THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY BULLETIN|
The Bromeliad Society Bulletin is the official publication
of the Bromeliad Society, a non-profit corporation organized in 1950. The
Bulletin is issued six times a year. Subscription to the Bulletin is included
in the annual membership dues. There are four classes of member-ship: Annual,
$5.00; Sustaining, $7.50; Fellowship, $15.00; and Life $100.00. All
memberships start with January of the current year. For membership
information, write to Mrs. Jeanne Woodbury, 1811 Edgecliffe Drive, Los Angeles,
California 90026. Please submit all manuscripts for publication to the editor,
647 South Saltair Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90049
OFFICERS President David Barry, Jr. Editorial Secretary Victoria Padilla Vice President Fritz Kubisch Membership Secretary Jeanne Woodbury Treasurer Jack M. Roth Board of Directors
Nat de Leon
Mulford B. Foster
James N. Giridlian
Morris H. Hobbs
Jack O. Holmes
E. C. Hummel
J. G. Milstein
W. R. Paylen
Dr. Russell Seibert
O. E. Van Hyning
Charles A. Wiley
Wilbur G. Wood
Adda Abendroth, Brazil
W. B. Charley, Australia
Charles Chevalier, Belgium
Mulford B. Foster, U.S.A.
A. B. Graf, U.S.A.
C. H. Lankester, Costa Rica
Harold Martin, New Zealand
Richard Oeser, Germany
Raulino Reitz, Brasil
Walter Richter, Germany
Dr. L. B. Smith, U.S.A.
Henry Teuscher, Canada
Bromeliad Guild, Los Angeles, Calif., W. R. Paylen, President|
Greater New York Chapter of The Bromeliad Society, New York City, J. G. Milstein, President
Bromeliad Society of Broward County, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., Thos. Seuss, President
Bromeliad Society of La Ballona Valley, Culver City, Calif., Fritz Kubisch, President
Bromeliad Society of South Florida, Miami, Florida, R. W. Davis, President
Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, Auckland, N. Z., W. Rogers, President
Louisiana Bromeliad Society, New Orleans, La., Mrs. C. L. Brown, President
San Mateo County Bromeliad Society, San Mateo, Calif., Kurt Peters, President
Delaware Valley Bromeliad Society, Philadelphia, Pa., Patrick Nutt, President
Bromeliad Society of Orange County, Calif., Kelsey Williams, President
(No article appearing in this bulletin may be reproduced without the permission of the editor.)
THE PICTURE ON THE COVERuesnelias, of which arvensis is probably the best known, are an interesting group of plants. According to Dr. Lyman B. Smith, they are endemic to Brazil, records of their being in other countries being highly questionable. He lists 32 species in The Bromeliaceae of Brazil, of which, unfortunately, only about a half dozen are seen to any extent in bromeliad collections.
The genus was named for M. Quesnel, a French consul at Cayenne, French Guiana, who was responsible for introducing the Quesnelia into cultivation. This was probably Q. arvensis, which is the earliest listed of the species, the date being 1835, at which time it was called Bromelia. Its present name was given to it by Mez in 1892.
The most commonly noted Quesnelias are Q. arvensis, Q. testudo, Q. quesneliana, Q. humilis, Q. liboniana. Q. lateralis, and Q. marmorata. Q. arvensis, Q. testudo and Q. quesneliana are alike in a number of ways. They are coastal plants, have similar inflorescences, and are notoriously difficult to bring into bloom. This last is due no doubt to the fact that it is hard for the average grower to simulate their natural growing conditions. Mulford B. Foster writes of seeing Q. quesneliana growing in the sand right along the ocean front and near the tide land areas where fiddler crabs were found in the shade of these plants. Ralph Spencer, member who resides in Sao Paulo, describes the habitat of Quesnelia arvensis as follows:
You ask about the habitat of Quesnelia arvensis. I have never seen one grow in a field as the name arvensis implies. It grows freely in the swampy forests; in tact, in places stepping on the plants is unavoidable. However, they are not free bloomers, and there will be a hundred plants to one in flower. Nearly all are terrestrials; they grow in a thick layer of moss and organic matter overlaying white dune sand. Fresh water is usually within a foot of the surface, and much of the time there are pools of brown peaty water between the trees which are usually covered with moss and lichen. Rainfall amounts to about 75 inches and is fairly well distributed through the year. The humidity is always high in such forests. Summers are hot and humid, and winters are cool and nearly as humid as the summers. Mostly the Quesnelias are in the shade of large trees, but at times they are in full sun. Quesnelia arvensis is associated with numbers of Neoregelias, Aechmeas, and several other spiny terrestrials like Bromelia balansae. There are also a large number of epiphytic bromeliads in the same area, including many Vrieseas, although most of these are some distance back from the beach, for they do not like the salt spray."
|M. B. Foster|
Q. humilis, Q. liboniana, and Q. lateralis are all very small plants and take well to cultivation, flowering without any difficulty. Q. humilis, one of the smallest of the genus, is a tubular plant 8 to 10 inches in height with plain green leaves; its clusters of flowers are a glowing cerise.
