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THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY BULLETIN

The Bromeliad Society Bulletin is the official publication of the Bromeliad Society, a non-profit corporation organized in 1950. The Bulletin is issued six times a year. Subscription to the Bulletin is included in the annual membership dues. There are four classes of membership: Annual, $4.00; Sustaining, $6.00; Fellowship, $12.00; and Life, $100.00. All memberships start with January of the current year. For membership information, write to Mrs. Jeanne Woodbury, 1811 Edgecliff Drive, Los Angeles 26, California. Please submit all manuscripts for publication to the editor, 647 South Saltair Avenue, Los Angeles 49, California.

OFFICERS
PresidentJames N. Giridlian Editorial SecretaryVictoria Padilla
Vice PresidentCharles A. Wiley Membership SecretaryJeanne Woodbury
Treasurer           Jack M. Roth

Board of Directors
David Barry, Jr.
Ralph Davis
Nat de Leon
Mulford B. Foster
James N. Giridlian
Morris H. Hobbs
Ed Hummel
Fritz Kubisch
Marcel Lecoufle
J. G. Milstein
Julian Nally
Victoria Padilla
Jack M. Roth
Dr. Russell Seibert
O. E. Van Hyning
Charles A. Wiley
Wilbur G. Wood
Jeanne Woodbury

Honorary Trustees
Mrs. Adda Abendroth
Teresopolis, Brazil

W. B. Charley
Bilpin, N.S.W., Australia

Monsieur Charles Chevalier
Esneux, Belgium

Mulford B. Foster
Orlando, Florida

A. B. Graf
E. Rutherford, New Jersey

Charles H. Lankester
Cartago, Costa Rica

Harold Martin
Auckland, New Zealand

Richard Oeser, M. D.
Kirchzarten, Brsg, W. Germany

P. Raulino Reitz
Itajai, Brasil

Walter Richter
Crimmitschau, E. Germany

Dr. Lyman B. Smith
Washington. D. C.

Henry Teuscher
Montreal, Canada

THE PICTURE ON THE COVER—A picture taken by our honorary trustee in Germany, Dr. Richard Oeser, of a group of Aechmeas growing in his greenhouse. The striking yellow and red inflorescence is that of Aechmea nudicaulis, varieties of which may be found growing from Mexico to Brazil.

(No article appearing in this bulletin may be reproduced without the permission of the editor.)


Holmes

HIS PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS a small patio garden in Florida, using an arrangement of bromeliads of unusual colors, forms, shapes, and sizes against a window that goes all the way to the floor. From the room inside, it appears that the bromeliads are almost walking in.

The bromeliads, which include for the most part Aechmeas and Neoregelias, keep their size and form for a long period of time and thus the planting does not have to be changed for several years. Mexican pebbles combine with North Carolina gravel to give a pleasing contrast to the bromeliads.

Aloes, Zamia, Dion Edule, with Davallia (the carrot fern) used as a ground cover, are combined with the bromeliads to give an unusual and unique planting.


A Catalina amphibious plane popularly called "pata choca" (sitting duck) taking off from the Amazon River.

A curious house made of wood, with a thatch of palm leaves. The floor is made of split palm trunks. Such houses are common in the Amazonian jungle.

The tree felled for the collection of scientific material as well as those still standing is completely clean of epiphytes. Such a phenomenon demonstrates the paucity of bromels in the Amazonian flora.

THERE AREN'T MANY BROMELIADS IN AMAZONIA

P. RAULINO REITZ

EALIZATION OF A DREAM — The day finally arrived for realizing one of the great dreams of my life — that of seeing Amazonia, the greatest expression of life on the face of the earth. I think it is the dream of every naturalist. It was September 1, 1962, when I arrived in Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian states of Amazonas. I had been invited by the Brazilian Research Association on Aromatic plants and Essential Oils (APPA) to serve as botanist on the scientific expedition to Amazonia called the APPA Caravan. The aim was to study (a) the problems of the rosewood which is distilled in Amazonia for perfume and other products; (b) the collection of plant material for chemical and technological study of essential oils, resins, balsams, alkaloids, fibres, dyes, physiological activators, etc.; and (c) the collection of botanical material for the herbarium. Taking part in the caravan were 23 scientists, including chemists, botanists, and agronomists from six states and territories of Brazil, 2 technicians from Stanford University in California, and several other foreigners.

