Copyright 1984 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.
|Vol. 34, No. 1||January-February 1984|
Editors: Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., Edward C. Hall.
Editorial Advisory Board: Eloise Beach, David Benzing, Racine Foster, Sue Gardner, Victoria Padilla, Robert W. Read, Edgar Smith, John F. Utley.
|3||Nominations Open for the 1984 Election of Directors Allan G. Edgar, Jr.|
|4||Morren’s Paintings (the first of a series) Lyman B. Smith|
|6||The Legacy of C. Jacques Edouard Morren Victoria Padilla|
|9||Tillandsia cossonii Sue Gardner|
|11||Greetings from the Editors|
|12||The 1984 World Bromeliad Conference Schedule|
|13||The Judges’ Corner Valerie L. Steckler|
|15||Environment, Time, and Place (E.T.P.) W. W. G. Moir|
|19||Introducing Tillandsia ionantha ‘Druid’ Eloise Beach|
|20||Collecting and Importing Bromeliads Carol M. Johnson|
|23||Index to Volume 33, 1983 Clyde F. Reed|
|27||Tour of Gardens and Nurseries Paul T. Isley III|
|29||Pitcairnia corallina var. corallina Werner Rauh|
|31||Internationally Accredited Bromeliad Society Judges and Student Judges in Good Standing|
The Journal, ISSN 0090-8738, is published bimonthly at Orlando, FL by the Bromeliad Society, Inc. Subscription price is included in the annual membership dues: Single — $15.00; double (two members at one address receiving one Journal) — $20.00; contributing — $20.00; fellowship — $30.00; life — $750.00. Please add $5.00 for foreign mailing except for life members. Individual copies are $2.50. Memberships begin with January of the current year. Funds over $15.00 from contributing and fellowship members help to pay the cost of Journal color illustrations.
Articles and photographs are earnestly solicited. Closing date is 60 days before month of issue. Advertising rates upon request. See inside back cover for addresses.
Permission is granted to reprint articles from the Journal, in whole or in part, when credit is given to the author and to the Bromeliad Society, Inc.
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Allan G. Edgar, Jr.
OMINATIONS ARE NOW being accepted for the election of directors to the Board of The Bromeliad Society, Inc. for the term 1985-1987. Ballots for this election will be mailed with the May-June issue of the Journal.
For election purposes, the Bromeliad Society is divided into nine geographical regions and each region elects its own directors (as outlined in the bylaws on pages 15-16, 1981 Directory). Nominations must be in writing and be postmarked no later than 17 March 1984. Brief biographical information and a statement of qualifications must be included for each nominee. No director may serve more than two consecutive terms. Six nominees will be accepted for each position. The six earliest postmarks will determine the slate for each position.
|REGIONS HAVING POSITIONS OPEN IN 1984:|
Directors-at-large (any region)
Outer (all areas outside the U.S.)
WHO MAY NOMINATE? The president of every affiliated society, and current directors within each region, may nominate one candidate for their region, plus one candidate for director-at-large.
PROCEDURE FOR NOMINATING:
1. Obtain the consent of the nominee. 2. Report the name of the nominee and the required information to the nominations chairman, and request that the acceptance form be sent to the nominee.
By completing, signing, and returning the acceptance form the nominee agrees to run for the position indicated, to be an active Board member, and to attend all annual Board meetings at his/her own expense (the attendance requirement does not apply to the Outer Region directors).
- MAIL NOMINATIONS TO:
5460 Saratoga Drive
Jackson, MS 39211
|MEMBERS OF THE NOMINATIONS COMMITTEE ARE:|
Allan G. Edgar, Jr.
Lyman B. Smith
SUALLY, NEW SPECIES are described from dried herbarium material and I began by looking for Baker’s types at Kew where he had worked and published numerous species in the Journal of Botany and then brought them all together with still more species in his Handbook of the Bromeliaceae. As expected, I found herbarium specimens for the great majority of his types, but certain ones with "(MD)" after the name showed no herbarium specimens. As I learned, these were Morren drawings that Kew had bought, and Baker had not seen when he made his new species. I still thought that there must be specimens so in 1935 I visited Liege, Morren’s home city.