Q. liboniana, which was called a Billbergia until recently because it strongly resembles this genus, is also a stiff, tubular type. The flower stem hangs gracefully down, having tubular dark purple flowers on bright orange bracts. There is a variety of this species, much smaller in size and very graceful. The blue-green leaves are sharply recurved. As it is stoloniferous, it can be used for hanging baskets. The small flowers are deep blue and bright red. Q. liboniana has been crossed with Billbergia nutans, the cross being known as Billbergia perringiana (1889).
Q. lateralis is a gay little plant found in the mountains near Rio de Janeiro. From its bright green leaves about a foot in length, comes a brilliant little panicle of blue and red. Mulford B. Foster in his Brazil. Orchid of the Tropics, has this to say of this species:
"The plant was first found with the flower stem coming out of the base of the tubular plant, so is was named Quesnelia lateralis. This Quesnelia, by the way, has ethereal marine-blue flowers held by flame-colored bracts which makes it one of the loveliest bromeliad flowers we have ever seen. A few years later some collector found another plant similar in form and inflorescence to Q. lateralis, but this inflorescence was emerging from the center of the tube, so it was named Q. centralis.
We happened to find both of these plants the same day but unaware of their previous records. The flowers upon examination seemed to be identical. When our own plants came into bloom we found that first they bloomed from the base, then two or three months later they bloomed from the center, a peculiar phenomenon, not observed in any other bromeliad. It is now called Q. lateralis since that was its original name and since it records the peculiarity of its lateral inflorescence."
Quesnelia marmorata was until recently known as Aechmea marmorata or the "Grecian Urn Plant." (See Bromeliad Society Bulletin, Vol. XV, page 23.) From the photograph it can be seen that its leaves are stiff and mottled, resembling those of a Billbergia. The inflorescence, which although of firm substance tends to droop slightly, is branched with colorful pink bracts and blue and red flowers. It makes a stunning specimen for containers.
|As a foliage plant Q. marmorata is attractive|
RALPH W. SPENCERRAZIL IS PROBABLY the original home of the bromeliad family and as such has developed a large number of genera and species to fit almost every ecological niche. Most of these are particularly adapted to warm, moist, frost-free climates, but a few have adapted themselves to more rugged conditions. Some of these might well be suitable for growing in the less frosty areas of the United States.
With the thought in mind of finding a few of these more rugged bromeliads, we planned a trip to the Agulhas Negras mountain mass about 180 miles by road northeast of Sao Paulo. The top elevation is about 9,000 feet, the highest in this part of Brazil. It is quite easy to reach Resende in the Paraiba Valley, 150 miles from Sao Paula, but the roads beyond this point are unpaved mountain tracks and do not approach the highest elevations. There are several mountain resorts in the area, however, and we arranged by mail a few weeks in advance to stay in one called Casa Alpina, which is located near the headwaters of a sparkling mountain stream called rather inappropriately the Rio Preto or Black River.
To make the most of a three-day weekend, we left Sao Paulo Friday evening after work in our little Volks, and after forty minutes of fighting the Sao Paulo traffic, we headed east on the main highway to Rio de Janeiro. At Resende we turned left into the mountains to the little village of Mauá. The road was rough and steep but not very slippery, which was fortunate because it began to rain as we turned into the hills and by the time we reached the 4000-foot summit, the ditches were gushing brooks, and mist cut the visibility to a few feet. Fortunately we had been over the road before or we would have been lost because there were no signs at the side roads. There is no electric service in the area, so at eleven o'clock when we passed the village of Mauá it was completely dark, but fifteen minutes later when we reached our destination we found the Casa Alpina had its own private water power plant and was well lighted and ready to receive us. After a quick dash through the pouring rain we were ushered into a comfortable modern apartment and served the finest hot chocolate in the world as a prelude to a good night's sleep.