We left Rio de Janeiro the 31st of August on a Super-Constellation of the Varig line. We landed at one o'clock at night in the heat of Manaus and had to set our watches back one hour for the different time of this part of Brazil. Manaus is a pleasant city of 200,00, situated on rolling terrain some 60 feet above the level of the black waters of the Rio Negro.

The APPA Caravan traveled through the states of Amazonas and Para and the territories of Rondonia and Amapa. We covered great stretches of the immense highways between Brasilia and Acre and between Brasilia and Belem. We made use of all types of modern transport, such as amphibian planes, motor launches, autos and trucks. We cruised in the most exciting places, in the most savage aspects of nature in this immense region, feeling the pulsating life of this "green hell" in the phrase of Albert Rangel.

SCIENTIFIC RESULTS — The findings of the APPA Caravan were of great value. Besides the plants we found, such as rosewood and macacaporanga, we collected more than 300 plants for chemical analysis, 150 of them for alkaloids. Some eight and a half tons of bark, roots, trunks, leaves, and resins were the prize of the expedition. The one who made all this possible, Dr. Mauro Taveira Magalhaes, organizer and director of the caravan, contacted 3,282 people in the process.

OUTSTANDING IMPRESSIONS — That which impressed me most in Amazonia was the vastness of the jungle, the gigantic size of the Amazon and its principal tributaries, the tremendous variety of fish in the streams and lakes, the constant battle of the Catalina planes in linking the smallest settlements in this immense area, the sterility of the soil, and the scarcity of flat land in the so-called "Amazon plain." All of the vast region that we call Amazonia has a faintly or strongly undulating terrain, with mostly narrow valleys 30 to 150 feet deep. On disembarking at Manaus everyone was surprised. The streets climbed and descended grades that while not extreme were quite definite, and I was impressed to see that nearly all the smaller settlements, even those on the banks of the great rivers, were on rolling ground. The highways under construction in the interior have to be cut deep in order that the grades will not be too steep. In Amazonia true plains are found only along a relatively narrow belt along the Amazon, and these are half inundated by the yearly floods. This belt varies from one yard to a maximum of 130 miles. The remainder is undulating or even broken with small mountains as in the vicinity of Santarem. Finally I was impressed with the small number of Indians in Amazonia, amounting to not over 25,000, according to well-informed anthropologists.

Above—
Aechmea mertensii—The most common species of Brazilian Amazonas. Also found in other parts of South America.

 

Left—
Billbergia oxysepala—Formerly known only from a single collection of Ule from the Rio Tejo, Alto Jurua, state of Acre. Now found by me at Sumauma, 100 miles north of Barcelos, former capital of that state of Amazonas.

Looking out of the Super-Constellation that carried me from Belam to Brasilia at a height of 13,000 feet, I saw the end of the jungle and the beginning of the immense plain of central Brazil and said farewell to fabulous Amazonia that never ceases to amaze.

BROMELIACEOUS OBSERVATIONS — According to Dr. Lyman B. Smith's Bromeliaceae of Brazil, the following Bromeliaceae have been recorded in a century and a half of research in Brazilian Amazonia, including the states of Amazonas, Para, and Acre, and the territories Roraima, Rondinia, and Amapa:

Genus Number of Species
Pitcairnia
Tillandsia
Navia
Vriesea
Guzmania
Catopsis
Araeococcus
Streptocalyx
Neoregelia
Bromelia
Gravisia
Aechmea
Billbergia
Ananas
6
16
3
2
4
1
3
4
2
2
1
15
3
2
TOTAL: 14 genera 64 species
Of the 20 fertile and sterile species (1/3 of the total of Amazonia) that I collected on this excursion, I have already succeeded in identifying 7, of which 2 were Billbergias new to Amazonia and already included in the above list.

