Copyright 1983 by the
Bromeliad Society, Inc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MAY — JUNE 1983
PICTURES ON THE BACK COVERTillandsia hotteana. Photo by Werner Rauh, see page 108 for article.
Neoregelia Lambert's Pride. See page 125 for article.
PICTURE ON THE COVERTillandsia fasciculata var. uncispica Photo by Werner Rauh, see page 108 for article.
HARRY LUTHER & AMY JEAN GILMARTINProgress on the revision of the bromeliads for the Flora of Ecuador Project made a quantum leap during January and February 1983 when the authors joined forces at the Marie Selby Gardens in Sarasota, Florida. The Flora of Ecuador Project is designed eventually to publish keys and descriptions for all flowering plant species, perhaps 15,000, of this South American country. The bromeliad family will be one of the most significant contributions, along with Orchidaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae. While the project as a whole was organized and sponsored by several institutions in Sweden, the bromeliad portion is being sponsored by the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Washington State University and the American Association of University Women. The latter provided a senior post-doctoral fellowship to Gilmartin, specifically to facilitate her collaboration with Luther.
The specimens of bromeliads collected from Ecuador since 1967, when Gilmartin terminated her research for The Bromeliaceae of Ecuador (1972) has more than doubled the number of all previous collections, going back to the field work of Andre in 1876. While Gilmartin (1972) includes 249 species with 38 varieties, we estimate that the revision will encompass close to 300 species, including some previously undescribed. Each species and variety is documented with one or more permanently preserved specimens and many are represented also by living collections being maintained at the Selby Gardens, part of the research collection generated by Luther and C. H. Dodson.
At the laboratories of the Bromeliad Identification Center of Selby Gardens, the authors painstakingly examined the pertinent exsiccatae (dried, preserved specimens) and living Ecuadorian collections. The work entailed detailed measurements and drawings of floral and vegetative parts and close attention was paid to preserve specimens observed by the original author of each species and variety.
Following work at the Selby Gardens, both authors traveled to Pullman, Washington where more than a thousand preserved (herbarium) species had been assembled. Studies continued, with annotation labels being placed on each specimen not previously identified. The contribution should be ready to go to press in 1984 or 1985.
|Photo by B. Wards|
|Two species of Tillandsia subgenus Phytarrhiza that are particularly difficult to distinguish in the dry state, are easily separable in life as shown here, T. scaligera is on the left and T. monadelpha on the right. The larger flowers of T. scaligera are a key character together with their rhombic shape.|
In addition to the on-going work on the bromeliad contribution to the Flora of Ecuador Project, Luther and Gilmartin are initiating research on a monograph of the important species of Tillandsia subgenus Phytarrhiza. This subgenus includes such horticulturally desirable plants as Tillandsia dyeriana Andre, T. cyanea Linden and T. dodsonii L. B. Smith. The monograph, to include all species of the subgenus (possibly 36) and much detailed information concerning chromosome number and scanning electron microphotographs, will tender and test evolutionary hypotheses.
Gilmartin, A. J. 1972. The Bromeliaceae of Ecuador. Verlag von J. Cramer, D-3301 Lehre, Germany, 254 p. 18 pls.
Sarasota, Florida and Pullman, Washington
JOSEPH F. CARRONE, JR.
|Photo by Louis Ariza Julia|
|Tillandsia Maria Teresa L.|
Recently, several hybrids have been registered for Sr. Louis Ariza Julia of Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic as follows:
Tillandsia Festubail (Tillandsia festucoides × Tillandsia baileyi)
Flowering plant is 58 cm high, slightly long-bulbous, many leaved, to 40 cm long, channeled, 1 cm wide at base, long acuminate, recurved, light green. Scape to 22 cm long, 8 mm thick, brownish pink, bracts narrow, leaf-like, recurved, lower to 20 cm and upper to 13 cm long. Spikes to 8, erect, narrow, light green, pink edged. Flowers lilac, tubular, 40 mm long, stamens exserted. Inflorescence compact, flowers showy.
Tillandsia Maria Teresa L. (Tillandsia brachycaulos × Tillandsia fasciculata, small form from Dominican Republic)
This hybrid is a flowering plant of 25 to 30 cm high, many leaved. Leaves narrow and recurved, long acuminate, lepidote, greyish-green, to 22 cm long, 2 cm wide at base. Scape 6 cm, bracts leaf-like, inflorescence composed of many short spikes closely bunched into an oval-shaped head to 7 cm long. Flowers tubular, purple, stamens exserted. Scape bracts and upper leaves turn wine red at flowering.
Billbergia Venesil (Billbergia venezuelana × Billbergia brasiliensis)
As could be expected from this cross, the hybrid is a long, tubular plant. Leaves are 110 cm long, 7.5 cm wide, purplish-grey, white flecked and sparsely cross banded white. Flower stalk to 86 cm long and hanging. Inflorescence 40 cm long beyond top of tube and powdery white floccose. Flower bracts large, pink, but no dimensions were supplied on the application. Petals helicoid, white with purple stripe at lower portion but disappearing at upper or outer portion, and as can be noticed as petal spiral is unrolled. Anthers are 7 mm long and blue-purple. No mention was made of shape of ovary on the registration application. This is a lovely hybrid worthy of a place in every hybrid collection.
Tillandsia Pruinariza (Tillandsia ariza-juliae × Tillandsia pruinosa)
The hybrid in bloom is described as an ascending plant to 24 cm tall, the bases of the few leaves form a narrow bulb to 5 cm long. The whole plant is covered with a sparsely white tomentum. Leaves are terete, long acuminate, variously twisted, channeled, to 20 cm long. Flower stem is about 7 cm long, 5 mm thick. The inflorescence is simple, 12 cm long with bracts imbricate, and flowers tubular, light purple. Stamens are exserted, petals are 4 cm long. This is a very interesting hybrid.
