl Mez for his work on Bromeliaceae
Tillandsia — for Dr. Elias Tillands, professor, of Finland.
Vriesea — Dr. De Vriese, Dutch botanist.

In the Bromelioideae sub-family:

Acanthostachys — from the Greek, spiny plant and spike.
Aechmea — from the Greek meaning spike or spear.
Andrea — for the French botanist Edouard Francis Andre.
Androlepis — Greek, "andros" male, "lepis" scale. (stamens scaly)
Araeoccocus — from the Greek "few seeds" (or few and far between)
Billbergia — for Gustave Johannes Billberg, Swedish botanist.
Bromelia — for Olaf Bromel
Canistrum — Greek "kanos" basket. Inflorescence in basket of bracts.
Cryptanthus — Crypt — hidden, anthus — flower.
Deinacanthon — possibly Greek meaning bad (enemy) spiny plant.
Fascicularia — not indicated, possibly bundle of flowers.
Fernseea — for Heinrich Wawra von Fernsee, German botanist.
Gravisia — possibly Latin "gravis." Wax and honey on flowers.
Greigia — Major General von Greig, President Russian Horticultural Society, 1865.
Hohenbergia — Price of Wurtenberg, know as Hohenberg.
Neoglaziovia — for A. Glasiou, collector of Brazilian bromeliads.
Neoregelia — for Edouard von Regel, director of St. Petersburg Botanic Gardens in Russia. Formerly Aregelia.
Nidularium — nidus—nest. The form of leaves around the flowers.
Ochagavia — for Sylvestris Ochagavia, minister of education, Chile.
Orthophytum — "ortho"— straight, "phytum"— plant. Erect spike.
Portea — for Dr. Marius Porte, collector of bromeliads.
Pseudananas — like Ananas.
Quesnelia — for E. Quesnel, French horticulturist.
Ronnbergia — for M. Ronnberg, director of agriculture and horticulture.
Streptocalyx — twisted calyx.
Wittrockia — for V. Bracher Wittrock, Swedish botanist.


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