As we have seen, Amazonia with an area of approximately three million square miles (4,750,000 square kilometers) mostly covered with a dense humid equatorial forest has produced up until now only 64 species of Bromeliaceae belonging to 14 genera while in the south Brazilian state of Santa Catarina with an area of barely 58,000 square miles (194,000 square kilometers) and largely temperate climate, there are 94 species and 23 varieties distributed among 15 genera. In fact, we must admit Amazonia is poor in bromeliad species. Also the frequency of individuals is low. Sometimes I walked mile after mile without seeing a single bromeliad. In Santa Catarina one can walk mile after mile and not see a square meter without its bromeliads. Careful data compiled there give an average of 5 to 13.5 individuals per square meter. WHY SO FEW BROMELIADS?? In my opinion, climate factors inhibit the spread of bromeliads in Amazonia. The long dry season and, incredible as it may seem, the superhumidity of the rainy season reduce the surviving species to a handful.

Aechmea angustifolia—Collected in Jaru, Rondonia Territory. This species is rather widely distributed in western Amazonia and is also found from Costa Rica to Peru and Bolivia.
Close up of the base of Aechmea angusifolia showing the ferocity of its great spines (up to half an inch long) that make it a highly decorative plant in spite of its insignificant inflorescence.

  
Streptocalyx poeppigii very common in Amazonas and Para. Its spirally recurved sepals are most curious and give the genus its name which means "twisted calyx."
A fortunate (?) disaster gave me the key to the secret. Having brought some 10 species of live bromeliads from Barcelos to Manaus and having to visit Porto Velho and the interior of Rondonia for a week and a half, I left the plants in a house where they were shaded and well watered. When I returned 10 days later they were nearly all so dried out that I had to abandon most of them. The dry hot wind that blows in the relatively rainless 6‑month period (May to October) in Amazonia makes a gigantic drier of the vast region. It kills most of the seedlings of bromeliads and other epiphytes. The long dry season is the strongest inhibiting factor to the dispersal of bromeliads. For this reason epiphytic life in Amazonia is poor—a most amazing situation. In most cases the trees present a naked bark in strong contrast to the rain forest of eastern Brazil whose surface is literally hidden by epiphytes. The same goes for the cryptogamic epiphytes like ferns, mosses, hepatics, and lichens. It is only along the margins of rivers and lakes that a few species succeed in resisting the dry season by means of renewed humidity from evaporation.

On the other hand, the superhumidity of the rainy months of the "green hell" bars the growth of xerophilous species which like the Tillandsias have no leaf-tank. Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) is almost completely lacking in Amazonia. It has only recently been collected by botanists at the extreme end in Guama in the state of Para.

I would emphasize the accident in Manaus (fortunate disaster) in which the live bromeliads left indoors dried so quickly. In Santa Catarina with an annual mean humidity of 88% and without a distinct dry season, bromeliads under such circumstances would have lived for months.

Here again Pasteur's saying proves true: "In scientific discovery there is that which is pure accident." Often a "happy accident" gives the inspiration to a scientist or an artist, revealing the true path in the most difficult problems whose solution carries enormous progress and benefits for mankind.

—Herbario "Barbarosa Rodriguez," Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

__________
1. See my article "Ecological aspects of the Bromeliaceae of Southern Brazil," Bromeliad Society Bulletin, III, No. 1, pp. 3-6, 1957.
TERRESTRIAL BROMELIADS

MULFORD B. FOSTER

BROMELIA

Author
Bromelia balansae

ECAUSE OF THEIR SIZE and very spiny leaves no members of the genus Bromelia have found favor as a house plant, but the species Bromelia balansae has become increasingly common in Florida gardens and somewhat evident in California gardens. It makes a particularly excellent rock garden or mountainside plant. It likes full sun, rough rocky or sandy soil and can take plenty of neglect!

Author   
Bromelia karatas
When not in bloom it certainly resembles a pineapple plant with plain green leaves edged with effective hooked spines. It gives plenty of massive foliage feeling in the garden and is harmonious in form with cacti and the numerous desert succulents. When in bloom it is something to rave about. The signal that it is going to put forth a bloom comes when the center terminal leaves start "blushing" actually turning brilliant red, gradually increasing in perimeter and intensity until up from the very center pushes a massive white head containing many small but beautiful maroon and white flowers. Out of this whitish flower head darts flame-like "spears," the inflorescence bracts, which add much brilliance to the already magnificent spectacle. No adulations are too extravagant for the wondrous beauty of Bromelia balansae, "Heart of Flame." To see the miracle of its bloom unfold over a period of several weeks is a joy no plant collector should miss, but alas, its beauty must be confined to warm climate out-door gardens, although it easily withstands light frosts. Its orange colored fruits are used in producing an interesting drink. B. balansae is generally listed and sold as B. penguin or B. serra.