The next morning the sun was shining and we breakfasted on a veranda enjoying a view of the lush green valley dotted here and there with the flat-topped araucarias that are common at this elevation (3500 feet). The area was originally thick forest but was cleared about 200 years ago, and there is now mostly grass with here and there patches of second and third growth forest. Old trees in the vicinity of Casa Alpina were liberally studded with bromeliads and a few orchids. Several large Aechmeas, particularly A. cylindrata and a variety of A. distichantha, were conspicuous even though the plants were in seed. Reaching into a clump to cut off the seed spike was no real problem, merely an annoyance from numerous pricks on the hands and arms from the sharp hooks on the leaf edges. However, the hooks must carry some irritating substance because they caused swelling and itching for 24 hours. Quite common on the araucarias were several varieties of Tillandsias, such as T. stricta and T. geminiflora. They were past their flowering season but were still decorative.
Right after breakfast a local guide appeared to make the arrangements for the trip up the mountain. He told us it was a two-day trip to the top with part of the way on foot, as it was too rocky for horses. After some discussion he agreed to have a horse at the lodge at six o'clock the following morning for a one-day trip. The reason for the early start was to get as much difficult traveling as possible done in the morning during the good weather. It is summer now (November) and the rainy season, so that some rain can be expected nearly every day, particularly in the afternoons.
The next morning shortly after sunrise the guide showed up as promised, and we were off for a two-hour ride up the most beautiful valley imaginable. It was covered with lush green grass, strewn with huge granite boulders and crossed by rushing mountain brooks, bordered occasionally with trees and shrubs and patches of white ginger plants in the wet areas. We passed a series of dairy farms with drooping eared hybrid zebu cattle and an occasional pack mule with a milk can slung on either side. Bromeliads were not plentiful except on the tops of boulders too large to be reached by stock or fire.
At about 4000-foot elevation we reached the boundary of the Itatiaia National Park and changed from horses to mules because of the rough, steep trail beyond this point. The park is protected from farming and timber cutting, but this area was nearly all cut and burned years ago. A large part of the mountain was burned only a few years ago in an unusually dry season. Nevertheless, second growth is coming along rapidly, and there are some areas off the trail still covered with "undisturbed" forest, which is almost impenetrable on account of bamboos and vines.
Bromeliads are not plentiful in the second growth, but occasional old trees had many huge Vrieseas resembling fenestralis and platynema, large Aechmeas with cone-shaped flower heads of brilliant pinkish red, and the usual component of smaller Vrieseas, such as carinata, with Nidulariums and Neoregelias tucked in here and there in the more shady areas.
At 6000 feet we came out of the forest and entered a zone of small shrubs and steep grassy slopes. One particular coarse perennial grass looked like a barrel cactus with a tuft of hair growing on top. This was caused by years of "fire pruning" of the clumps.
At 7000 feet we came out on an exposed ridge interrupted occasionally by residual granite boulders up to thirty feet in diameter There were also smooth granite domes covered with lichen and saxicolous plants. The boulders and an occasional scrub tree were dotted with clumps of a bright red Vriesea, 18 to 24 inches across, frequently accompanied by mats of Fernseeas with bright red spikes about a foot tall. Between the boulders and under old bushes were Neoregelias with polished dark red centers. Cracks in boulders and points in the granite domes had a generous supply of a large, bright red amaryllis with a cream to greenish center.
We had little time to enjoy the scenery because the cloud cap on the main mountain gradually descended so that right after lunch mist enveloped us and it began to rain. The mist prevented further seed gathering, and we decided to return to avoid the risk of becoming lost in a very inhospitable area.
Walking seemed like a good idea on the return trip, partly because of a distrust in my mule on the rough, rocky, and slippery trail, partly to see some of the smaller plants better, and partly because of an attack of "dude's disease," the result of a long ride by a city "softie." Once down below the steep area the mule took over again, and we trotted back toward the hotel in fine style. Our luck did not hold, however, because a few miles out there were a few sharp thunder claps and the heavens opened! Even a large raincoat did not help much, and by the time we reached Casa Alpina, a trail of puddles followed our steps. After a hot shower, a change of clothes, and a full course dinner, including a bottle of Brazilian "Precioso" wine, we reached the conclusion that bromeliad hunting on muleback was not such a bad idea. We hope some of our fellow members in the Bromeliad Society have as much fun growing the cool type bromeliads as we did collecting the seeds.
