THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY
A non-profit corporation whose purpose is to promote and
maintain public and scientific interest and research in bromeliads throughout
the world. There are 4 classes of membership: Annual $15.00; Sustaining
$20.00; Fellowship $30.00; and Life $750.00. All memberships start with January
of the current year.
1979-1981: Jeanne Woodbury, Ervin Wurthmann, Victoria Padilla, David H. Benzing, Louis Wilson, Joseph F. Carrone, Jr., Timothy A. Calamari, Jr., Roger Vandermeer.
1980-1982: Doris Curry, Morris Dexter, Sue Gardner, Tim Lorman, Valerie Steckler, Harold W. Wiedman, Dale Williams, Carl Bronson.
1981-1983: Eloise Beach, Nat De Leon, Charles Dills, Edgar Smith, John F. Utley, Leslie Walker, Wilbur Wood, Robert P. Wright
Adda Abendroth, Brazil; Luis Ariza Julia, Dominican Republic; Olwen Ferris, Australia; Marcel Lecoufle, France; Harold Martin, New Zealand; Dr. W. Rauh, Germany; Raulino Reitz, Brazil; Walter Richter, Germany; L. B. Smith, USA; R. G. Wilson, Costa Rica; Robert W. Read, USA; W.W.G. Moir, Hawaii.
Published six times a year: January, March, May, July, September, November. Free to members. Individual copies of the Journal $2.50
Copyright 1981 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PICTURE ON THE COVER Pineapple grown from a top cutting. Photo by Ferrel J. Meinschein.
J. L. COLLINSPineapples were domesticated in prehistoric times in America and were being cultivated by the Indians in the American tropics long before Columbus embarked upon his world-changing voyage of discovery.
These native tribes used some of their principal food plants, such as corn and potatoes, as models for the manufacture of domestic and religious utensils. For some obscure reason the pineapple fruit did not appear to be used by them in this manner. Only one reference has been found of the pineapple being used in this way. This was recorded by Acosta in his "History of the Indians" published in 1590, where he describes an object found in Mexico where pineapple fruits appeared as a design on a shield, which he believed had been used in religious ceremonies by the Indians. However, pineapples played an important and interesting role in art and decoration through the centuries following the discovery of America.
There are two now famous paintings of pineapples which were produced in England to commemorate specific historical events in the early 17th and 18th centuries. One shows the Royal Gardener, Rose, presenting a pineapple fruit, with a long stem attached, to King Charles II in the courtyard of his country house. The other is a picture of a pineapple plant bearing a mature fruit which is believed to record the first pineapple to produce a ripe fruit in England.
During the late 17th and 18th centuries a number of books dealing with botany and biology of tropical America were illustrated with full page, artistic drawings designed to show typical or conspicuous biological features of the New World. Many of these included pictures of pineapple plants as a conspicuous part of the native flora of these regions.
A Dutch artist named Post came to Brazil during that short period when the Dutch government was in control of Brazil, having taken it temporarily from the Portuguese. During his stay of a number of years, he painted many landscape, seashore and village scenes typical of the country at that time. In many of these, pineapple plants were shown as a typical part of the native flora. Some of these paintings by Post are now preserved in art galleries in Europe.
During this early period in the history of America pineapple fruits were imported from the West Indies into England and the Continent and often used as table decorations at banquets and dinners given by the wealthy people of those countries.
Sometimes these fruits would grace the table of several people before finally being served as dessert.
In this way the pineapple fruit gradually came to be considered as a symbol of hospitality. In this role the fruit itself gave place to an image or likeness of the fruit wrought in metal (usually silver), clay or wood. Pineapples carved from wood were used over entrance doors, and over the fireplace mantels, perpetuating the symbolism of hospitality. These carved pineapples were also mounted at the tops of bed posts in the "heyday" of the large four-poster bed, and as an ornament on other pieces of furniture such as sideboards, chests of drawers, wood clock cases, etc.
Following its earlier use as a specific symbol of hospitality it was given a more general use as a decorative motif on various household utensils and equipment. Many of them appeared in the form of pottery cookie and jam jars, or as a handle on the top of sugar bowls and fruit dishes, which thus contributed both artistic and utility virtues.
The pineapple at various times through the years has been used as a design on painted home furniture and for fabrics used in making clothing and draperies. In the earlier part of this period the designs were often so completely stylized that the pineapple all but disappeared. In more modern times the pineapple continues to be used as a decorative design in fabrics.
Reprinted from Vol. VIII, No. 5
The picture on the cover shows a pineapple used as indoor decoration. The plant was obtained by cutting off the top of a pineapple fruit obtained in the produce department of a supermarket, letting it dry for several days, and then planting in a loose porous mix, such as is used for cuttings. The plant will produce fruit in two to three years.
The whole pineapple plant is still used in Europe for table decoration. At one large greenhouse in Belgium, the editor saw an entire section devoted to variegated pineapple plants, all in fruit, which were ready for the market to be used in banquets.
The pineapple as a symbol of hospitality has long been a tradition in New England, dating back to colonial times. When the early sea captains returned from a long trip to the West Indies or the South Seas they would always spear a precious pineapple on their iron gate announcing to friends and neighbors that the captain was home and all were welcome!
HOWARD H. CONVERSE, JR.
|Aechmea paniculigera, Hollymount, Jamaica|
The bromeliads of Jamaica are widespread and diverse. As one of the main families of indigenous monocotyledonous plants on this tropical island, they are found growing in every type of adverse condition; from an existence as an epiphyte, to growing in the ground leaf mold, or on rock outcroppings. Commonly called "Wild Pine" in Jamaica, they belong in reality to the pineapple family. There are approximately 45 genera and over 2000 species of bromeliads in the tropical or subtropical regions of the western world. One exception is the genus Pitcairnia found in Africa. In Jamaica there are 8 genera and over 55 species. The most common genera on the island are Hohenbergia with more different species to be found than in both Central and South America. The two most common species are Hohenbergia abbreviata and Hohenbergia spinulosa.
Bromeliads can be seen all over the island. Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) cascades over the tree limbs, and Ball Moss (Tillandsia recurvata) covers many miles of telephone wires. In mountainous regions some giants up to 6-feet in diameter tower over your head, and others perch high on rock pinnacles growing in full sunlight.
In a recent investigation and collecting trip I concentrated on the summit of Mount Diablo in the Parish of St. Catherine and the vicinity of Hollymount. This region is high elevation wet forest up to 3500 feet. The topography consists mainly of karsted limerock presenting a hostile environment to penetrate. During the past year a tremendous amount of timbering has been done leaving very large areas totally exposed to erosion. Only a few areas are replanted in pines. Unfortunately bromeliads do not grow abundantly on pines. The turpentine inhibits the germination of their seeds. Nonetheless, the undisturbed areas produce an extraordinary wealth of bromeliads.
June appears to be the best time of the year to observe diverse bromeliads in the splendor of their blooming. Nearly all slopes were adorned with the bright red star torches of Guzmania lingulata var. splendens. This variety is the type of the species that was originally described in literature in 1896 by Mez and in beauty would rival any other varieties of the same species found throughout Central and South America.
In this same area, Vriesea platynema and Vriesea ringens were just sending up their tall simple inflorescence with reddish bracts and greenish white flowers. Of all of the bromeliads to be found on the island, these two have the most colorful foliage. Vriesea platynema has broad leaves with green transverse lines on top and a dark purple-black color on the underside. Vriesea ringens has reddish-purple blotches over a green base color.