The variegated form of this bromeliad called B. tricolor is one of the most outstanding and spectacular plants among the terrestrial bromeliads. The green and white variegation on the spiny pineapple-like leaves has a flush of pink at all times and then has the final display of the in-describable eruption of color at the blooming and fruiting season.

The giant terrestrial Bromelia karatas has leaves which often reach six to nine feet in length and is almost too rank for the ordinary garden. Unlike most of the Bromelias this species produces its flowers in a dense, flat almost stemless head. The huge nest of purple flowers later produce large, four-inch yellow fruits which are edible, and can be made into a drink or dulce.

PUYAS

Puyas have been classed by Dr. Lyman B. Smith as the earliest type of bromeliad. Their original home being in the high Andes most of them are lovers of altitude and cool temperatures. Only a few species have been introduced into horticulture and no doubt the finest examples are in California gardens, although I have several Puyas growing in my central Florida low altitude garden. A number of Puyas have been grown in English gardens as rockery plants; they could and should be successfully used in a greater climate range of gardens than any of the bromeliad family.

These densely rosulate, spiny leaved plants with their stately cluster of flowers range in size from one to thirty feet in height. Comparatively few of the species are small enough for the average succulent collector, but I feel quite certain that southern gardens will in the near future greet them with considerable interest.

Puya alpestris, a native of Chilean Andes, has given the traveler a tremendous thrill when beholding its great mass of blue-green flower clusters.

The caption under the color plate in the Illustrated London News of August 14, 1937, describes these unusual flowers as "Three-petaled goblets of waxy, silken texture of an unearthly blue-green. Standing up in the center is a cluster of brilliant orange anthers, and in the middle of these is a tufted stigma of bright lettuce-green velvet."

It is a plant reported to be of easy cultivation . . . the only plant which I have, recently acquired, has not yet had time to bloom, but I am anxiously awaiting that day. Puya alpestris was discovered by Clarence Elliot who also brought back from his Chilean expedition of 1927 the magnificent and sensational Puya coerulea.

Puya spathacea, being a native of Argentine where it is fairly cool, can adapt itself perfectly to the light frosts of Florida and California and it makes an excellent garden subject. The stiff grey-green tomentose foliage makes a bold more upright rosette than in the Dyckias or Hechtias.

A great branched inflorescence, sometimes as tall as four feet, makes a brilliant display with its scarlet to pink stem and scape bracts. Bright pink and green flowers add to the delightful and conspicuous color scheme of this desert plant. It likes a sunny, well-drained habitat and one need not be greatly concerned about its care; once established it seems to thrive.

—Rt. 2, Box 491, Orlando, Florida.


KATE SESSIONS' PUYA

WILLIAM DRYSDALE

ERTAINLY THE MOST esteemed name in horticultural history of San Diego is that of Miss Kate Sessions, who, though she died in 1940, is still very much alive in the hearts of those who knew her and of those gardeners who grow her introductions.

Of interest to members of this Society is Puya violacea. When one mentions Puya, he generally envisions large, thorny plants appropriate only to estates like the Huntington Gardens in San Marino. But the Puya Miss Sessions grew is different. While it does have raspy spines, these are not the rigidly formidable armaments of other members of the family. William Seaborn, a nurseryman, obtained a stock of this bromeliad from an old planting by Kate Sessions, which may be seen at his establishment.

Here we find plants of three or four compact heads accommodated in a gallon can and five or six in a five-gallon tin. Plants flower in both sized receptacles. They have prospered under such conditions for over three years. The plant thrives in full sun and has withstood temperatures of 20°F. without harm. The inflorescence is a spike up to 4½ feet, with blue-black tubular flowers two inches long. The flowering lasts about a month. They are a delight to humming birds. The plant is a sturdy, compact grower and does not appear fussy. It thrives in a 50-50 mixture of decomposed granite and redwood shavings and propagates easily.