—Rua Sao Luis 43, Sao Paulo. Brazil.
|Fernseea itatiaia and Vriesea species|
|Photos by R. W. Spencer|
Explanation of photographs appearing on page 96. [Shown here above.]
Illustration No. 1—Vriesea species—Habitat - elevation 6800 to 7200 feet, on tops of granite boulders and rock ridges exposed to full sun. Also found on the tops of scrubby trees. Plants are from 18 to 24 inches in diameter when mature, with few branched flower spikes to three feet. The whole plant is red even when not in flower and has a flower spike of a darker shade. The flowers are probably reddish, although no fresh ones were seen. It is possible that the striking red color of these plants was accentuated by the fact that many of them were scorched by a fire two years ago. The climate is cool and moist the year round but somewhat drier in winter. There are frequent mists at this elevation. In the winter there are frosts on clear nights and rather rarely snow. Mean annual temperature is about 58°F. and rainfall is about 100 inches.
Fernseea itatiaia (?) Habitat and surroundings as above, but the plants form mats on granite domes and large boulders. The plants resemble a delicate type of Dyckia in size and type of growth. The flower spikes are from 8 to 16 inches tall with cylindrical heads of attractive rosy-red flowers. Fernseeas were not common in this area.
Illustration No. 2—Neoregelia species (probably N. cruenta) Habitat and surroundings as above except that these plants nearly always grow under the protection of scrubby trees or rocks and are frequently terrestrial. Plants are two feet in diameter with green very slightly serrate leaves and brilliant polished red six-inch centers when in flower. Both the Vriesea and the Neoregelia are resistant to fire and will sprout from the center leaves surrounding the cup full of water if the outer leaves are burned off. However, if the cup is empty or the fire is hot enough to boil the water, the plants will die.
—R. W. S.
DAVID BARRY, JR.AST AND WEST MEET IN HAWAII when a bromeliad becomes the home of a gecko. Here the soft-bodied vacuum-up-toed lizard of the Old World finds useful shelter in a plant from the New World. Perhaps geckos have been impatiently waiting for the bromeliads to reach Hawaii. It has been a long wait, as until recently about the only bromeliads in Hawaii besides the pineapple were Billbergia pyramidalis and Vriesea splendens. In addition, the Pineapple Research Institute grew a few kinds in its experimental fields, for example, Ananas bracteatus and a small miscellany in the large patio of its office building in Honolulu. These were mostly terrestrials such as Pitcairnia and Bromelia which had been brought in many years ago, probably before the general prohibition against the importation of plants or seeds of bromeliads. This regulation was designed to protect the multimillion dollar pineapple industry from the plant diseases and infections that might come in with bromeliads. As a result, the culture of bromeliads in Hawaii remained at a standstill while progressing rapidly on the mainland of the United States and in other countries.
About four years ago Paul Weissich, the Director of Foster Botanical Garden in Honolulu, received permission from the Board of Agriculture of Hawaii to import a collection of bromeliads provided it was kept in a quarantine house for a year. A representative group of plants was bought and carried though the quarantine period and is now growing in Foster Garden in natural surroundings in an area adjoining the orchid gardens. The bromeliads are most planted terrestrially on the slopes and ridges of small built-up mounds; others are attached to nearby trees. The effect is most attractive and is of great interest to visitors, both residents and tourists. Many photographs are taken of the plants, especially by tourists from the Orient.
While this collection was being assembled by those at Foster Garden, others in Honolulu were busily raising bromeliads from seed. At the present time garden supply stores offer for sale a few kinds of bromeliads that are very likely from these sources. In general, however, very little is being done with bromeliads in the Hawaiian Islands due mostly to lack of material both in quantity and quality. Nonetheless, bromeliads are getting to be much more common in and around Honolulu. It is the general custom for neighbors to share plants with neighbors and many bromeliad offshoots are finding new homes in this way. The offshoots are called keikis, Hawaiian for little ones.