One species previously undescribed from Jamaica is Guzmania berteroniana. This is a common species on the islands of Puerto Rico and Santa Domingo. This plant was discovered in the area of Hollymount slightly over a year ago, blooming with a bright red pointed torch rising from the center of the green rosette. The Jamaican species grows much larger than those of Puerto Rico and Santa Domingo. The average diameter observed was between 15 to 20-inches. The average size for this plant elsewhere is 12-inches. I looked for this plant again this year and found it only in the high humid forests of the Mount Diablo region.
The second species rare to Jamaica was discovered during this recent trip. It was the white or alba form of Guzmania monostachia. This form was found growing among the normal red torch forms and would be impossible to identify if not in bloom. Some natural crosses were observed, with several plants having nearly all white bracts with just a flush of pale pink on the tips of the bracts. These could be classified as semi-alba crosses.
One of the attractive giants found growing high on the branches of numerous trees was Vriesea gibba. Many approached 6-feet in diameter. The leaf blades of this species are faintly mottled over a light green color. A tall erect green inflorescence emerges from the center of the rosette.
A large spiny-textured bright green bromeliad in fair abundance is the Aechmea paniculigera. Tall 3-foot inflorescence spikes were just coming into color. Bright pink bracts set the foundation for the bluish-purple dense torch above. The blooms coming from this torch were reddish-purple. Many plants were found growing in bright sun, which left their foliage tinted with reddish blotches.
The Hollymount vicinity of Mount Diablo is unique habitat for some of Jamaica's finest species of bromeliads. Many others undoubtedly exist on the slopes of this mountain. Hollymount is just one small region near the summit. Future additional botanical studies may, therefore, result in the discovery of new species and may add to the growing list of bromeliads from Jamaica.
Checklist of Bromeliads from the Hollymount Region on Mount Diablo
- Phylum Tracheophyta
- Class Angiospermae
- Order Bromeliales
- Family Bromeliaceae
- Subfamily Tillandsioideae
- Genus/species Catopsis berteroniana
- Subfamily Tillandsioideae
- Genus/species Catopsis nitida
- Guzmania berteroniana (NEW)
- Guzmania lingulata var. splendens
- Guzmania monostachia
- Guzmania monostachia albaforma
- Tillandsia bulbosa
- Tillandsia complanata
- Tillandsia compressa
- Tillandsia fasciculata
- Tillandsia festucoides
- Tillandsia juncea
- Tillandsia pruinosa
- Tillandsia recurvata
- Tillandsia usneoides
- Tillandsia utriculata
- Tillandsia valenzuelana
- Vriesea gibba
- Vriesea platynema
- Vriesea ringens
- Vriesea sintenisii
- Guzmania lingulata var. splendens
- Guzmania berteroniana (NEW)
- Genus/species Catopsis nitida
- Subfamily Bromelioideae
- Genus/species Aechmea paniculigera
- Hohenbergia abbreviata
- Hohenbergia spinulosa
- Hohenbergia abbreviata
- Genus/species Aechmea paniculigera
- Subfamily Tillandsioideae
- Family Bromeliaceae
- Order Bromeliales
- Class Angiospermae
Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Florida
VERNON STOUTEMYERThe subject of organic alternatives to conventional agriculture is particularly appropriate at this stage of history since many of the present-day inputs of fertilizer, fuel, insecticides and herbicides come out of an oil or gas well. The term "organic" is a bit indefinite and can have a variety of meanings. It refers to a number of typical practices, such as recycling wastes, composting, avoidance of synthetic chemical pesticides as much as possible and the like. In a larger sense, it can become a way of thinking and a way of life, integrating man and his activities into the cycle of nature.
Our vaunted American way of agriculture and life has achieved some miracles of production, but there are some serious dangers and hidden costs. Strong chemical fertilizers and pesticides tend to kill earthworms and the soil microflora may suffer. Heavy equipment may cause serious soil compaction. Frequent tillage may deplete soil organic matter and cause a deterioration of soil structure. The soil becomes less absorbent of rain and more subject to erosion.
An orchid or bromeliad growing in a tropical jungle is an excellent example of organic horticulture. This plant does not have a specially prepared growing mix and it does not receive any chemical synthetic fertilizers. Dust, animal residues, and the nutrients leaked from the leaves of trees or vines are all important in the nutrition of epiphytic plants. The investigations of Tukey (1969) have shown that heavy rainfall causes the loss of many nutrients from the leaves of plants. This investigator also studied the uptake of nutrients by bromeliads in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. By using radioisotopes, he showed that these plants took up nutrients much more rapidly through their leaves than through their roots.
These plants in the jungle must survive the competition of other plants without the aid of selective herbicides. They must endure the attacks of insects without pesticides and plant diseases without fungicides. Growers of all kinds of plants are moving in the direction of natural biological control in which parasites of all kinds are used or to systems of integrated control in trap cropping or planting of companion plants which emit odors which confuse the attractant systems of insects. Many ingenious alternative systems of control are used in an effort to reduce or eliminate entirely the use of highly toxic pesticides which often leave hazardous residues. Horticulturists became aware that entomologists were often creating more problems than they were solving by eliminating beneficial insects from the ecosystem, perhaps somewhat earlier than the entomologists themselves realized what was happening.
The dust bowl and the dust storms of the early 1930's created an awareness of the importance of soil and water conservation. Some outstanding leaders arose at this time. Some decades later the mass media began to make all plant growers aware of the vital importance of an ecological approach to the use of world resources.
Many of the ideas of the organic growers are really very ancient. In China and other parts of Southeast Asia highly intensive forms of agriculture are being used which are probably about the same as they were several thousand years ago. Chinese growers have brought cut plant foliage from unusable hill slopes down to their valley soils to increase the fertility. All types of plant or animal matter are constantly recycled. Often the matter is incorporated directly into the soil but sometimes it is composted. Greek and Roman farmers knew the value of rotation of crops and of the great value of legumes, although, of course, they did not understand symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes.
There are non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organisms in good well managed soils, and organic methods use these or encourage their development. Organic fertilizers are usually favored in spite of their higher prices, because they do not injure earthworms or beneficial soil organisms. Fish emulsions or seaweed preparations are often used, sometimes as foliar sprays because of the wide range of important trace elements found in these fertilizers.
Some of the Australian cymbidium orchid growers use no chemical fertilizers and rely mainly on well composted poultry manure. Azalea and camellia growers in America have tended to rely on such fertilizers as cottonseed meal. Japanese bonsai and orchid cultivators have used rape seed meal or fish product. The water in which an octopus was boiled may be used for pot plants. I have applied no synthetic chemical fertilizers in my own garden for some years and have been agreeably pleased by the increase in the earthworm population. The importance of these worms as soil builders and cultivators was probably first shown by Darwin.
Agricultural scientists and technologists who have developed modern American agriculture have often been quite critical of organic agriculture. However, this attitude is changing. Some notable biologists, as for example, Barry Commoner, have vociferously exposed the great weakness of conventional agriculture production based on petrochemicals and have pointed the way to a more sane and rational type of agriculture.