Aechmea Chantifost (Aechmea fosteriana × Aechmea chantinii var. Pink Goddess)
This is an old hybrid that has been re-made and has now been given a name and is registered. The hybrid is a stoloniferous tubular plant to 75 cm tall. Leaves ligulate to 60 cm long and 7.5 cm wide, recurved toward the ends, dull green with irregular brown cross markings, blackish tips and cusps. Scape 7 mm thick, extending to 15 cm beyond the leaves, with bracts closely adhered, brownish, topped by the inflorescence of up to 8 short spikes closely bunched, covered by red brown bracts. Ovaries and sepals green, petals yellow.
Tillandsia Jackie Loinaz (Tillandsia concolor × Tillandsia capitata, red form from Mexico)
This hybrid is a flowering plant to 32 cm high. The many leaves are narrow, recurved, long-acuminate, to 30 cm long, green, 2.5 cm wide at base. Scape is 14 cm long, stout. Bracts are leaf-like, wine red, the upper ones bright red when flowering. Inflorescence is a head of 5 cm diameter, consisting of 11 or so spikes to 9 cm long, several flowered. Bracts greenish-red, shorter than the spikes. Flowers are tubular, dark purple with stamens exserted, with petals 5.5 cm long. This is a very handsome plant.
ALLAN G. EDGAR, JR.Ballots for the 1983 election of the directors of The Bromeliad Society, Inc. are included with this issue. All members are urged to vote for the directors-at-large. Members residing in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, California or the Outer Region (outside the U.S.A.) may also vote for a director to represent their region. Be sure to return your completed ballot in the official envelope provided. Please vote now!
At the end of 1982, membership in The Bromeliad Society, Inc. was distributed as follows: (total membership was 2,375)
Region Membership Percentage Directors Allowed
|OUTER: All countries outside the U.S.A.||17.4%||3|
|Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia|
|Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont|
|Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming|
|Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin|
One director is allowed for each 5% of the total membership residing in that region. In addition, 2 directors-at-large (from any region) are elected each year by the entire membership.
Affiliated societies can help their regions gain more directors by conducting membership drives seeking new members for The Bromeliad Society, Inc.
JUAN A. RIVERO
|Neoregelia carolinae 'Medallion'|
As soon as Victoria Padilla's new book The Colorful Bromeliads appeared, I knew what bromeliad I wanted to have the most: the one pictured on page 99, Neoregelia carolinae 'Medallion'. Padilla doesn't say anything about the plant, perhaps because she thought that the photograph was enough to convey all the majestic beauty of this elegant bromeliad freak.
Neoregelia carolinae 'Medallion' was not listed, however, in any price list available to me.
Then I received, as a gift from a friend, four issues of the bromeliophiles' magazine Grande, and in one of them, published in the summer of 1978, three years before Padilla's book was published, there was a short article wholly dedicated to N. carolinae 'Medallion'.
In this article, James Elmore relates how he got fascinated with N. carolinae 'Medallion' when he saw a picture of it on the cover of the Journal of The Bromeliad Society, Vol. XXV, No. 5, 1975. Kelsey Williams of California owned the first N. carolinae 'Medallion', according to Elmore, and it had four pups, three of which the owner distributed to various people while keeping one for himself. Only one of the recipients, Don Rock, was successful in rooting the plant and in getting additional pups from it. When Elmore contacted Rock there were only eight plants of N. carolinae 'Medallion' in the world and Rock agreed to part with one of his three specimens for the asking price of $1000.00. Elmore adds that "While I am not at liberty to say just what it did cost, it was less than that but several times the cost of the next most expensive bromeliad in the market". That put an end to my search for a specimen of my own as $25.00 is my upper price limit for a bromeliad.
Then I had a big surprise. A 'Medallion' of sorts developed right in my yard and from a specimen I had been jokingly telling everybody would develop into a 'Medallion'. The stock from which this plant developed has been in my possession for many years, perhaps more than twenty. Most of my original plants came from Ralph Davis, but some were bought from Jack Holmes or from Lee Moore. A few were a gift from a friend (Weijffels) from Holland. It can only be said that this 'Medallion' stock can be traced to one of these sources but it cannot be stated exactly to which of them.
All the plants in this group are of a distinct bronze color, but there is a red fingernail that in some leaves extends inwards for 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the leaf or, in some cases, for its whole length. As "blooming" time approaches, (N. carolinae 'Medallion' does not actually flower, only the inner leaves form a rosette of brilliant red color), the whole plant turns bronze-green but this color change may have been the result of the fertilizer (10-30-20) used to stimulate "blooming".
Except for a specimen at the De Leon's Nursery in Miami, Florida that was past its prime, I have never seen a 'Medallion' from the original clone. Thus, a comparison can only be made with Padilla's photograph, and colors in a photograph may not be true and they may also vary with the background. With these factors given due consideration, the following appear to be the differences between the two clones: in my specimen the color of the leaves is bronzer, the leaves are apparently narrower (about 2 inches wide), there is a red fingernail and the central rosette is of a much brighter red than the rosette shown in the photograph.
My plant was awarded the best Bromeliad in the Show at the Aibonito Flower Festival in Puerto Rico, June 1982. It has been in "Bloom" for more than 5 months and it is still going strong although the central rosette seems to be increasing in height somewhat and a new tier of short red leaves appears to be forming.