—1212 Isabella, Riverside, Calif .


GROWING AECHMEAS FROM SEED

L. DE PLANQUE

AM ABOUT TO "debunk" the popular theory of growing Aechmea from seed. Plant them in grated moss? Mist them daily? Cover them with plastic bags or panes of glass? Give them bottom heat? "Hooey!"

In my 18th floor apartment with a glass exposure 18 feet long and 6 feet high facing northeast, I grow Aechmea, Anthurium, Spathiphyllum, and Dracaena. Everything I grow is planted in "Black Magic."*

One of the Aechmeas (A. angustifolia) showed its inflorescence in October. In April, when most of the blue berries were dried up, I cut off the inflorescence, not being interested in growing from seed. (I use offsets) I threw it in the trash can later in the day, but then I decided to try an experiment. Retrieving the inflorescence, I took off 3 dried berries, crumbled them and had 3 hard brown seeds. I laid them on Black Magic under a Dracaena (marginata); then I took 6 undried berries and pressed them in the Black Magic under a Spathiphyllum. Finally, I squeezed out 3 undried berries and placed the wet seeds under another Dracaena (goldieana).

These plants are all watered on the same day once a week. They all germinated in the following time: the dried seed sprouted in four weeks; the whole wet berries were next in 5 weeks; the wet seeds were last—almost 7 weeks.

So, if you want to grow Aechmea from seed, lay them on Black Magic under plants, water once a week (warm water), and forget them. You will be surprised.

—381 Broad Street, Newark, N. J.

__________
*I also grow all my plants over water. I use white enamel pudding pans. The container with saucer is set on plastic blocks and the pan is filled with one to one and a half inches of water. As the water evaporates, it forms a cloud of humidity around each plant.


HUMIDITY CONTROL IN THE GREENHOUSE

JOHN M. RILEY

BASIC PROCESS in the growth of plants is the taking up of moisture by the roots and transpiration of water vapor through the leaves. The proper balance of humidity and soil moisture can have a profound effect on the thriftiness of growth. In the more favored geographic areas this balance is more or less natural. High temperatures are accompanied by increased evaporation and humidity is maintained. However, in the greenhouse, there are limitations which may cause trouble. Usually there is an inadequate mechanism to match humidity to variation in temperature.

In the early morning hours, the relative humidity may be high, but as the temperature rises, if the water supply is limited, the humidity must drop. If we assume no additional moisture is added to the air, figure 1. shows this drop in humidity where the minimum temperature is 60°F and the relative humidity starts at 60, 80, and 100% respectively. At night the outdoor temperature drops faster than that of the greenhouse. As a result, the dew point temperature is reached near the walls and almost all the water vapor introduced during the day condenses and is drained away. Consequently, the nighttime humidity is not likely to be more than about 80%, even though the dew on the greenhouse glass gives the appearance of saturation.

Since these variations seriously affect plant growth, let us see how much water vapor must be put into the air. In figure 2. is shown the amount of water required to maintain relative humidity in a volume 10 feet on each side. You may recall that a pound of water is just about the equivalent of a pint or two standard cups in liquid measure. Thus, at 100°F you must have nearly a quart of water suspended as vapor.

There are a number of useful techniques to keep this important factor in balance. During the winter a container of water on or near the greenhouse heater will evaporate considerable water. If the container is filled with porous gravel, the surface area is greatly increased and evaporation rate is increased several fold. The greenhouse floor may also be paved with gravel for the same purpose, namely, increasing surface area and hence evaporation. If a frequent and general hosing is resorted to, special attention should be given to rooting media. It is quite possible to keep the roots of the plants saturated while, on the average, the air is still too dry. A small fan will greatly enhance the maintenance of good humidity if used in combination with any of the above techniques.

Water requires a substantial amount of energy to evaporate and as a consequence, the rapid morning temperature rise in greenhouses may be moderated a bit by the evaporation process. At night this energy is returned by the condensation process, slowing the rate of fall of temperature from the day's high. It is rather hard to determine the magnitude of this effect, although it is readily evident in larger greenhouses.