Perhaps 25 or 30 thousand farms in the USA can be classified as "organic." The cancer epidemic of our times has led many people to prefer food uncontaminated by residues from pesticides. There are some obstacles to the use of organic principles in large-scale production agriculture but many of these operations are quite viable economically. Secretary Bergland of the U.S. Department of Agriculture set up a study of organic agriculture which resulted in a report in 1980 which was highly favorable to organic agriculture production. Undoubtedly this was a landmark in agricultural history. Whether we like it or not, this is unquestionably the wave of the future and all horticulturists should experiment as much as possible with organic methods.
Tukey, Jr., H.B. 1969. Implications of allelopathy in agricultural plant science. Bot. Rev. 35 (1): 1-16.
Translated by Harvey L. Kendall
As a result of plant collection trips and also because of an increasing number of plant lovers in Central and South America, new bromeliads are discovered and described every year. As such activity increases, the hobbyist is more and more confronted with questions on taxonomy as he or she wants to know whenever possible which species he or she has collected and is cultivating. Collectors must consult the professional literature or ask specialists if they want to learn more about the plants. It is here that the novice encounters difficulties, because the professional terminology is confusing and unclear; but in the professional literature these termini technici are used as if they were familiar to the reader. Every amateur grower experiences this confusion when beginning to grow bromeliads unless he or she has first acquired a degree in botany. Therefore I will here try to explain the basic elements necessary for the understanding of bromeliad literature. Since a great many species have been described in German or Latin, I will follow this article with the most important terminology in German and Latin translation. By using a dictionary to study the foreign language descriptions the beginner soon realizes that even without a good knowledge of languages he or she soon understands the descriptions, because the relatively few professional terms are repeated frequently.
Let us begin by asking why taxonomy is so important for the understanding of plants. At the present there are about 350,000 known plant species. Among them are around 2000 bromeliad species with many sub-species, varieties, and forms.
In order to comprehend the confusing multiplicity of forms and to be able to master them intellectually, we have for a long time used the method of classification.
Even primitive peoples classified the plants in their environment, for example putting them into categories of "useful," "harmful," "edible," or "poisonous," etc.
Botanical classification means arranging plants in groups with common traits; in doing so we are able to observe smaller groups among the total group of plant organisms. Plants in a group with many like traits are said to be closely related; if plants in a certain group have few common characteristics they are said to be only distantly related. From this plan comes the hierarchic order in the system.
The aspect of science that deals with the study of classification, including its principles, processes, and rules, is taxonomy. It is a part of the system that in general motivates the scientific study of the complexity and differentiation of organisms and their relationship to each other.
In order to classify a plant, we must therefore isolate certain characteristics that can be compared to each other. A characteristic is any part of a plant that can be counted, measured, or otherwise compared and evaluated. One plant can have thousands of characteristics. We recognize more of them as we better equip our eyes. The number of recognizable characteristics increases by the use of a magnifying glass, a microscope, or even an electron screen microscope. For practical reasons then we must agree on a certain selection of characteristics; thus the choice of traits is an important consideration.
In selecting the characteristics to be studied, we must be especially careful that they are affected as little as possible by environmental influences in the various habitats. The characteristics must remain constant. The size of a plant, for example, can vary greatly. In the same species we find little, starved specimens from meager habitats contrasted to super-size, robust specimens from greenhouse culture. But the ratio of the length of the flower bracts to the length of the sepals remains relatively constant. The characteristics selected for comparison should therefore be uninfluenced by environmental factors; they should be species specific and genetically fixed.
When we describe a plant we must distinguish between a characteristic and its manifestations in the plant being examined. A characteristic is, for example, the flower bract; the manifestations of this characteristic can then be, for example: flower bracts in distichous arrangement, imbricate, surpassing the sepals, 22 mm long, lance shaped, carinate, bright red, thick, leathery with skin-like edges, slightly veined, naked, etc.
Analogous information can be expressed for all chosen characteristics and their manifestations. In describing a species we thus report on:
- amount (numerical also whether present or not)
- arrangement (relative location to neighboring characteristics)
- size (dimensions)
- form (geometrical shape)
- attributes (color, mechanical qualities, veining, scaling, etc.)
- arrangement (relative location to neighboring characteristics)
After preliminaries we will now proceed, as Latin says, in media res and look at the general structure of bromeliads.
The principal organs of bromeliads
Like every other higher plant, bromeliads are divided into the three basic organs: roots, shoot axis, and leaves. As in most monocotyledons the primary root exists only in the germination stage and soon withers. It is replaced by adventitious roots. These are clearly seen in a cross section of a shoot, and if you dissect, for example, a dead tillandsia (it happens sometimes) with an elongated shoot, such as Tillandsia araujei or Till. tenuifolia, you can trace the roots almost up to the vegetative tip of the shoot.
In many epiphytic bromeliads the function of the roots as organs for the absorption of water and nutrition is greatly reduced. Frequently they are hard and wiry without any root hairs and serve only as organs for anchoring the plants securely to their airy habitats.
The shoot axis
The part of the plant that bears the leaves is called the shoot axis. It is composed of nodes, which produce the leaves and in whose axes the buds for the lateral shoots appear, and segments between the nodes, the internodes. The dimensions of these internodes help to decide the general shape of a bromeliad. If they are extremely foreshortened (the nodes being close together), then a very compact growth with a bushy or rosette-like arrangement of the leaves results, as we see in the typical funnel bromeliads of the genera Aechmea, Billbergia, Neoregelia, etc. We designate these types in the descriptions as stemless (acaulescent).
If, on the other hand, the internodes are more or less stretched, then we have an elongated shoot axis. The nodes bearing the leaves are spaced far apart. Such species with elongated stems are called caulescent, as for example Till. tenuifolia, Till. incarnata, Puya laxa, etc. The shoot axis of Till. usneoides is extremely elongated.
Since bromeliads develop their inflorescence at the tip of the shoot axis (terminal inflorescence), the vegetative tip (apical meristem) is usually destroyed as the plant blooms and sets seed; the meristem is no longer available for further growth of the shoot axis. In order to survive, the plant develops regenerative shoots (innovations), which hobbyists call pups. These regenerative shoots can appear at various places from the dormant buds in the leaf axils of the primary shoot axis and can appear in various forms.
Many of the otherwise acaulescent neoregelias form shoot axes at the base of the mother plant which first extend horizontally and have elongated internodes which soon become woody and are covered with scale-like, reduced cataphylls (lower leaves). Only at a certain distance from the mother plant do the internodes become shorter. The meristem orients itself to gravity (negatively geotropic) and only then does a daughter plant form with normal leaves. Such horizontal runners also are found in the terrestrial bromeliads, as for example in many bromelias or dyckias, but these are usually subterraneous. Such horizontal, elongated runners are called stolons. This designation for runners is used usually only when they are above ground. Subterraneous runners are called rhizomes. In contrast to true roots, rhizomes are always divided into nodes and internodes and have cataphylls.
In other species the internodes of the regenerative shoot remain foreshortened, and as a result the pups stand close to the mother plant, as we can see in the extreme case of Vriesea splendens. Differences also exist in regard to the place on the shoot axis where lateral buds in the leaf axils develop innovations. They can appear at the base of the shoot axis or in the higher segments. We know of species in which innovations even develop from the axils of the scape bracts (Tillandsia somnians) or appear instead of flowers from the bracts of the inflorescence (Tillandsia propagulifera). In a few cases the growth tip of the inflorescence remains vegetative (Tillandsia latifolia, Ananas).