Only one young tubular pup can be seen on the side of the plant, but if this pup grows well and reproduces true to type, this clone could very well be designated N. carolinae 'El Orgullo de Rivero', as that is exactly what it is.
Biology Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Fig. 1 Distribution map of
diverse species of Tillandsia in coastal Tamaulipas.|
Bordering south Texas and the Gulf of Mexico, the coastal plain of the Mexican state of Tamaulipas is a hot, seasonally dry but humid region of low elevation. It is sandwiched between the Gulf and the mountains of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Occupying the regions nearest the coast, from sea level to 500 ft. is Mesquite-thorn forest of short but dense vegetation (Fig. 1). Most of the woody plants are thorny, and species of Yucca, Agave, and Opuntia (prickly pear cactus) are common. A tillandsia community of unusual diversity and density occurs in the thorny trees and shrubs (Fig. 2). The sympatric* species include T. fasciculata (Fig. 3), T. utriculata (Fig. 4), T. balbisiana (Fig. 5), T. paucifolia (Fig. 6), T. ionantha (Fig. 7), T. schiedeana (Fig. 8), T. polystachia (Fig. 9), and T. baileyi (Fig. 10) (Gardner 1982).
*Occurring in the same area.
|Fig. 2 Mesquite-thorn forest of coastal Tamaulipas.|
Many of these species occur together in other regions. Most also occur on islands of the Caribbean or along other coastal regions of Mexico or Central America (Smith & Downs 1977). It is unusual, however, for a region of such aridity to be host to so many individuals of so many species of a single epiphytic genus. In many cases the tillandsias are so thick on the small trees that they appear to be actually competing for space, although some species display site preference that excludes site competition. Tillandsia baileyi, for instance, occurs only in the shade of the dense canopy of thickly foliaged, evergreen trees, usually Pithecellobium flexicaule (Texas Ebony), while Tillandsia utriculata prefers fully exposed sites in the crown of trees with thinner canopies.
The richness in number of species could be explained as a result of frequent hurricanes which move through the Caribbean in late summer and early fall, a time when many tillandsias release their seed. Landfall for many of these great storms is in this region. The density of individuals per species is more likely due to favorable climatic factors, including the consistently high humidity, coastal fogs and mild, dry winters.
As one might expect when closely related species occur sympatrically, some hybridization occurs among them. Assumed hybrids of T. ionantha and T. paucifolia, and of T. baileyi and T. polystachia and/or T. balbisiana have been collected here.
This biologically interesting area of northern Mexico is proving to be excellent ranch land, and unfortunately, it is rapidly falling under the bulldozer as large areas are being cleared each year for pasture.
|Fig. 3 Tillandsia fasciculata||Fig. 4 Tillandsia utriculata|
|Fig. 6 Tillandsia paucifolia|
|Fig. 5 Tillandsia balbisiana|
|Fig. 7 Tillandsia ionantha|
|Fig. 8 Tillandsia schiedeana|
|Fig. 9 Tillandsia polystachia|
|Fig. 10 Tillandsia baileyi|
GARDNER, C. S. 1982. A systematic study of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia. PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University.
SMITH, L.B. and R. J. DOWNS, 1977. Tillandsioideae in Flora Neotropica. Monograph No. 14, part 2. N.Y.: Hafner Press.
Corpus Christi, Texas
WERNER RAUHAfter the World Bromeliad Conference in Corpus Christi, Texas in June, 1982, I was able to make a short bromeliad collecting trip to the island of Hispaniola, and more specifically, to the Dominican Republic which occupies roughly two-thirds of the island. With my friends Louis Ariza Julia, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, Jose Jimenez, Santiago, D.R. and with Prof. Mercano, the Director of the Museum of Natural History, Santo Domingo, D.R., we visited the region of Constanza. There, we spent several days in the dry cactus region around a saltlake called Enriquillo which is 40 m below sea level. We also climbed to an elevation of 2200 m into the pine forests near Puerto Escondido.
We left Puerto Plata on Sunday, June 27 and headed in the direction of Santiago to have our friend Jimenez join us. We passed a lovely mountain region, but unfortunately the primary vegetation had been nearly completely destroyed as a result of the cutting of the forests of Pinus occidentalis. Instead, we saw extensive plantings of sugarcane, tobacco, and bananas. Only palms, Sabal umbraculifera, survived the decimation of the pines and stood as mute witnesses of the former tropical, rainforest vegetation. In La Vega, we left the main road and drove on a very bad, dirt road in the direction of Buena Vista and Jarabacoa. The road began to climb and brought us into a degraded forest of Pinus occidentalis which is still relatively rich in plants. On the ground, among grasses, we found a beautiful orchid, Oncidium variegatum, with sword-like leaves and variegated, violet flowers. In addition, a small palm, Sambia antillarum, and at an altitude of about 500 m the very decorative Bromelia plumieri, were present. B. plumieri has a very wide distribution from Mexico over the West Indies to Brazil and Ecuador, and forms large, spreading rosettes with densely serrate leaves; the many flowered inflorescence is sunken into the center of the rosette (without scape) and surrounded by cinnabar-red leaves, Fig. 2. As epiphytes on the pines we collected Tillandsia balbisiana, T. polystachia, T. fasciculata, T. valenzuelana, T. utriculata, Catopsis floribunda, C. berteroniana, and C. nitida. At an altitude of 600 m, we found a special, small form of Tillandsia tenuifolia, Fig. 3 with very thin, grasslike leaves and small, white flowers in large clusters growing on the pine trunks. This species is closely related to T. tenuifolia var. vaginata which is not listed as occurring on Hispaniola. In this region at an altitude of 850 m, large rosettes of Vriesea sanguinolenta and at about 1100 m, long, trailing beards of Tillandsia usneoides were found. These two species were found mixed with Catopsis floribunda and Tillandsia juncea. Our most remarkable discoveries in this region were Vriesea incurva, Tillandsia lescaillii and T. hotteana.