The native flora in the Hawaiian Islands is Old World: bromeliads are New World plants. The climate in Hawaii is ideal for the immigrant plants as it provides adequate humidity and air movement. They find the same variety of climate as they do in most of their native lands because of the differences in the elevation of the land. A rain forest environment seems to be the most favorable condition to be found.
|The entrance to the Moirs' garden|
Our Bromeliad Society members, Goodale and May Moir, have taken full advantage of their particular climate at their home in Nuuanu Valley which stretches up to Pali Pass behind downtown Honolulu. Nuuanu Valley has long been a popular residential area because it is cooler there than near the sea. The annual rainfall averages 120 inches. The winds coming down from the Pali above are strong enough to rattle the windows. The west movement of this air makes a rain-forest climate, and the Moirs' bromeliads revel in it. The growth of the plants is spectacular in size, multiplicity of offshoots, and brightness of color. Some of the plants are in full sun; others in light filtered by a thin canopy of trees. The arrangement of the plants is done with great artistry to present a natural appearance. Hawaiian tree fern logs, slabs, and fragments have mostly been used as planting media. The garden at the entrance to the home, and the garden facing the winds from the Pali are mostly in bromeliads with a few orchids interspersed. I can remember when the two gardens were orchid gardens with not a bromeliad to be seen. This was before the Moirs went overboard for bromeliads. Now they are busily replacing orchids with bromeliads in these areas. The skill with which these incredibly beautiful gardens was developed requires an explanation of the Moirs. They are not ordinary horticulturists. They are veteran growers of plants and have traveled extensively in search of them. Goodale Moir is the foremost orchid hybridist in the crossing of orchid genera, and has amazed the orchid world with his trigeneric and quadrigeneric creations. So, when two plant people with their experience combine their talents to do a bromeliad garden, the results are bound to be achievements in beauty.
|The Moirs' back garden receives the winds from the Pali|
On the island of Oahu between its two mountain ranges lies a wide fertile valley where much of the land is planted to sugar cane and to pineapples. A few miles north of the principal town of this valley, Wahiawa, the Dole Pineapple Company has built on the highway an elaborate structure where tourists on a circuit of the island may stop to eat sticks of chilled, fresh pineapple. This is done while standing at small round tables where, incidentally, salt is furnished for those who like it with the fruit.
A few blocks before arriving at this pineapple "stand," on a flatiron corner where a street meets the highway at an angle, is another facility furnished the tourists by Dole, a garden of bromeliads. There is no fence around it, and the paths are open and inviting. It is nicely maintained in a weedless condition. The plants are grown in the red soil in rows with sign labels at the end of each row. The plants are mostly different varieties of the edible pineapple, Ananas comosus. There are also plants of Ananas bracteatus, both the green and variegated leaf forms, and Ananas ananassoides. On the signs the last two species are labeled "primitive." In addition to the pineapples there are two species of Dyckia, two of Pitcairnia, one of them P. gracilis, Chevaliera stephanophora, and two species of Billbergia, one of which is identified as B. saundersii.
This collection is representative of the bromeliads in the hands of the Pineapple Research Institute, and its lack of variety shows how few kinds of these plants were brought to the island in the past. In spite of this lack, the garden is of considerable interest to tourists and many of them stop and inspect it.
Other than on Oahu there are few bromeliads in Hawaii, always, of course, excepting the pineapple. Another exception is the bromeliad garden of Mrs. Lester Marks on the Kona Coast of the island of Hawaii. This was laid out and stocked by her good friend, May Moir. I understand that the planting is extensive and impressive.
The importation of bromeliads to Hawaii may be arranged by securing authority by petition to the Board of Agriculture, Plant Inspection House, Honolulu. The Board prefers as a matter of policy to authorize the importation of kinds of bromeliads that are not now in the islands. A condition is to subject the plants to quarantine for a year. The Board will provide the quarantine house for which a charge will be made of $5 a month for the period. This requirement is without doubt a deterrent, yet actually is a considerable relaxation from the former complete prohibition.
BROMELIAD GROWER EXTRAORDINARY(Editor's Note: Mr. Hummel is one of the leading bromeliad growers in California. if not in the entire United States. He has done much hybridizing, especially with Aechmeas, and has achieved some remarkable crosses. He is a quiet man, whose sole interest in life is his plants. When asked to write of his experiences he wrote the following article.)
ERY EARLY IN THE 1930's there was a very large market for bromeliad seedlings for use in dish gardens. We supplied many of these, sales amounting to well over a half million plants per year. These consisted mostly of Billbergia nutans, B. saundersii, and their hybrids. Gradually these plants were augmented by new introductions by the Department of Agriculture. By 1940 the demand for various other plants was so great and the demand for the better collector items in bromeliads not great enough, we sold most of our commercial stock of bromeliads to Mr. Julius Graf of Julius Roehrs of New Jersey. Several plants were, of course, reserved as a collection, including some fine crosses received from the Manda family, well-known hybridists of the time.