After these remarks about the formation of secondary shoots (which, by the way, in contrast to true branching, always begin with a curved, double-keeled prophyllum ((pre-leaf)) ), let us again consider the further development of the primary shoot. A part of the shoot axis is the axis of the inflorescence. In many species we can clearly see that flower formation begins with the internodes at the tip of the shoot becoming more and more elongated and at the same time the leaves stretch further apart and become smaller. The whole inflorescence then stretches to full bloom (anthesis). The elongated shoot axis up to the flower bearing part is then referred to as the shaft of the inflorescence, although this designation is not quite correct. A true inflorescence shaft is not divided into nodes and internodes and therefore has no scape bracts. The shoot axis of the flower bearing part, i.e., the actual inflorescence, is called the spindle or rhachis.
But if the shoot axis remains more or less stubby in the area of the flowers and therefore much foreshortened, then we say the plant has a sessile inflorescence, as for example in the neoregelias or in Tillandsia brachycaulos, Tillandsia ionantha, etc.
The widely varying forms of the shoot axis therefore are essentially responsible for the great variety of shapes in bromeliads.
The most important and most varying organs of bromeliads are the leaves. In addition to acting as organs of photosynthesis, they can exercise quite varying functions. For example they can assume the role of the roots, as in Tillandsia duratii with its curled leaf tips anchoring the plant to twigs, or in almost all other bromeliads the leaves act as absorption organs for water and nutrition through their trichome scales or by transmission cells on the inner leaf base in the vase-shaped bromeliads that hold water in their centers. In many xerophytic species, such as Dyckia, Hechtia, Neoglaziovia, etc., the water storage tissues in the leaves allow them to store water for extended dry periods.
Through contrasting, brilliant colors of the scape and flower bracts serve as showing organs to attract the pollinators and last not least the flower leaves serve as stamens and carpels (micro-macrosporophylls) for generative propagations and thus preservation of the species.
(to be continued)
In the Journal of the Bromeliad Society, Vol. XXIX (1979) p. 24-26, Hermann Prinsler reports on a new aechmea, which he found in 1973 during a collection trip in Ecuador, Prov. Napo, Lago Agrio at a height of about 400 m. The plant produced an abundance of seed and the resulting plants are now in the trade under the name Aechmea spec. nova Ecuador.
Mr. Prinsler wrote me that he had sent a photograph to Professor Rauh in Heidelberg for his opinion. Rauh replied that the plant could be either Ae. polita, if the scape bracts are non-serrated, or Ae. servitensis var. exigua, if they are serrated. In 1979 Mr. Prinsler also kindly sent me a blooming specimen. My examination showed the plant to be the same as Ae. servitensis var. exigua, as Professor Rauh assumed. I sent a drawing with a flower analysis and description of my plant to Dr. L. B. Smith for his opinion; he verified my conclusion.
The two varieties differ as follows: The scape bracts and lower primary bracts in the type variety are larger and distinctly serrated; in variety exigua they are narrower and only finely serrated.
Until recently both varieties were known only in Colombia; Hermann Prinsler's discovery is the first proof of this species being native to Ecuador.
I have deposited my plant in my herbarium (WEB 163) for verification purposes.
Wilhelm Weber Munich, Germany
DENNIS L. WOLLARD & E. JANE GREENEThe very mention of the "dirty brush" is enough to stir normally calm and contemplative bromeliad lovers to the point of physical confrontation. As in every case, there are two sides. On the one hand are those enthusiasts who are caught up in making crosses, challenging the unknown in search of bromeliad greatness and with the ambition of bringing bromeliads to the masses at affordable prices. On the other hand are the purists who believe in keeping careful records of crosses and bringing order to the naming of bromeliad hybrids. Anyone having ordered a plant by name who received a plant which hardly resembled the plant which inspired the order, knows the frustration felt by this group of hybridizers. While there are certainly points for both sides, we tend to sympathize with the latter camp. We are suggesting in this article a method of tagging bromeliad crosses which simplifies record keeping and utilizes the simple expedient of plastic drinking straws.
The plastic straws that we are suggesting are the type widely available at grocery stores and other outlets. Most crosses can be tagged with standard size straws, although small bromeliads such as miniature neoregelias, will require a smaller diameter straw. The straws should be cut into segments measuring approximately one inch in length. To create a blunt point on one end of the straw segment, make two angled cuts to form a sharp point, then cut off the sharp tip. By making this blunt point, it is easier to stabilize the straw segment over and around the bromeliad flower.
After the flower has been emasculated and pollinated, an identifying number is assigned to the cross. That number is written with a waterproof marker on the straw segment which is placed over the flower. The number should immediately be logged into a journal in which the male and female parents are recorded, along with the date of the cross so that the time of ripening can be estimated. Alternatively, the identification process can be facilitated by using a different color plastic straw to represent each cross, this likewise being noted in the journal.
Encased within its identifying straw, the ovary will begin to swell. When the seed has ripened, the ovary can easily be removed from a mother plant having a spiked inflorescence by gently twisting the straw segment. For plants having neoregelia-type inflorescences, the ripened ovaries are harvested by gripping the entire inflorescence and twisting to break the stem at its point of attachment. Once removed from the plant, the tagged seed pods can easily be separated. Pods thus harvested are ready to be sorted. All tags (straws) bearing the same number, or the same color code, may be combined and planted in the same pot as they represent the same cross.
We believe that given an easy tagging method such as this one, all hybridizers can keep careful records of their crosses, not only for themselves, but also for a more orderly future in the wonderful world of bromeliad hybridizing.
Department of Plant Industry
University of Southwestern Louisiana
D. C. SPEIRS
|Bahamas five-cent||1788 Barbados Pineapple penny|
One difficulty about growing bromeliads is that one has to grow them. There is a perpetual round of watering, fertilizing, repotting and propagating, all of which takes up time and space, and gets one's hands dirty in the bargain. With a collection of stamps and coins depicting bromeliads, there is no such worry. Put them in a dark, dry place and a year later they are still fresh as a daisy (if you'll pardon the expression).
Stamps did not come into general use until 1840, and the first one honoring a bromeliad was issued in 1923 by Liberia, depicting a pineapple. Indeed, this article could be better titled "Pineapples and other bromeliads on stamps and coins", since Ananas comosus is by far the most common bromeliad species shown. On coins, pineapples are the only species, beginning with the 1778 Barbados "pineapple penny".
Pineapples are, of course, an important crop for many tropical countries. Numerous stamps have been issued featuring them, too numerous to illustrate or enumerate in this article but for a token few. Of the ornamental bromeliads, the stamps honoring them generally come from European nations where bromeliad hobbyists are found, or from South American countries honoring their native flora.
Coins depicting pineapples are from five tropical countries. The oldest is the aforementioned 1788 Barbados "pineapple penny". Since 1966, the Bahamas five-cent piece has shown a pineapple. The other countries with pineapple coins are Cook Islands (two cents), Swaziland (one cent), and Western Samoa (five cents).