Fig. 1 Type specimen of Tillandsia hotteana|
Fig. 2 Bromelia plumieri, in the pine forest|
between 500 and 1000 m on the way from Jarabacoa to Constanza
Fig. 3 Tillandsia tenuifolia var. vaginata|
Fig. 4 Tillandsia hotteana above Puerto Escondido,|
at El Toro, 2000 m
Fig. 5 Salto de Constanza, the type locality of Tillandsia moscosoi|
Vriesea incurva forms a big subglobose rosette up to 35 cm long. The pendulous inflorescence is digitate with 2-5 linear to lance-linear spikes. The Dominican form, found above Jarabacoa, differs from the form which I have seen in Ecuador and Peru (San Ramon, Rauh, S-Nr. 27 733; 34 893; 36 374) by the long, lance-linear, hanging spikes with a long sterile base and the mauve-violet, lepidote floral bracts. Nothing can be said about flower color because the plant found was already in fruit (Coll. Nr. 58 545). The Dominican plant can be described as a separate variety. At about 1200 m many plants of the terrestrial Oncidium variegatum, violet form, grew together with the beautiful Fuchsia pringsheimii along the shoulders of the road.
Tillandsia lescaillei (Coll. Nr. 56 549) is a representative of the Pseudocatopsis group: the stemless rosettes form big clusters of green blades with distinct brown sheaths; the inflorescence scape is much longer than the leaves; the mostly erect, bipinnate inflorescences are 25-55 cm long, 10-20 cm wide and develop up to 10, horizontally spreading spikes in a distichous arrangement.
The most important discovery in the region of Jarabacoa was a yellow form of the rare Tillandsia hotteana, which is distributed only in Cuba and Hispaniola. This very attractive species with its densely cylindric inflorescence resembles somewhat Tillandsia imperialis, but the inflorescences are much longer; up to 50 cm long and 5 cm in diameter. We are of the opinion that we discovered a new variety of T. hotteana, which we call T. hotteana var. citrina Rauh et Ariza Julia (Coll. Nr. 58 552). It differs from the type (Ekman 561, Herb. Berlin, Fig. 1) by the bright, lemon-yellow, green tipped primary bracts while the type has brilliant red primary bracts with long green blades. In conflict with the original diagnosis of Urban (Botan. Archiv. Vol. 17, 1921), the stamens were not included, but exserted a little, Fig. 4 and back cover. Unfortunately, nothing can be said about the flower color of this yellow bracted variety because all plants were already in fruit. The 3-angled capsules are green and exsert the primary bracts. Further collecting in the region between Jarabacoa and El Rio must be made in order to determine the extent of distribution of the yellow-bracted variety.
A key follows:
|Primary bracts bright-red; plants mostly forming dense clusters||T. hotteana var. hotteana|
|Primary bracts lemon-yellow, with green blades or tips; plants growing mostly singly||T. hotteana var. citrina|
From Jarabacoa, we went down into the valley of the Rio Tiero Alano to Tirea, a very fertile region where potatoes, cabbages and onions were planted. From here, it was not far to Constanza, a small village beautifully situated and surrounded by hills, which are mostly deforested. Only an occasional pine tree could still be seen.
In Constanza, we found relatively good quarters in the hotel "Neuva Suiza" and used it as our headquarters for several excursions. The roads in the vicinity were very bad and often washed out, so lacking a rugged vehicle, we had to drive carefully. On one of our trips, we drove some km out of Constanza in the direction of the Salto or waterfall, Fig. 5, the type locality of Tillandsia moscosoi. We searched for a long time at an elevation of 1250 m with no success when at last Louis Ariza Julia found a nearly dead specimen on a pine that had been felled; so we knew that we were in the right locality. Many young boys from neighboring huts joined us in our search for more specimens, but they brought only the beautiful form of Tillandsia fasciculata var. uncispica which Jimenez was the first to discover in the Dominican Republic near Palmar, (Jimenez 2502). This is a beautiful variety of T. fasciculata and differs from all of the others so much that it could be given its own specific epithet. The plants are smaller than most other varieties, only up to 50 (-60) cm high when in flower, and mostly smaller; the inflorescences are few branched (see cover), often simple. When the inflorescence is simple, the inflorescence is much shorter than the leaves, the scape hidden in the rosette; the spike (also in the branched specimens) is strongly inflated and the broad floral bracts end in a beaked tip; the flowers are erect, tubular; the stamens and the style are exserted. It is remarkable that the strong convex character of the spike is not mentioned in the literature.
In the same area around Constanza, T. fasciculata var. venosispica is supposed to occur, but we did not find it. In this variety, the floral bracts are also beaked, but prominently nerved and dry to a dark color. Both of these characteristics do not occur in T. fasciculata var. uncispica. T. fasciculata var. densispica has been noted to grow in the Dominican Republic also, in the region of Azua, Barahona in the southern part of the country and near Monte Christi of the northwestern coast. T. fasciculata var. laxispica is said to occur in the same regions.