Almost all bromeliads have some means of collecting dew. This is undoubtedly an important factor in their survival in the wild. Of course, hosing the plants occasionally will serve the purpose of dew, but there is a suspicion that having the temperature drop to the dew point at night is highly beneficial. Naturally the humidity must be consistent with the requirement for reasonably high night temperatures. From Figure 1 you may see that if the humidity was 30% during a day where the temperature was 100° the dew point is reached when the temperature drops to about 60°. For the other two cases shown, the dewpoint is reached at about 50° and 55° respectively. The usual temperature difference between the inside and outside walls of the greenhouse makes the condensation of dew on the plant a bit unlikely in most situations, since the dew point is invariably reached at the walls of the greenhouse before the interior is yet cool.

There are a number of inexpensive relative humidity indicators for monitoring humidity at any instant of time. A more casual overall measure of this factor may be found by watching for good root development in the Tillandsias and orchids mounted on twigs or bark. Another sure measure of satisfactory humidity control is the thrifty growth of a bit of Spanish moss hung in the center of the greenhouse.

—3370 Princeton Ct., Santa Clara, California.


ORLANDIANA STORY

W. B. CHARLEY

N Aechmea orlandiana recently came into our possession. It had reached maturity and was of little value. There were four shriveled offshoots at the base as if it had started to produce its kind and then though better of it. There were about a dozen outer leaves badly wilted and the center cup had a dead look.

We repotted this plant, stripped off the outer wilted leaves, removed the dead suckers. The plants looked presentable, but the question was whether we could ever induce it to start growing again. A ground-up mixture of leafmold, wood ash, and sheep manure was sprinkled into the tanks and the usual foliar fertilizer sprayed regularly.

Next season two suckers appeared in the center cup to shoot straight up, as the basal area was dead as far as suckers were concerned, and as this plant was feeling vigorous, these suckers came in an unusual place. A little later, much to our delight, an inflorescence appeared out of each new sucker, and one of these had a twin head, as if the plant was now determined, having failed once, to do a better job in return for the special care given to it.

—Bilpin, N. S. W., Australia.


FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK . . .

HEN THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY BULLETIN was first issued in January, 1951, it was little more than a pamphlet, containing only eight pages. As time went on, however, new folds were added, and in 1963 colored illustrations began to appear. The continual growth of the Bulletin has been a source of wonderment to many early members, who were of the opinion that interest in bromeliads was but a passing fancy. How wrong these members were is evidenced by the fact that membership in 1965 has reached an all-time high, and there is reason to believe that the figure will continue to mount.

The Board of Directors has been so heartened by the number of renewals and new memberships during the past year that it has increased the size of the Bulletin and improved the cover. It is hoped that the coming year will see added improvement and additions. All members who renew for 1966 will receive Index No. III, which will cover all material printed in Volumes XI through XV. This Index will be mailed in early spring. Also, the members are being given the opportunity of purchasing the new handbook at the special pre-publication price of $3.95 if the order is received before January 15, 1966. Considering the quality of this fine new handbook, it is a bargain that no member can afford to overlook.

There is, however, a more sombre side to this otherwise roseate picture. Whereas regular membership in the Society was only $4.00 in 1965, the cost per member of operating the organization was $5.10. If such a state of affairs is allowed to exist for any period of time, the Society will not only be unable to expand its activities, but will have to curtail them, which it definitely does not intend to do.

Accordingly, dues for 1966 will be as follows: Regular membership—$5.00; Sustaining membership—$7.50; and Fellowship membership—$15.00. Members are reminded that all such dues are deductible under the federal income tax laws, as the Bromeliad Society is a non-profit organization and the officers work on a voluntary basis. When one considers the improvements in the Bulletin over the past years, he can readily see that there really has been no advance in dues, but rather an advance in the quality of what he is receiving.

Members are urged to send in their dues to Mrs. Woodbury, the membership secretary, as soon as possible, being sure to give their zip-code number, as the Post Office is demanding that this number be given on all second-class mail. The Secretary also requests that addresses be clearly printed, and that at least six weeks be allowed for change of address notification to take effect.

Membership cards for 1966 will be mailed in January, 1966.