Tillandsia hondurensis RAUH, a new dwarf Tillandsia from Honduras.1
WERNER RAUHOn our trip to Honduras in 1975 we collected, together with E. G. Kamm, a plantdealer in Valle de Angel (near the capital Tegucigalpa), in steep rock-walls in the midst of a pine forest at an altitude of 1800 m a new dwarf-Tillandsia. It had been sold by Mr. Kamm for some time under the name T. hondurensis nom. nud., but a description was missing up today, because we knew only dried inflorescences. Now, the plant has flowered in the collection of the Botanical Garden, Heidelberg, so that we are able to give a description.
Plant with short stems, in groups of clusters; leaves numerous, forming a dense rosette of about 15 cm in diameter and 10-15 cm height; leaf-sheathes inconspicuous, pale; blades narrow-triangular, tapering into a long tip, 9-10 cm long, 2 cm wide at the base, involute and densely lepidote on both sides; inflorescence-scape short, 6-7 cm long, covered with subfoliate scape bracts, these mostly longer than the floral bracts; inflorescence simple, ± 4 cm long, 2 cm thick, subglobose, with 4-5 spirostichous arranged flowers; floral bracts erect, 4-5 cm long, 2,2 cm wide, broad-ovate, acute, ecarinate, green with rose tips, densely lepidote on both sides, exceeding the sepals; these 2,5 cm long, 1,1 cm wide, the posterior inconspicuous carinate and on 2 mm high connate; often sparsely lepidote; flowers up to 6,5 cm long; petals obtuse, violet, whitish to the base; stamens and style exserted. Holotype RAUH 44149 (July 1975) in Herbarium of the Institute of Systematic Botany (Heid.)
Distribution: Honduras: steep rock-walls in Pine-Forest, Valle de Angel, 1800 m. Known from the type locality only.
Without flowers T. hondurensis resembles T. edithiae RAUH from Bolivia and also T. nana BAKER from Peru and Bolivia, but, when flowering, it differs from both. In nature the leaves of T. hondurensis are very soft and fragile; they become harder in cultivation. The Tillandsia-key of L.B. SMITH in "Tillandsioideae" (1977) leads to the Mexican T. benthamiana KLOTSCH ex. BAKER, which has pendulous inflorescences and green flowers, but there exist no affinities to the latter. All in all, T. hondurensis is a very attractive new species, worthy of cultivation.
1) The Latin diagnosis will be published in: Bromelien-Studien X, Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt.
1) The Latin diagnosis will be published in: Bromelien-Studien X, Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt.
|Tillandsia hondurensis Rauh|
|Tillandsia brenneri RAUH|
A NEW SPECIES FROM CENTRALEASTERN Ecuador.
On our trip through Ecuador in 1973 we visited Joe BRENNER in Puyo (Hosteria Thuringia), who has a valuable collection of Ecuadorian orchids and also of some bromeliads. There, we saw a remarkable small bromeliad, which we assumed to be a Vriesea. BRENNER had collected it in the rain-forest around Puyo. He gave us a plant, but it did not flower in Heidelberg.
In June this year I returned to Ecuador and visited Joe BRENNER again. In the meantime he had collected more specimens, and he gave us one with an inflorescence bud. I sent it to Heidelberg, where it came into flower. It was not a Vriesea, as we had assumed, but a new Tillandsia, which we dedicate to its discoverer, Joe BRENNER.
Following is the description of T. brenneri RAUH:1
Plant stemless, flowering up to 30 cm high; leaves few, forming a narrow, funnel-form rosette; sheathes inconspicuous, not contrasting to the blades; these lingulate, rounded at the tip, mucronate, up to 30 cm long, 4,5 cm wide, bluish-green, somewhat waxy and marked, especially beneath, with numerous, irregular arranged, dark-violet spots; inflorescence pendulous; scape curved, shorter than the leaves (18 cm), 3 mm in diameter, round, greenish, glabrous; scape bracts erect, mucronate, enfolding the scape; the basal ones shorter, the upper ones longer than the internodes, yellow-green, glabrous, more or less 3 cm long; inflorescence simple or with a second spike; main up to 7 cm long, 1,8 cm wide, complanate, 6-8 flowering; floral bracts imbricate, 3 cm long, 1,7 cm wide, acute, ecarinate, yellow-green with reddish margins, glabrous, inconspicuous nerved; flower up to 3,5 cm long; sepals 2,4 cm long, 7 mm wide; the posterior carinate and short connate, whitish, glabrous; petals 3,4 cm long, 4,5 cm wide, the upper half violet, white at the base; stamens and style so long as the petals. Holotype: RAUH 52827 (June 1980), in Herbarium of the Institute of Systematic Botany (Heid.)
Distribution: Ecuador; Puyo (Deptm. Pastaza), epiphytic, in an altitude between 500 and 800 m.
With help of the Tillandsia-determination keys of L.B. SMITH, one comes to no result. T. brenneri is, with the dark violet spotted leaves, also in vegetative stage a very attractive plant, which seems to be rare, and which needs in cultivation a relatively high humidity.
Probably we found the same species in Northern-Peru between Moyobomba and Rioja (Dptm. Amazonas) in an altitude of about 500 m. Unfortunately it was not flowering.
1) The Latin diagnosis will appear in "Bromelien-Studien X", Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt.
1) The Latin diagnosis will appear in "Bromelien-Studien X", Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt.
|Mrs. Gulz and her daughter Hedi Roesler|
In my younger years (I won't say when!) I was used to seeing almost every window with some sort of plant growing there. But they weren't European native plants. They came from other countries where the sun seemed to shine more and gave that feeling of exotic places. We couldn't afford to travel, so we looked at plants and let our imagination run wild. Perhaps it was that seed sown in my subconscious that prompted me to migrate to Australia in 1954.
So many of the "Window Sill" plants were either cactus or succulents but where were the Window Sill plants in Australia? When I really thought about it we had so much sunshine that Window Sill culture meant burnt fingers and burnt plants. So the garden became the place for our exotic plants. Although Australia has so many unusual flora I still had the yearning for plants from the New World. Of course we now had more space. It was a case of reducing the area of lawn to accommodate rockeries for my cactus and succulents. It wasn't long before each new space was filled but it didn't stop my search for new plants. It was during my plant 'expeditions' that I came across Billbergia vittata in flower, and ironically enough it was in a cactus nursery! Cost was immaterial. I just had to have that plant and some 15 years later its progeny are still in my collection and are of the same sentimental value to me. It must have been about the same time that I had saved up enough money for one person to make a "nostalgia" trip to Germany, and my wife Freda won the two-entry raffle. As you can see I don't win many raffles! Perhaps it was a blessing in disguise because feeling sorry for me she sent me a Cactus Journal. On the back page was an advertisement for 'Zimmerpflanzen' - Bromeliaceen by Walter Richter and on scraping up sufficient funds I was then in possession of my first bromeliad book. This became my 'Bible'. On birthdays, Fathers days, Christmases I was asked "What do you want, Dad?" The answer was always "A Bromeliad". I joined the Australian Bromeliad Society and the American Society in my thirst for more knowledge and easier access to the plants that I desired. Possibly because of my pestering but maybe because of the number of plants that were coming into my collection the Australian Society felt they needed a representative in South Australia and I was appointed honorary Vice-President.