Fig. 6 Tillandsia moscosoi near Salto de Constanza|
Fig. 7 The mountain of the "Cumbre Catavila" is covered with a dense forest|
Fig. 8 Tillandsia selleana, 1700 m near Constanza|
Fig. 9 Vriesea sintenisii, Cumbre Catavila, 1300 m|
After much searching, at last we found growing on a bush a single flowering specimen of T. moscosoi. With this specimen, we were able to show our young native helpers the plant we sought. Indeed, they succeeded in finding a huge pine tree near the river shore whose crown was covered with many flowering plants of T. moscosoi, but even for them it was impossible to collect even one. We returned to our hotel but before we left the locality, I asked the boys to search for more specimens, and bring them to our hotel with the promise of a good "propina." In the evening all the boys came loaded with plants, but all except a few were T. fasciculata var. uncispica with a single spike; only one boy had brought some specimens of T. moscosoi; I honored him with a good gift, so he and we were content.
This dwarf tillandsia, T. moscosoi, is rarely seen in cultivation. The rosette leaves, exceeding the bipinnate, densely ellipsoid, up to 4 cm long inflorescences are up to 20 cm long and covered with pale, very closely appressed scales; the inflorescence scape is very short, hidden in the leaf-rosette and covered with subfoliate scape bracts; the primary bracts are densely imbricate, pale lepidote, pink to dark carmine red; the lower ones caudate, the upper ones nepiculate, exceeding the 1-3 flowered spikes; floral bracts densely imbricate, glabrous, carinate, incurved; sepals slightly exceeding the floral bracts, the posterior ones about half connate; petals erect, stamens exserted, Fig. 6 (Coll. Nr. Rauh 58 554, 27.6.82). T. moscosoi is known only from the type locality. If any more trees are cut down, the type locality will be destroyed.
In the same locality, that is, the Salto de Constanza, we found Vriesea tuerckheimii growing on steep rock walls. This is a large species, discovered by Tuerckheim in 1910, which has the habit of an agave and is even associated with Agave brevispina. Tillandsia pruinosa (Rauh, Coll. Nr. 58 555), T. juncea (Rauh, Coll. Nr. 58 553) and Pitcairnia heterophylla (Rauh, Coll. Nr. 58 559) were other species that we collected.
On another occasion, we started early in the morning in the direction of Mt. Redonda which has an elevation of 2295 m. On our way up, we found the road so poor that we had to return to an altitude of 1700 m. First, we drove through a pure pine forest where the trees were completely covered with Tillandsia usneoides. Here too, Dr. Jimenez collected such interesting plants as the beautiful gesneriad Rhytidophyllum auriculatum, Dendropanax arboreum (Araliaceae), Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae), Passiflora sexflora, Trema lamarckiana (Ulmaceae), Brunellia comoclavifolia ssp. domingensis (Brunelliaceae), Duddleia domingensis (Loganiaceae), Weinmannia pinnata (Weinmanniaceae), Verbena domingensis (Verbenaceae), Rhamnus phaeosperma, the beautiful flowering Begonia domingensis, Lobelia assurgens (Lobeliaceae), some orchids such as Dichaea glauca, D. echinocarpa, Oncidium compressicaule with yellow flowers and the earth-orchid Calanthe mexicana. All the cultivated areas were bright blue from the flowers of the beautiful flowering weed, Cynoglossum amabile (Boraginaceae). Cabbage was the principal crop in cultivation here. At about the same elevation, but in a mountainous region, we found large tree ferns such as Cyathea arborea, and dwarf shrubs such as Gaultheria domingensis, a creeping melastome, and Baccharis dioica (Asteraceae). At first, this area seemed to be poor in bromeliads, but after leaving our car and crossing a small forest, we found many specimens of 2 tillandsias we had not yet collected: Tillandsia caribaea and T. selleana (Coll. Nr. 58 570). The former is a very unattractive species of the Pseudocatopsis group and seems to be closely related to the very variable T. tetrantha. T. caribaea forms dense rosettes of narrow-triangular leaves with decurved to hanging bi- to tripinnate inflorescences, and the flowers are very minute. Its area of distribution extends from Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic to Venezuela. T. selleana, distributed in Jamaica and Hispaniola, forms a stemless rosette, flowering up to 50 cm high; the ligulate blades are glabrous above and inconspicuously punctulate lepidote below. The axillary spikes of the broadly pyramidal, laxly bipinnate inflorescence are sessile, Fig. 8, divergent to spreading, linear-lanceolate, acute, densely 4-5 flowered, up to 8 cm long, 1 cm wide with several sterile bracts at the base; the floral bracts are erect, imbricate, broadly lanceolate, prominently nerved, glabrous and ecarinate, exceeding the sepals; the flowers are white. The type locality is the limestone rock in the "massif de la Sello" of Haiti.)
On another morning, we left Constanza so early that the valley was filled with mist, but yet the rising sun could be seen barely shining through, a beautiful view. The road climbed up to 1300 m so the mists below were left behind and we were now in full sun with a clear, blue sky. On our way to Bonao, we passed the "cumbre Catavila" where the mountains are still covered with a beautiful, undisturbed, dense forest with many tree ferns, Cyathea arborea and palms called "mamacla", Prestovia montana, Fig. 7. On the way to the pass we saw at an altitude of 1000 m many plants of Tillandsia fendleri var. fendleri and Vriesea didistichoides without inflorescences. On the highest point of the pass we stopped to look for bromeliads. We found many specimens of the yellow form of Tillandsia hotteana, T. lescaillei, and collected specimens of the beautiful Vriesea sintenisii, all growing as epiphytes. V. sintenisii forms a broad, crateriform rosette; the leaves are of a bright wine-red color when growing in full sun. The inflorescence, exceeding the rosette, is few-flowered, lax at the base, dense towards the apex. In the axils of the broadly ovate, red floral bracts are 2 flowers, Fig. 9, with light yellow petals. This species is not rare at higher elevations in the Dominican Republic. It seems to be easy to cultivate, but unfortunately the leaves are losing their bright red color.