MEMBERS SOUNDING OFF

"Sounding Off" is a column of, by, and for the affiliated societies. A number of letters have been received expressing the thought that this section of the Bulletin was a great idea. However, with a few exceptions societies have not responded with items for publication. It is suggested that each society appoint some one to be responsible to submit items on a regular basis. It should be pointed out that the bulletins must be made up two or three months in advance. If material is received just after the deadline for a particular issue it may be as much as five months before the article will appear in print.

It may be necessary to discontinue this column if the societies do not evidence a desire to have it continued by a more complete and regular response.


From Charles Wiley, The Bromeliad Guild of Los Angeles, California.

One of the outstanding events of the year took place on May 16 when the Bromeliad Guild hosted a meeting honoring Mr. Alfred B. Graf. In spite of the hot weather and an overcrowded room at the Brentwood Youth Activity House in West Los Angeles, everyone was thrilled with the slide show presented by Mr. Graf. The presentation was a trip around the world of bromeliads. In reality the slides were selected from a number of collections accumulated over a number of years but organized in a sequence which simulated one grand trip. The show started with a number of views taken at Roehrs Company in New Jersey, publishers of Mr. Graf's Exotica. From there the trip made a few brief stops in Florida and the West Indies on the way to South America. The South American trip included all of the points of interest, horticulturally, with emphasis on bromeliads. Mr. Graf took his audience on a most enchanting journey down the east coast to the southern-most limits of the bromeliad country and back up the west coast.

From Warren Cottingham, Bromeliad Society of La Ballona Valley, Culver City, California

The Bromeliad Society of La Ballona Valley has been very active these last few weeks. One of the activities was the Culver City Garden Club's Flower Show. As a Society we had an entry under our name, plus entering as individuals. The Society donated two trophies for bromeliads: one for best single plant in pot, the other for best specimen plant in pot. Both were won by our own members; Frances Jean for her specimen plant and Dr. Howard Alexander for his single plant.

Being one of the show clerks I was with the judges in the Bromeliad Class. Some of the points of interest were the following: if a plant is grown in the right type of light, characteristics will change because of the light; care given to the trimming of the leaves—some of the leaves were too straight or had too sharp a point; on arrangement plantings—how well wired onto the supporting material; types of plants used in this manner; scale size of plants to wood; length of time of the planting.

There is a good way to check on your own knowledge of bromeliads if you have to explain them to a blind person. There were a few of us that had worked with a garden group for the blind. To see them handle the plants, in study, so as to know what we were telling them made me realize how little I know about bromeliads by feel.

A "Salute" to this section of the bulletin; it is a great idea!

From Kurt Peters, Recording Secretary of the Bay Area Bromeliad Society, San Mateo County, California.

Mr. Peters reported that on February 7, 1965, he appeared on television, Channel 4, with a display of Aechmea fasciata, A. chantinii, and Billbergia vittata in bloom. After the show was over he was introduced to Mr. Harold L. Ramsey, instructor in landscape garden construction and gardening at the California State Prison at San Quentin. Mr. Ramsey stated that he had a hothouse at the prison and would like to have Mr. Peters talk to the inmates on bromeliads. On February 15, Mr. Peters went to San Quentin and after a tour of the prison grounds it was time for the presentation. About twelve inmates were present. Several plants in bloom, some offshoots and seedlings were brought to help explain the culture of bromeliads. The questions the inmates asked were evidence that the talk was of great interest to them. Several of the men showed their appreciation by thanking Mr. Peters for the presentation.

From Harold L. Martin, Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, Auckland, N. Z.

We have had more severe frosts than usual this year and some members now have rockeries of white bromels. Only a few of mine were damaged, so there are still some left to spread around. Some of the collectors here are doing very well by their plants and are raising some very good specimens. One is a nurseryman who is concentrating on broms, African Violets, and houseplants. He has a large airy house covered with the finest mesh Sarlon cloth. Although he says he gets frost inside on the worst days with ice in the cups of the plants, he still reckons the plants are unharmed. And as he brings in some of the plants to show us, we can't disbelieve him. So I'm scratching my head a bit! Anyway we are getting quite a nice lot of varieties and some folks are beginning to specialize in one genus—mostly for lack of room. Not many have taken to landscaping with them yet, but that will come.