After twenty-six years of growing in the Los Angeles area, we decided to move away from the congestion and smog of the city and to go farther into the country. Carlsbad, a little town north of San Diego, seemed an ideal location, one where a nursery might have a few years of life before being crowded out by real estate subdivisions. After the move, our attention was once more drawn to bromeliads. Business had somewhat slackened, and we had discontinued competitive pricing on foliage and other plants we offered. This gave us sufficient time to review literature, follow leads concerning available plants and seeds, and somewhat outline a course for improvement by hybridizing. Many interested persons, friends of years back, gave us assistance and encouragement, and we have consistently devoted more time and given more space to bromeliads.
It is difficult to select favorites from among our hybrids. Perhaps one is Aechmea × 'Hummel's Red Wing,' a handsome plant of average size. The flower spike stands far above the foliage and through its many phases takes up to a year to develop. The flowers become heavy clusters of berries which change from reddish pink, to deep true pink, to deep sky blue, and then to purple. The plant itself is an attractive bicolor.
For a smaller selection we believe Guzmania × 'Memoria' would be our choice. Somewhat huskier than Guzmania lingulata minor, one of its parents, its bracts are of a most delightful orange red and very long lasting. As this plant is a compact grower, we consider it one of the best for home decoration.
|Mr. E. C. Hummel showing his plants to V. Padilla|
Still more miniature than Guzmania × 'Memoria,' is Aechmea × 'suenios.' Flowering plants fit nicely into three-inch pots. Leaves are upright and reasonably compact. There is some variation in the height of the flower spike. At times it is quite recessed and then again will be well above the center of the plant. Tips of the bracts are black, while the flowers are of indigo blue. This plant should take a few degrees of frost.
We find that for most of the bromeliads osmunda or tree fern bark, if not too fine, is very satisfactory. The intensity of the coloring of flower or fruit may depend on many factors, such as acidity or alkalinity of soils or water, as well as light and temperatures. The length of time that the flower or fruit is attractive may also depend on treatment. We are inclined to believe allowing natural development instead of forcing flowering by artificial means is preferable.
AVAILABLE PUBLICATIONS ON BROMELIACEAE
- From: Publications Distribution Section
- Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 20560
Studies in the Bromeliaceae XV, Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, Vol. 29, Part 7. Available to libraries and to qualified individuals.
Studies in the Bromeliaceae XVI, Vol. 29, Part 10. Studies in the Bromeliaceae XVII, Vol. 29, Part 11.
Bromeliaceae of Colombia. Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium. Vol. 33. Available to libraries and qualified individuals.
- From: The Librarian, Harvard University Herbarium
- 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138
Contributions from the Gray Herbarium Serial No. 89
- From: Dr. H. N. Moldenke
- 303 Parkside Road, Plainfield, New Jersey, 07060
- From: Stechert-Hafner, Inc.,
- 31 East Tenth Street, New York, N. Y., 10003
Bromeliaceae. Flora of Panama, Araceae to Pontederiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 31, No. 1. $2.50.
- From: Chicago Natural History Museum
- Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois, 60605
Bromeliaceae, Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana: Botany, Vol. 24, Part 1. $8.20 for the whole volume. Separates are not available.
A NEW STUDY BY AMY JEAN GILMARTINN JULY OF 1964 Mrs. Amy Jean Gilmartin of the Department of Botany, University of Hawaii, had the opportunity to study and collect bromeliads in various sections of Honduras. With the help of Professor Antonio Molina, director of the Herbarium at the Panamerican Agricultural School near Tegucigalpa, she made a number of trips to the states of El Paraiso, Francisco Morazon, and Comayugua, where she found 41 distinct species. At the same time she studied the specimens at the Herbarium, which contained 76 species which had previously been collected in Honduras.
As a result of her research, Mrs. Gilmartin wrote a paper entitled "The Bromeliads of Honduras," in which she described 97 species, 35 appearing in the flora of Honduras for the first time. The study, written in Spanish, was published in the September, 1965, issue of Ceiba, a scientific journal issued by Panamerican Agricultural School.