To be concluded in issue No. 4.
University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
1) This article is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Jose Jimenez, the famous botanist of the Dominican Republic to whom I am most grateful and indebted for introducing me to the Dominican vegetation and flora.
ELTON M. D. LEME
In January, 1980, during a collecting trip to the Lake Region, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a new species of Bromeliaceae was found: Neoregelia eltoniana Weber. It was described by the eminent botanist Wilhelm Weber from the German Democratic Republic, who provided the English diagnosis as follows:
Neoregelia eltoniana Weber. PLANT: stoloniferous, ca. 30 cm high, LEAVES: stiff, rosulate, olive green, pale reddish suffused, at anthesis the inner leaves turned bright red. SHEATHS: distinct, ovate, to 10 cm long, 7 cm wide, the inner surface subdense brown lepidote, margins entire. BLADES: lingulate, to 17 cm long, 40 mm wide, subcanaliculate, subglabrous, margins subdense serrate with antrorse 1.5 mm long theets, apex rounded, apiculate and with pallide red spot. SCAPE: to 6 cm long, 8 mm. SCAPEBRACTS: erect, ovate and long cuspidate dissite lepidote, to 30 mm long, much exceeding the internodes. INFLORESCENCE: simple, dense capitate, deep included, ca. 30-flowered. Flowers to 53 mm long, 9 mm long pedicellate. FLOWERBRACTS: to 30 mm long, 10 mm wide, apex rounded and minutely apiculate, membranaceous, sissite lepidote, pale reddish, margins entire. OVARY: long-ovate, 12 mm long, 5 mm dia., white, glabrous, ovules at apex loculated. SEPALS: late-lanceolate, long acuminate, with a short mucro, to 20 mm long, 9 mm wide, coriaceous, 3 mm connate, with asymmetric hyaline margins, glabrous, reddish, PETALS: to 33 mm long, at basis white and 13 mm high tubular-connate, blades late lanceolate, long acuminate, 7 mm wide, lilac, arcuate spreading. STAMENS: 11 mm long, total to the petals adnate, Anthers 5 mm long, basifixed, yellowish-white. STYLE: terete, 23 mm long, stigmata erect, 4 mm long, spirally contorted.
Leg. Elton Leme, no. 114, Febr. 1980, flowered in cult. 30.8.80; 19.5.82. Habitat: Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio, Restinga de Massambaba at sea level. Holotypus: WEB 500, Isotype: RJ.
This new species is related to N. indecora (Mez) L.B. Smith 1939, but differs in that the flowerbracts much exceed the ovary, the petals are longer and much higher connate. The latin diagnosis is in print in Feddes Repertorium.
N. eltoniana was first collected in the 1960's by the botanist Dimitri Sucre near Cabo Frio town. Reports from 1970 by the collector Mr. Luiz K. Correia de Araujo indicate several habitat areas for the species, thereby confirming its presence in the area referred to.
Information was also obtained from the collector Luiz Carlos Gurken, who originally showed us the species occurring in the area of Restinga de Massambaba. His specimens are under the collection number B-80, January 1971.
On the basis of accumulated data, we can establish the present distribution area of N. eltoniana. The species ranges from the southwest of Cabo Frio's dunes, along Cabo Frio Beach toward the dunes in the region placed between the sea and Araruama Lake, known as Restinga de Massambaba, and westward up to the east side of Saquarema Lake.
Neoregelia eltoniana is irregularly distributed in that area. The plants exist in groups, some numerous, growing on dunes already covered and fixed by typical vegetation. This vegetation consists also of some pioneer species which began the natural process of vegetational succession. This process culminates in a formation of thicket vegetation, sometimes 4 m high. The thicket formation is composed of groups of bushes strongly ligneous and slightly sclerophytic, mixed with short, twisted, bushy trees. This formation constitutes the habitat of N. eltoniana. Consequently, the plant grows mainly on sand dunes amidst thicket formations. Despite being heliophytic, it can be found under the shade of bushes and also more rarely as an epiphyte, possibly because of the production of stolons. In some places, the dune vegetation becomes so dense that the effect of shading slowly eliminates the bromeliads because of the absence of light.
According to Rizzini, (Carlos Toledo Rizzini, Tratado de Fitogeografia do Brasil, Vo. 2, Sao Paulo, 1979), the bromeliads, heliophytes and xerophytes are pioneer plants in this area. We can include in that group N. eltoniana and others such as Vriesea neoglutinosa and Neoregelia cruenta, all sharing the same habitat. The groups of bromeliads together with the shrubby trees of the thicket generate ideal conditions for the successional development of more advanced communities. Gradually, the bushy vegetation becomes more dense until the heliophytic bromeliads are all but eliminated by the increasingly heavy shade.
Presently, huge formations of Vriesea neoglutinosa and Neoregelia cruenta are still common in that region and the epiphytic Tillandsia gardneri and T. stricta are found there as well. Plants of the latter 2 species of Tillandsia are often found surviving and flowering even after having fallen from branches and remaining on the sandy ground of the restinga.
Neoregelia eltoniana is less common as a result of destructive human actions. The beauty of the coast of Cabo Frio and of Lake Saquarema are such that they are the targets of uncontrollable tourist demand. As a result, the existing populations of this species are very vulnerable to the onslaught of rapid urban growth.