Our First Annual Dinner of the New Zealand Bromeliad Society went off with quite a pleasant resonance. Only twenty folk elected to participate, and apart from the two who forgot the date, a very enjoyable time was had by all. Two former Cactus Society members came along afterwards and showed us some lovely movies they took in your deserts there and also of their visit to Hawaii. The table was decorated with small pots of Cryptanthus by our indefatigable Mrs. Hansen, who not only made the plantings but also the pots. A place card, adorned with a pen drawing of a brom, afforded plenty of room for autographs. So we had a lot of fun in between courses filling these in, exchanging much badinage at the same time.

From Dr. George Milstein, Greater New York Chapter of the Bromeliad Society.

Our June, 1965 meeting consisted of an outing to the greenhouses of Julius Roehrs in East Rutherford, N. J. Mr. Frank Turek was our gracious host, and he conducted us on a prolonged tour of the entire greenhouse operation. We were joined by one of our colleagues from Florida, Mr. Seuss. It was a very pleasant afternoon.

As we do not meet during the summer, our next meeting was on October 12, at which time the program consisted of a showing of the collection of films on loan by the Society.

From Mrs. M. Knobloch, Secretary, The Louisiana Bromeliad Society.

Our last meeting before the summer vacation was held in the St. Louis-Chartres Room of the Royal-Orleans Hotels as guests of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Grigsby, who royally entertained us with motion pictures of their trip to the Virgin Islands and Jamaica. Many shots of bromeliads growing in their native habitat were shown.


ACTIVE AFFILIATES

THE BROMELIAD GUILD, Los Angeles, California.
Meetings: Third Sunday afternoon on alternate months starting January.
President: Charles Wiley, 4036 Via Solano, Palos Verde Estates, California.

BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF LA BALLONA VALLEY, Culver City, Calif.
Meetings: Fourth Wednesday January, March, May, June, September, November.
President: Warren Cottingham, 10717 Oregon Way, Culver City, California.

BROMELIAD GUILD OF TAMPA BAY, Tampa, Florida.
Meetings: First Tuesday every month at 7:30 P.M.
President: Ervin J. Wurthmann, 5602 Theresa Rd., Tampa, Florida.

CHAPTER OF THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF GREATER NEW YORK, New York, N. Y.
Meetings: First Tuesday of each month at eight o'clock.
President: Dr. J. G. Milstein, Telephone: Shore Rd. 5-4228.

BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF BROWARD COUNTY, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
Meetings: Third Tuesday of each month at eight o'clock.
President: Thomas Seuss, 1631 S. W. 22nd Ave., Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

LOUISIANA BROMELIAD SOCIETY, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Meetings: Fourth Wednesday January, March, May, June, September, November
President: Mrs. Charles L. Brown, 27 Neron Pl., New Orleans.

BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF SOUTH FLORIDA, Miami, Florida.
President: Ralph W. Davis, 15500 NE 9th Ave., North Miami Beach.

BAY AREA BROMELIAD SOCIETY, San Mateo County, California.
President: John M. Riley, 3370 Princeton Ct., Santa Clara, California.

BROMELIAD SOCIETY OF NEW ZEALAND, Auckland, New Zealand.
President: William Rogers, 14 Royston Ave., Mangere East, Auckland, N. Z.

Please send anything you want to "Sound Off" on, including items of interest, reports of meetings, or accounts of Bromeliad shows to: Charles Wiley, 4036 Via Solano, Palos Verdes Estates, Calif. 90275.


Holmes

Whereas the Aechmeas featured on the cover of this issue have been favorites for many years—Aechmea nudicaulis having been introduced into horticulture in 1865—the Aechmea pictured above is still a stranger to most growers.

Aechmea mooreana, as it is known in the trade, is one of the many bromeliads that were found in the Amazon region of Peru by Lee Moore of Iquitos. It resembles Aechmea chantinii as to habit and type of inflorescence, but its leaves are a plain bright green.

Although it is a robust-appearing plant and is shown here growing outdoors in Tampa, Florida, its hardiness is debatable, coming as it does from the hot, humid jungle.

—V.P.


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