Although the study is limited in regard to the area covered—Mrs. Gilmartin herself admitting that there are still sections of Honduras which are relatively unknown and which probably contain species that have not yet been collected—it should prove to be of great value to the plant collector visiting that country or to any student interested in the bromeliads of Central America. Mrs. Gilmartin has done a thorough job, the work being as complete as is possible in any floristic paper. Besides keys and detailed descriptions of the species, information is to their localities and growing conditions is given. The following genera are described: 1 Fosterella, 3 Hechtias, 7 Pitcairnias, 51 Tillandsias, 7 Vrieseas, 6 Guzmanias, 9 Catopsis, 6 Aechmeas, 1 Androlepis, 1 Ananas, 1 Billbergia, and 4 Bromelias. It is interesting to note that approximately one-third of these bromeliads may be found growing in South America, the plants for the most part being confined to Central America.
Included in the study is a discussion of the observed apparent density of bromeliad species, more particularly Tillandsias, in the open pine forests of Honduras. Mrs. Gilmartin offers several possible explanations for the reason for this density. Particularly interesting is her comparison of the number of species to be found in Honduras and in Colombia. Honduras, which covers approximately 44,441 square miles, has 97 species of Bromeliads, whereas Colombia, with an area of 439,530 square miles has 372 species. She could well be right in her comparison of the two countries, taking Colombia as a whole which includes some very sparse bromeliad areas. On the other hand, there are areas around Santa Marta, Medellin, Bogota, and Rio Dagua that have a very rich bromeliad flora .
|J. O. Holmes|
This handsome bromeliad is one found by Mrs. Gilmartin in Honduras and described in her latest paper. It is also native to Costa Rica, Guatemala, and British Honduras, where it is to be found on rocks or epiphytic in forests, usually forming large masses on trunks or in the crotches of trees.
The plant, seldom seen in cultivation, is fairly large; the leaves, numbering about 20, are 2 to 2½ feet long and 2½ to 3 inches wide. The bracts are pale; the flowers, yellow. A rugged appearing plant, it is seen here growing as a terrestrial in a Florida garden.
Note was first made of this bromeliad in the Revue Horticole in 1870. Since that time it has had several synonyms: Aechmea leucostachys, Billbergia skinneri, and Aechmea skinneri. Monsieur L. Dutrie crossed this plant with Aechmea fasciata and produced × Androlaechmea crateriformis, a vigorous green leaved plant, resembling a large vase, with a flower spike like that of A. fasciata, only dark red in color. The name Androlepis is derived from ander, man; lepis, scale.
Notice has just been received from P. Raulino Reitz regarding the first Brazilian Symposium on Bromeliads to be held from July 10 to July 16 in the city of Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Ten major topics are to be discussed, covering such widely different subjects as species, cultivation, ecology, the problem of bromeliad-malaria, the economic value of bromeliads, the fauna and flora to be found living in the cups of bromeliads. It is hoped that the information garnered from this very important meeting will be made available to the society.
From Dr. Thomas H. G. Aitken, Port of Spain, Trinidad, comes word of the growing interest in bromeliads in this West Indian island. At the recent flower show sponsored by the Horticultural Club of Trinidad and Tobago, Dr. Aitken won the Rapsey Plate for his exhibit of bromels. In 1965 he was honored with the Bermudez Memorial Cup for his contribution to Trinidad Horticulture by stimulating interest in the cultivation of bromeliads.
Our congratulations go to the Bromeliad Society of New Zealand for the splendid work they are doing to disseminate interest in bromeliads throughout their two islands. The growth of the society has been a steady one and now numbers 69 members, many of these being associates and those residing in the country. Much effort has been put forth to bring as many new varieties of bromeliads as possible into New Zealand and to distribute them among the members, but this has not always been easy to do because of import restrictions. The Society holds regular monthly meetings, a number of outings to members' gardens, and a special annual dinner. In order to reach those members who cannot attend meetings because of distance, the secretary, Mrs. F. B Hanson, edits a particularly fine four-page News Letter. Besides containing much good information as to plants and culture, the letter is chuck full of news of the members, descriptions of their plants and gardens, and accounts of society activities—all written in a delightful style which makes for pleasant reading. The president is Mr. W. Rogers.
The various affiliates have been busy this spring entering exhibits at their local flower shows. Distance does not stand in the way of the La Ballona Valley Bromeliad Society of Culver City, California, who, under the guidance of their president, Mr. Fritz Kubisch, have been entering exhibits and winning prizes all over southern California. Mr. Kubisch excels in natural effects, using waterfalls and great logs and stones to achieve a jungle-like atmosphere. Early each year he makes a special trip to Mexico to bring back a truck-load of bromeliads, many of which are in full bloom, for his displays.