There is an urgent need for the adoption of protective measures to assure the survival of such exquisite vegetation that shelters such an uncommon bromeliad species, and which enriches so much the beautiful scenery of the restinga.
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
WILHELM WEBER AND LYMAN B. SMITHIt started when Weber examined the Bromeliaceae of Herbarium of the University of Leipzig (LZ) collected in Peru over the last ten years by the Director of the Division of Taxonomy and Geobotany, Dr. Gerd Mueller, and collaborators. By the key in Flora Neotropica, 14 (2): 671. 1977, he identified the specimen Gutte & Lopez 3532 as Tillandsia hutchisonii L.B. Smith. However, dissection of the only well preserved flower showed that its petals were joined in a tube and that each bore two fimbriate scales, thus proving its identity with Mezobromelia. Comparison with the species already described in Mezobromelia showed obvious agreement with M. trollii Rauh of 1977.
Learning of this, Smith enlisted the aid of Alice Tangerini, the staff artist of the Botany Department, and she was able to confirm the characters of Mezobromelia in the type of Tillandsia hutchisonii although the best flower was in bad condition. Thus the identity of the two species was confirmed necessitating the following new combination on the basis of priority:
Mezobromelia hutchisonii (L.B. Smith) W. Weber & L.B. Smith comb. nov.
Basionym: Tillandsia hutchisonii L.B. Smith Phytologia 13: 145 pl. 6 figs. 23, 24 (1966).
Typus: Hutchison & Wright 6801 (Holotypus US, Isotypus USC), on Road to Rioja, 5 km north of the end of Laguna Pomacocha, 2000 msm., Bongara, Amazonas, Peru, 8 Oct. 1964.
Synonym: Mezobromelia trollii Rauh in Bromelienstudien 7., Acad. Wiss. & Lit. Mainz p. 5 - 10, Abb. 1, 2, 3, 3a (1977).
Typus: Rauh 40104 (Holotypus HEID, Isotypus US).
Bergwald am Rio Sonche, 2000 - 2400 m, epiphytisch, zwischen Chachapoyas und Mendoza (km 552-555), Dptm. Amazonas, NE-Peru.
Collaterally examined material:
P. Gutte & J. Lopez G. no. 3532 (LZ, Duplicate, SMF, WEB 576) Peru, Dpto. Amazonas, Prov. Chachapoyas, Aufstieg zur Legia oberhalb Pipus, Epiphyt in der Ceja, 1700 msm., 31.8.1974.
The above case establishes the possibility that eventually still other large Andean Tillandsia species that were based on herbarium material may prove to belong to Mezobromelia. Therefore we recommend that collectors in the field examine fresh flowers to verify it as in the previous case they were wrongly described as Tillandsia.
Type specimen of Mezobromelia hutchisonii|
Waldsteinberg, German Democratic Republic & Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
BRADLEY C. BENNETT
Tillandsia valenzuelana A. Richard, one of the lesser known Florida bromeliads, is widely scattered throughout the southern portion of the state, but may be locally abundant. This species has been reported from as far north as Hillsborough County in central Florida (Smith and Downs, 1977). Tillandsia valenzuelana was named for Jose Maria Valenzuela who collected the species in Cuba (Padilla, 1973).
The vegetative rosette of Tillandsia valenzuelana may be confused with young T. fasciculata or T. utriculata individuals if flower spikes are not present. The easiest way to distinguish T. valenzuelana from the other species is by touch. The delicate leaves of T. valenzuelana are a silvery-grey color and smooth textured, hence its common name the soft-leaved wild pine. Leaves are triangular, 1-3 cm wide and brittle, breaking easily when handled. Mature plants are usually less than 30 cm in height.
The flowers of this bromeliad are similar to other Florida species in the subgenus Tillandsia. Petals are purple. Stamens and stigma are exserted to varying degrees. Flowering occurs between June and November and sporadically at other times of the year. The flower spikes are erect or ascending and are usually simple but may be once pinnate. They seldom exceed 50 cm in length. Up to 20 fruits are produced on each inflorescence.
Tillandsia valenzuelana is abundant in some protected hammocks and swamp communities in southern Florida. Up to 400 individuals have been found on host trees in 10m × 10m quadrats in the Big Cypress Swamp. Although reported to be shade loving this epiphyte will tolerate a wide range of light intensities from deep shade to nearly full exposure. In exposed sites leaves are reddish due to increased anthocyanin content.
Tillandsia valenzuelana grows on many different host species including pop ash, pond apple, red maple, cypress, cocoplum, live oak and royal palm. It is especially common on pop ash and pond apple and seldom occurs above a height of 7m. This bromeliad is associated with several other species including Guzmania monostachia, Catopsis berteroniana, C. floribunda, C. nutans, Tillandsia pruinosa and T. setacea which are also more common in mesic habitats. Its tolerance of variable light intensities and presence only in mesic habitats suggests that moisture rather than light is the more important factor affecting the distribution of T. valenzuelana.
Padilla, V. 1973. Bromeliads: A descriptive listing of the various genera and the species most often found in cultivation. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York.
Smith, L.B. and R.J. Downs, 1977. Flora Neotropica Monograph No. 14, Part 2, Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae). Hafner Press, New York.
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
PAUL T. ISLEY IIIWith the passing of Mr. Carl L. Lambert on September 27, 1982, the bromeliad world in southern California lost its best neoregelia hybridizer and grower in recent years. While many of you may not as of yet be familiar with his crosses, such as Neoregelia Doris, and Neoregelia 696 × Neoregelia compacta, those who are, already know how keenly his devotion and creativity will be missed. Carl's most recent cross, Neoregelia Lambert's Pride, was his favorite and perhaps one of the great crosses by anyone, anywhere, and at any time.