There were only two keen bromeliad growers in Adelaide then, and I just could not understand why only 2 people out of some 750,000 should be interested in these beautiful plants. A bit of bragging hurts no one and I really wanted to convert the heathen! But where to start? The local garden club were the first to be approached, and after I had convinced them that bromeliads were plants I was welcomed into the field. So the pot plant sections, whether foliage, flower, variegated, soon had my bromeliads side by side with begonias, fuchsias, geraniums, sansevierias, aralias, etc. etc. Perhaps it was the fact that I started winning the prizes, but it wasn't long before separate sections for bromeliads soon appeared. If we look at if from a one-eyed point of view how could the other plants think of competing against a bromeliad? They would soon get an inferiority complex!
Things started snowballing then, because the Director of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, Mr. Noel Lothian, who has a soft spot for bromeliads amongst his love for plants, was so impressed by my keenness that he suggested further projects that I could attempt. For the Adelaide Royal Show in 1972 I was allotted a space 10 feet Χ 6 feet and it took some thinking and planning to try to work out what plants I needed and where they would look their best. Not having done anything like this before I was a nervous as on my wedding day. The dreaded day arrived, the plants looked healthy, not much pruning was needed and two cars were soon loaded up with plants. It must have taken us some 5 hours to get everything ready and even then I am ignoring the rehearsal time in our garage. I must have been keen in those days, a sort of one-man band. Everything went well and I became the proud owner of a Royal Horticultural Society bronze medallion. Bromeliads were becoming famous and I was in demand as a lecturer. I'm not quite sure if it was my slides or my talking that got people interested. I am sure that my talking did help to make the pronunciation of the Latin names even more unintelligible which would have pleased the non-technical members of the audience. You see, I have not lost my German accent and when mixed with Australian "strine" is quite a musical experience. I became adept in appearing to answer questions and an audience of 20 or 50 held no fears.
Why not form a study group purely for bromeliads? After all, the cactus and succulent mob believe that Dyckias are within their field (somewhat erroneously) and the Puyas, Hechtias, and some Tillandsias share similar habitats, so why not edge them into the jungle. My introduction to bromeliads was through a cactus nursery and here again was the connection reoccurring.
The first study group was held at my place and we had a small keen group, mainly converts from cactus, but broadening out to include others. Derek Butcher had the task of trying to keep us to a set pattern of learning and we did learn many "growing" ideas from each other. It was some six months of these informal get-togethers before we realized that it was time to become formal, and the Bromeliad Society of South Australia was formed. Who was the person who had most bromeliads? This seemed to be the sole reason why I was duly elected unopposed as the President. From being a Vice President on paper I was now promoted to top position, and in a live situation too! Being chided by my children for being Vice President was a fun game, but it was no longer a game. Again I was into a job I didn't really want but it was keenness getting me into trouble again. We did well in that first year and I learned a lot about people but I feel that I needed that help and encouragement from our Secretary, Gwen Edwards to finish that one-year term.
I now try to play a more supportive role in our local society and my keenness is still with me.
By this time I had saved enough for another trip for one to Germany and this time I didn't need a 2 entry lottery. It was a hectic time trying to decide what bromeliad collections I should see. To think that I had lived near bromeliads so many years ago without knowing, and now I had the chance of seeing some of the more spectacular collections in this world. Alas, I couldn't make it a bromeliad crawl and had to make do with a visit to the Frankfurt Botanical Gardens and the commercial concern of Hanz Gulz. In retrospect, it was a lucky break because it meant I was not confused with a glut of plants and information and was able to look objectively at what I wanted to achieve.
The Gulz nursery is a colossal concern and it is hard to explain the immensity of it all. You have to see it to believe it. After the small way we do things in Australia it was a great eye opener. It was a pity we couldn't meet Hanz Gulz because he had died some 3 years before, but his wife and daughter were carrying on business as before. Hanz Gulz had spent almost his entire life with plants, starting off as an apprentice gardener. He really got involved with bromeliads in 1937 when he went into business on his own in Nice in southern France. War interrupted his efforts and it was not until 1951 that he started again and 3 years later took over full control of the nursery. Bad Vilbel is near Frankfurt, Germany, and is where the Gulz nursery is located. Can you imagine 17 glasshouses totalling 4,000 square metres, containing mostly bromeliads? Would you like to choose from 600 different types of bromeliads? Many people from all around the world must be buying, because up to 2 million seedling plants are sold each year and to that figure we must also add Ύ to full-size plants and flowering plants. They exhibit at all National and International shows to promote bromeliads and have won many medals. Most of their plants are derived from seed and most of their seed comes from their own plants. The most impressive glasshouse is undoubtedly the one that contains the stockplants where the time-consuming job of hand pollinating takes place. To anyone who has tried to pollinate bromeliads it would be an understatement to even say it is a difficult job when a high success rate is required. So not only is it time-consuming, it is also highly technical. It is this knowledge of what to pollinate that has enabled Gulz to produce some magnificent Guzmania hybrids including "Mignon", "Symphonie", "Hades" etc. The trend these days appears to be towards compactness, smallness, and robust health. It is interesting to note that the growing medium used is peat irrespective of seed raising or advanced planting. The only variable would be in fertilizing. The hospitality we received was great and we will always remember Hedi spending a whole day being hostess to us and enduring our many questions. We were so pleased to hear that she is now happily married.
Back in Australia we had time to think about how bromeliads should be grown. Admittedly we don't have some 100,000 possible front window sills which require filling, but we do have 2,000,000 home gardens. We have in the past relied too much on the rooting of offsets which is a slow process. It is an inevitable situation with variegated plants but there are so many other plants which can be propagated from seed. Commercial general nurseries don't seem interested in raising bromeliads from seed because of the length of time to produce an adult plant but the trend in Europe seems to be specialization. For example, who would think of a grower specializing in radishes and making a success of it! Will this trend come to Australia?
Let's be optimistic. We are in South Australia. Perhaps it is my interest in seed raising that has encouraged other South Australians into this field but we are trying and we are succeeding. I also believe that we are trying to be purists by growing plants from seed coming from a reliable source. Habitat collected seed is the first priority, next comes seed from a source where accidental cross pollination is rare as is the case with Gulz nursery and finally from a source where accidental cross pollination can occur. This accidental cross pollination is more likely to occur where the plants are in the open air and have the many insects paying visits.
So my little hobby, although slow to start, has accelerated so much in the past few years that I'm afraid to apply the brakes. With over 400 different varieties and 30-40,000 seedlings I'm having to co-opt the services of the children, who were so cheeky to me some 15 years ago, to help me.
Campbelltown, South Australia
Society ServicesSeed Fund Seeds for sale and exchange. For information and seed list, send stamped, self-addressed envelope to Diana E. Pippin, P. O. Box 2352, Riverside, California 92516.
Plant Identification For identification of your bromeliad, send whole plant (if small) or an entire leaf, plus the sheath, the inflorescence including a flower, and as complete a description as possible as to habitat and the natural growing conditions to The Bromeliad Identification Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 800 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, Florida 33577. Check or money order for $5.00 per specimen should be made out to The Bromeliad Identification Center and forwarded by separate mail. The fee goes towards maintaining this excellent center.
Hybrid Registration To register your hybrid, send for application blanks and rules to Hybrid Registration Chairman, Joseph F. Carrone, 305 N. Woodlawn Ave., Metairie, Louisiana 70001.
Bromeliad Film Library Interesting programs for affiliated groups. For information and availability send stamped, self-addressed envelope to Mrs. Thelma O'Reilly, 10924 Sunray Place, La Mesa, California 92041.