During the week of May 22 the Louisiana Bromeliad Society had a special exhibit of bromeliads at the Bank of New Orleans. The focal point was a beautiful bromeliad tree. Those in charge of the display were Eric Knobloch, Earl Kraak, Dr. Warren Rosen, Irving Poche, Bill Fahey, and Dr. Head.
Dr. George Milstein, of Brooklyn, New York, was again busy this year with his exhibit at the great New York flower show held in March. He was especially pleased when Madam Chiang Kai-shek stopped by his display and complimented him on its beauty. Mr. Milstein received a large silver fruit bowl for his plants; others who won prizes were Sig Susman, Herb Plever, and Henry Turner.
The Bay Area Bromeliad Society has re-organized and is now the Bromeliad Society of San Mateo County, California. Mr. Kurt Peters, of San Mateo, is the president.
Under the sponsorship of Kelsey Williams, of Buena Park, California, a new bromeliad group has been formed in Orange County, California. Meetings are held on the northwest corner of the famous Knott's Berry Farm, 7300 La Palma Avenue, Buena Park. All interested members are cordially invited to attend the meetings which are held on the third Thursday evening of each month.
Most of the activity with regard to affiliates seems to center in California. It has been a long time since we have had any news from Florida.
Peter Temple, of London, sends this interesting piece of information:
Beginning in 1960 scientists and plant breeders in New South Wales, Australia, began cross-breeding different varieties of pineapple with the aim of changing the shape we now know into a rectangular one! The reason is one of economics. At present pineapples are peeled by machinery, but the curved tops and bottoms have to be hand trimmed in order to fit the cans. There are high hopes that a successful square-shouldered and bottom pineapple will be produced in the not too distant future, and thus peeling and canning will be entirely mechanical.
W. B. CHARLEYUCH IS BEING WRITTEN about the artificial flower induction of bromeliads, and without doubt good results can be obtained with the different chemicals used, particularly with alpha-napthalene-ascetic acid—NAA.
The writer is a believer in using these forcing methods only at the time the flower should appear. If this is not done, and the chemical is applied in a haphazard way, the spike may appear, but most likely it will be out of season, will be depressed, or will not last long. To apply the chemical over a lot of plants at one time can also cause trouble with the immature plants, which should not be treated at all.
Only mature plants should be treated and a study made as to their flowering time and then the treatment given from 4 to 5 months before. The results then can be a natural flowering time and a longer lasting inflorescence.
Why is it that some plants never flower although they have reached maturity? Obviously they are not happy or they would flower naturally. Why are they not happy? Many things contribute to this. These could be the wrong kind of soil, or a tight hard soil, the lack of proper nourishment and the necessary chemicals and minerals, lack of heat and humidity, or water which is too alkali.
When these conditions have been rectified and the plants still do not flower, then information should be sought on the correct flowering time of the plants one wishes to force to flower.
The following list is given broadly; it is not intended as a set rule, for some bromeliads can flower at odd times, such as Vriesea carinata, which comes impulsively at almost any time. The four seasons referred to are those in the Sydney, Australia area, the Southern Hemisphere. The following list has been carefully compiled over many years; and even so, some bromeliads can be weeks earlier or later, according to whether the season has been a normal one. For instance, a winter which is sometimes prolonged well into the spring can delay some flowering, and a late summer can also cause upsets. But generally speaking one may expect a bud to appear on the flowering plants in the seasons given.
SPRING—All Ananas; all Neoregelias; most Tillandsias; many Aechmeas, including A. nudicaulis, A. lueddemanniana, A. fosteriana; many Billbergias, including B. saundersii hybrids, B. pyramidalis striata; many Vrieseas; Acanthostachys, Portea.
SUMMER—Aechmea distichantha, A. penduliflora, A. filicaulis, A. × polyantha, A. chantinii, A. × 'Foster's Favorite,' A. fasciata, A. × 'Bert'; all Nidulariums, all Pitcairnias, most Billbergias, Guzmanias, Dyckias, Hechtias, Lindmania.
AUTUMN—Ochagavia, Aechmea bracteata, A. × 'Nallyii', A. orlandiana; Bromelia, Vriesea rodigasiana, V. philippo-coburgii, V. × 'Komet'; Hohenbergia stellata.
WINTER—Aechmea recurvata, A. triangularis, A. fulgens, A. fulgens var. discolor, A. miniata, A. weilbachii, A. coelestis, A. mexicana; Billbergia distachia, B. vittata, B. zebrina.
—Mt. Tomah, Bilpin, N. S. W., Australia.