His ability to grow tight compact neoregelias with many leaves and brilliant color consistently garnered the top awards at the La Ballona Valley Bromeliad Society Shows and the Southern California Bromeliad Council Shows. With the passing of another great bromeliad grower in 1980, Dr. Donald Rock (J. Brom. Soc. Vol XXX 34), Carl Lambert quickly came to the fore.
In addition to being a great grower and hybridizer, he was, most importantly, a wonderful person who was loved and admired by all those who knew him. He was gracious, well mannered, polite, humble and self-effacing. And yet inside he was fiercely competitive; he was a fighter pilot with the 49th Fighter Squadron in the Pacific Theater during World War II. He was equally unselfish with his time, serving as Show Chairman for the 1979 Southern California Bromeliad Council Show and Sales Chairman for the 1981 Council Show.
His interests were broad. Besides bromeliads and his keen interest in flying, he owned a plating company, was a member and past president of Metal Finishing Associates of Southern California, past president and member of the Optimist Club, a member of the Elks Club, and a member of the American Arbitration Association. Carl is survived by his wife Doris, a son Phil, and daughters Anne and Laura. For all of us whose lives were enriched through knowing you Carl, thank you.
Manhattan Beach, California
See back cover for color
photo of Neoregelia Lambert's Pride.
COMING EVENTSJune 4 and 5 The Southern California Bromeliad Council Show, Los Angeles Arboretum in Arcadia, California.
June 17, 18 and 19 Atlanta Bromeliad Society, Inc. Fifth Annual Show and Sale. Cumberland Mall, 1-285 West and US41, Atlanta, Georgia.
June 18 and 19 Thirteenth Annual Bromeliad Show and Sale of the Sacramento Bromeliad Society. Shepard Garden and Art Center, 3330 McKinley Blvd., Sacramento, California. June 18: 2-6 P.M., June 19: 10 A.M.- 5 P.M.
August 6 and 7 South Bay Bromeliad Associates All Bromeliad Show and Plant Sale. South Coast Botanic Garden, 26300 South Crenshaw Blvd., Palos Verdes Peninsula, California. August 6: Noon-5 P.M., August 7: 10 A.M.-5 P.M.
Funds generously contributed by the 1982 World Bromeliad Conference, Corpus Christi, Texas, have paid for the color separations.
Poster Submissions for the Bromelympics — 1984
For all of you who not only have green thumbs but talent in your other fingers as well, get out your art materials and tune up for the 1984 Bromelympics. Everyone is welcome to participate. The idea is to get involved and have a good time.
There are no restrictions as to the media you use other than that the art work must be two-dimensional; however, the following words must not be used: "olympics" or "olympiad", nor should there be any portrayal of the "olympic rings". The poster chosen in competition by the judges will represent the 1984 World Bromeliad Conference.
All participants will be able to display and market their art work at the Bromelympics. Even if you are only a runner-up, you will be able to expose your talents to the market most interested in patronizing your endeavors.
Submissions should be forwarded to:
- 4150 Vinton Avenue
- Culver City, CA 90230
- 4150 Vinton Avenue
BROMELIADS BREAK THE MOVIE BARRIER
In the two popular movies Star Trek II and E. T., bromeliads are brought into the story in an interesting way. In Star Trek II, you'll have to wait until the last film sequences to see them but it's well worthwhile. Mr. Spock dies at the end of the movie and his coffin is jettisoned and sent to a planet that just shortly before had been energized to hasten plant evolution. As the coffin settles down into a carpet of "primitive" green plants it becomes surrounded by a multitude of bromeliads — mostly neoregelias. This very attractive site, I'm sure, was chosen by the movie makers to instill in the viewers a feeling of early evolution, and as such they chose relatively unknown plants. I think it was a wise choice!
The movie E. T. portrays bromeliads in another way. E.T., the extraterrestrial, is a botanist from another world who by the time he is discovered in North America had collected plants in South America. Early in the movie the camera pans across E.T's plant collection in the ship, and lo and behold there are bromeliads among his booty. I liked the movie for this and other reasons and especially thought E.T. was a wise botanist to collect such fascinating plants. Actually I was a bit jealous because I wished I had been along with him.
I'm certain most people didn't notice the bromeliads, other than being just some more green plants, but they would have been obvious to bromeliophiles like us. Even my kids spotted the bromeliads the same time I did. Of course, what do you expect from kids that have been "brainwashed" most of their lives!
Louis F. Wilson
from The South Eastern Michigan Bromeliad Society Newsletter Editor's Note: The location for the scene in Star Trek II was Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California and the bromeliads were provided by Shelldance Nursery.
ATTENTION AFFILIATES — If you have not received the Affiliate Newsletter, contact the chairperson for the Affiliates of the Society, Mrs. Mary Jane Lincoln, 1201 Waltham St., Metairie, LA 70001
HYBRID REGISTRATION — To register your bromeliads, send for application blanks and rules to Harry Luther, Hybrid Registration Chairman. Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 800 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 33578
SEED FUND — Seeds for sale and exchange. For information and seed list, send stamped, self-addressed envelope to Diana E. Pippin, P.O. Box 2352, Riverside, CA 92516
Tillandsia hotteana is found as an epiphyte in forests of Cuba and
Hispaniola at altitudes between 1050-2000 m.|
(see page 108)
Neoregelia Lambert's Pride|
(see page 125)