Formation of Affiliated Society For information as to setup and regulations, write to The Affiliate Chairman, The Bromeliad Society, P. O. Box 41261, Los Angeles, California 90041.
This is the Vriesea Χ Perfecta, which was acquired from Howard Yamamoto many years ago. It has one central inflorescence with ten spikes on it. The plant is sturdy and has been in bloom from February through September. According to Mr. Yamamoto, the original seeds came from Dr. Walter Richter in Germany, who is a well-known hybridizer. It is a slow grower and a "mule" but will produce an abundance of "keikis". Up to now I've had 15 keikis and I see signs of more coming. This photo was taken by Mr. Hiroshi Ota of Hilo, Hawaii. He is an amateur photographer who paid me a visit and was more than willing to oblige me with a photograph.
REV. DAVID R. KINISH, O.S.B.For a month in 1970, three months in 1973-74, and three and a half months from January to May 1979 I was in Brazil visiting confreres and Sisters in our Mission in Mineiros, a city of about 15,000 located about 400 miles southwest of Brasilia in the state of Goias and close to the northern border of Mato Grosso Sul. The Sisters of Mt. St. Scholastica Convent in Atchison whose chaplain I was for some thirty years gave me three all expenses paid trips to anywhere I wanted to go. Since we have a mission in Mineiros and since I had always wanted an opportunity to collect orchids I chose to go there. I had no illusions about what I would find. Mineiros is not located in rain forest area. It is subtropical, with ideal climatic conditions. Even in the rainy season when rain can be expected sometimes daily, it never feels humid nor very hot. During the months I spent there, which were mostly the "summer" months, the temperature rarely reached ninety degrees and most of the time it was in the low eighties, with the night temperature nearly always getting down to about seventy degrees.
Mineiros is situated about seventeen degrees south of the equator and has an altitude of 771 meters. The rainy season is from about late August to about mid May. From mid May until late August there is rarely any rain, but often there is fog at night and in the early morning. The soil is for the most part laterite and not very fertile, but it responds to fertilization and if fertilized will grow good crops. As in most parts of the globe there are various contiguous ecological systems. In most of Goias there are many streams in the valleys and the vegetation in the stream areas varies from palms to tall timber. On higher ground there is the cerrado, the scrub forest usually not heavily timbered and with a great deal of good grazing grasses when the growing season begins, but the grasses are tough and sharp edged when dry and unfit for grazing until they are burned off and new growth begins. This scrub forest supports some orchids and bromeliads. The bromeliads found in the scrub forest in the area of Mineiros include Aechmea phanerophlebia, which the natives call "Mae de agua," Tillandsia pohliana and T. duratii (not the var. decomposita). Some terrestrials are found there too, sometimes including dense thickets of Ananas, at least two species, and one or two Bromelias. In one location, at an altitude of about 800 meters we found a Dyckia, growing with, of all things Cyrtopodium paludiculum and a Vellozia.
The highest level of terrain is the chapadao, which has only coarse grasses and a very few scrubby shrubs and very low growing trees. This area has no orchids and very seldom if ever any bromeliads, with the possible exception of once in a while a species of Ananas.
The best collecting areas are, of course, in the forests that follow the stream beds. Here many of the trees have reached a diameter of three to four feet and support a considerable amount of epiphytic growth including orchids, bromeliads, peperomias, ferns and gesneriads. After my first trip to Mineiros I made a discovery that greatly facilitated the collecting of orchids and bromeliads. Mineiros has six saw mills none of them huge operations, but all of them employing logging crews with one or two heavy trucks to haul in the logs. I found that both the mill owners and the logging crews were extremely friendly and very willing to have me go with them to the logging areas and collect plants from the trees they felled. The company whose trucks I usually went out with were those of Incomal, which operates a lumber mill and has also a small furniture factory and furniture store. The owner is a very gracious lady whom I know only by the name of Dona Domingues. Hardly anyone in Mineiros uses family names. You ask them their names and they give you only their given names. The foreman of Incomal's lumber camp whose name is Alzimiro, was more than helpful. He sometimes accompanied me around the area that had been cut and pointed out where I could find the most orchids and bromeliads and even climbed around the branches of the felled trees to get them for me. On one occasion when we went to a newly opened camp, he told me of another area they had cut the year before and which he said had more epiphytes than the new area and himself took me there on foot, a matter of a couple of kilometers, and helped me to collect two or three species of Oncidiums, and there too we found lots of Tillandsia tenuifolia. Always at these lumber camps I was invited to share their noonday meal, the almozo, which they ate at about 9:30 AM! On these collecting trips with the Incomal people we found all together between forty and fifty species of orchids, but only two species of Tillandsias, T. tenuifolia and two varieties of T. geminiflora.
On a trip to a newly opened lumber camp, owned by Edoardo, I had a very interesting day. There we found large quantities of T. duratii, only the second place we had seen it. The first place was on an old fallen tree near the city of Mineiros, where it was growing in full sun and doing very well. But when I went to look for it in March of 1979 it was gone and I found no more until the new location in Edoardo's camp.
Edoardo's camp was in a newly opened location about 30 kms southwest of Mineiros. This man had acquired the lumber rights to about 5000 acres of timber land in an incredibly fantastic location. Edoardo had to build about half of the road to reach the location of his first camp. To get there we went down an incredibly steep mountain side down into a narrow valley, across a small but swift stream, and then up another steep mountain side to a ridge where the camp was located, and down again to another narrow valley along a stream which might be called a creek, at least in the rainy season. Part of the road was completed by the men on the lumber truck as we went along, putting in culverts to bridge small streams. In this location only we found an abundance of Leaoa reedii, Encyclia amicta and Tillandsia duratii on the trees that were felled that day and on those that had been cut to make the road. Along the roadside on a fallen log we found a Catasetum not yet identified, a patch of wild amaryllis, a thicket of beautiful acacias that had already bloomed and were going to seed. These were at the base of an almost square rock that rose out of the top of the mountain with sheer up and down sides that dominated the area called appropriately "Pedra de Sombra."
It was also in this location, where we collected T. duratii that we found a few T. geminifloras and one tiny Tillandsia, not yet identified. We found only one little clump of four plants, each a perfect rosette no more than an inch and a half across. AT FIRST I thought it might be T. bandensis, but this one has tiny little yellow flowers. Now and again we found some of the tiny tufted Tillandsias on the order of T. mallemontii, some with bronze colored foliage. None of these survived the fumigation in Miami. But that is another story.
All the tillandsias that arrived in growing condition are doing well for me, with the exception of T. pohliana. This past winter the temperature in my little greenhouse accidentally got down to just below 30 ° and it killed my T. pohlianas (collected in 1974) as well as T. plumosa and T. magnusiana. None of the other Tillandsias or any of the other bromeliads were even damaged. But I had a beautiful Vanilla, nearly twenty-five feet long, that was so severely damaged that I have only about four feet of it left.
Getting permits to bring plants into the U.S. is no problem, but getting export permits from Brazil is virtually an impossibility for an amateur collector. However, at this point the U.S. does not seem to require an export permit for bromeliads since they are not among the "endangered species".
Lest I give the impression that the bromeliads I have mentioned are the only ones to be found in this general area of Brazil I might mention that in 1974, while visiting a waterfall near Jatai, at the confluence of two rivers, the Rio Claro and another river whose name I do not recall at the moment, I picked off a moist rock three seedlings that looked identical to me, but since then they have proven to be a Billbergia (perhaps B. brasiliensis which the plant closely resembles, but seems to be smaller), an Ananas and a beautiful Aechmea with reddish foliage throughout. On my latest trip to Mineiros I did not get the opportunity to visit any of the waterfalls, which are fairly numerous in that area, and which are prime collecting areas for epiphytes.
St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison, Kansas
EDGAR L. SMITHWe are all aware that some bromeliad growers are not interested in the "background" of their plants and sometimes, not even interested in the names. The nomenclature of hybrid bromeliads has certainly become confused and little can be done to eliminate the situation inherited from the past. Even though we are unable to trace the genealogy of our bromeliads, there are some bits of information about some plants hybrids and particular clones which can be gathered and passed on in an effort to add a bit of help or information on their background.
There are at least four plants which I can readily think of which have a bit of Texas in their backgrounds. While the names of these plants well may be illegitimate, they do appear in collections and a few commercial plant listings. I offer these background notes only as a bit of interesting information.
1. About 1970, I visited the greenhouses of Mrs. Brownie Perner in San Antonio, Texas. Mrs. Perner called my attention to a bi-generic hybrid she had made by crossing Neoregelia spectabilis with Billbergia nutans. The name given this plant by its creator was Χ Neoregelia 'Perneri'. I don't believe, however, that this cross was ever registered with The Bromeliad Society, Inc. It is my understanding that this cross has been successfully repeated in recent years by a New Orleans grower.
As I recall, the plants varied in shape and color and according to the hybridizer, in blooming habits. Mrs. Perner listed it in her catalog at that time for $2.00. This plant sometimes appears in present day listings but naturally, at a much higher price.
2. Neoregelia carolinae 'Shadowlawn' is a charming dwarf plant about 8-10 inches in diameter. This small growing form of N. carolinae was given this distinguishing name by Ed Peterson and Colin Seale after their bromeliad nursery in Austin, Texas. Of course, the color varies some under various growing conditions but in my situation, the color is an all over orange-red. This clone is not always easy to obtain as its small size and lovely coloring make it very desirable.
Although I have not seen it, there is an imposter using the same name but this false N. carolinae 'Shadowlawn' is a large growing plant while the true 'Shadowlawn' is a definite dwarf and real gem.
3. Another not too readily available but much sought after neoregelia is Neoregelia 'Strawberry Roan'. I have always understood that this plant was originally purchased under that name by David and Sue Gardner of Corpus Christi, Texas from the late well known hybridizer Ed Hummel of California. Neoregelia 'Strawberry Roan' may have been sold to others but seems to have worked its way slowly out of Corpus Chirsti over the years.
This is a medium sized neoregelia with medium red leaves spotted with green. It is a distinctive plant though bearing some basic resemblance to a few other of Hummel's neoregelia hybrids. For quite a few years, this plant was very difficult to obtain and even today is not readily available. But it is certainly a fine plant to add to a collection.
4. Lucky indeed is the cryptanthus fancier who has a plant of Cryptanthus 'Dallas'. This lovely bromeliad is a fairly large growing cryptanthus which has wide leaves of an unusual brownish-pink color. The foliage is nicely crossbanded with silver. In her book Cryptanthus (Marke Publishing Co., Bellflower, California, 1977), Kathy Dorr says, "This is a particularly nice hybrid I found in Dallas, Texas. For identification purposes, I call it Dallas."
This cryptanthus is not easily obtained as it has passed slowly from collector to collector. It certainly is a sought-after plant, especially in its home town, Big D.
I believe that any information we can assemble about the background of any bromeliad will be of importance in the years to come. All growers should keep some sort of records about their plants. The date purchased and the source can easily be noted on the plant label in code if that suits the grower. Or a more detailed record can be kept on 3Χ5 index cards or other record-keeping systems. Any background trivia should also be recorded, it may someday be very helpful.
April 10 and 11 The Bromeliad Society of Greater Mobile, Alabama will present its fourth Annual Competitive Show in Bel Air Mall, Airport Blvd., Mobile.
April 17 to 20 First Australian Bromeliad Conference presented by the Victoria Branch of the Bromeliad Society, Melbourne Town House, Melbourne, will be the scene of the show and conferences.
May 8, 9 and 10 The Florida International Bromeliad Show will be held at the Quality Inn at Cypress Gardens.
May 16 and 17 Annual Show of the Greater New Orleans Bromeliad Society.
SUE GARDNERIn all previous elections of directors to the Bromeliad Society, Inc. nominations were made by the current Board of Directors, without restrictions as to the geographic distribution, except that all were selected from the United States, and in the last two elections, one-half were selected from California to insure a quorum at the meetings which have normally been held in California. A new method for selection of directors will be initiated with the election of directors to serve for the 1981-1984 term. A new set of By-laws for the society was adopted in May, 1980, which divides the society into geographic regions and allows each region to elect directors from their regions according to the proportion of the membership residing in that region. One director is allowed for each 5% of the total membership. Additionally six directors-at-large are to be elected by the entire membership.
WHO CAN NOMINATE? The president of each affiliate and current directors within each region may nominate one candidate for each position open in their region.
Based on the current distribution of members, the regions are entitled to directors as follows: Outer Region-2; Northeastern-1; Southern-1; Florida-3; Central-1; Louisiana-2; Texas-2; Western-1; & California-4.
The current distribution of directors is now among the regions: Central which contains the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and Indiana; California; Texas; Louisiana and Florida. Each of these regions has more directors than their portion of the membership permits and so will not be entitled to elect further directors until the terms of some of their current directors expire. These extra directors will be counted against directors-at-large until such time as each region has their correct portion of directors.
REGIONS WHICH MAY ELECT DIRECTORS NOW: Outer, all areas outside the U.S.-2 positions; Northeastern, the states of: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and the District of Columbia-1 position; Southern, the states of: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland-1 position; Western, the states of: Hawaii, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and Alaska-1 position.
PROCEDURE FOR NOMINATING: Six nominees for each position will be accepted. The earliest six postmarks posted after March 31, 1981 will determine the slate of nominees for each position. Countries outside the U.S. please use airmail. All nominees must agree to serve and are expected to attend or respond to the advance agenda for each of the meetings during his or her term of office. Failure to respond to at least 2 of the 3 will result in that director being ineligible for re-election. No director may serve more than two consecutive terms.
Meeting places will rotate, with the 1981 meeting being held in New Orleans. Mail Nominations To:
Nominations Committee P.O. Box 8705 Corpus Christi, Texas 78412
From my last trip to Ecuador I brought back Aechmea hoppei. One plant bloomed in 1979 with a simple inflorescence. This year (1980) a second plant came into bloom, which I at first considered to be a completely different bromeliad. Upon observing the plant closely, however, I was forced to concede that it was also Aechmea hoppei but with a branched inflorescence. I had also observed this phenomenon in Aechmea weilbachii a few years earlier. But the pups of the Aechmea weilbachii later bloomed unbranched. It remains to be seen whether the pups of the Aechmea hoppei will have branched inflorescences or will again bloom unbranched.
Hermann Prinsler, Germany
Translated by Harvey L. Kendall