At the door of the main building of the Liege gardens, I was met by a young man who assured me that there was no herbarium at Liege, but that it had been sold to Kew. I told him that I had been at Kew and that all they had were Morren’s paintings. Presently, he called the director who said that yes, they had a herbarium, but nobody used it because the staff were all physiologists and horticulturists. He added that when he took charge of the institution, however, he had made an inventory of the contents and had come upon a number of crude wooden cases. They were about the size of a suitcases and were nailed shut. He had opened them and found Morren’s dried herbarium specimens.
I got out my camera and got busy photographing what I supposed were the real type specimens only to learn that they were later collections than the plants used by Morren for his paintings. This was a disappointment in a way, but on the other hand Morren’s expertise insured the complete accuracy of the paintings.
It was twenty years later before I again visited Europe, this time with Ruth. One of our great objectives was to make color slides of Morren’s paintings and this was no mean problem. I had to use a converter for my lights because of the difference of electric frequency between England and the States. Next, the paintings had to be hung since they were much too large to place on the floor under a tripod as was easy to do with herbarium specimens. Also, they were of different sizes so I had to move back and forth constantly. Ruth solved this by holding up the paintings as can be seen by her hands on the top of each painting.
For several years I used the photos for my own research. Then, noting the fine series of color plates developed by Victoria Padilla, I sent her photos of Bromelia scarlatina and Bromelia antiacantha to use in her biography of Morren for a very informative and interesting life story [see following pages].
Now I am starting a new series of plates of Morren paintings with two very ornamental neoregelias, N. princeps and N. marmorata (figs. 1 and 2). I have not seen live princeps, but Eddie McWilliams and I collected marmorata in the coastal scrub of Bertioga, Sao Paulo.
|Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 1: Neoregelia princeps. Painting by C.J.E. Morren.|
|Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 2: Neoregelia marmorata. Painting by C.J.E. Morren.|
WO MEN CHAMPIONED the growing of bromeliads in Europe during the later half of the nineteenth century — Edouard Andre — writer, editor, plantsman, landscape architect, and explorer — and Charles Jacques Edouard Morren — botanist, horticulturist, artist, professor, and writer. The bromeliad world today would indeed be poorer had it not been for the zeal and untiring efforts of these two plantsmen — one a Frenchman and the other a Belgian.
Morren, born in Belgium in 1833, came by his love of plants naturally, for his father Charles was a distinguished professor of botany. Young Morren had an exceptionally well-rounded education, majoring in philosophy and fine arts in his under graduate years and then going on to receive his doctorate in natural sciences. He continued his training in horticulture by visiting and studying at the famous botanic gardens of Europe.
While still in his teens Morren became interested in plant illustration, endeavoring to reproduce plants as realistically as possible, in their true colors, and paying particular attention to all the nuances of light and shade. His illustrations, numbering well in the hundreds, appeared in the horticultural journal La Belgique Horticole, which had been started by his father. Among the many plant subjects which he depicted in his water-color drawings, 250 were of bromeliads, a plant family which had captured his attention. These plates are today in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, England. They are of varying sizes, most of them being life sized. There are over 100 drawings that have never been published, and many are of types or species that never have been illustrated. No one has ever given us so many exquisite, finely executed drawings of bromeliads as has Morren. Each is a genuine work of art, at the same time capturing every scientific detail of the plant.
Once he embarked on his horticultural career, Morren undertook to become active in as many horticultural organizations and scientific endeavors as he could. He was a professor at the university as well as the director of the botanic garden at Liege, at the same time keeping in contact with botanists and their activities throughout the world. He wrote on many aspects of botany and horticulture, and in 1869 he addressed the Botanical Congress at St. Petersburg on the influence of light on plants, a lecture which aroused much comment.
Morren amassed a great collection of bromeliad species both at his home and at the botanic garden. His manuscripts concerning bromeliads are considerable, as he endeavored to describe with great exactitude, as well as paint in water colors, all the species that were actually known at that time (1882). Carl Mez said that he owed more to Morren than to any other bromeliad botanist.
Morren liked living plants, and it is a tragedy that he was not able to realize one of his great dreams – a trip to the forests and mountains of Brazil. But he practically wore himself out with all his activities, and to the great grief of the horticultural world died in 1886 at the age of 53. He left a son, E. Morren, who became the well-known hybridizer.
Reprinted from the Journal of the Bromeliad Society, vol. 22, no. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1972.
|Photo by Author.||Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 3: Tillandsia cossonii inflorescence.||FIG. 4: Floral bract trichomes of T. cossonii.|
ILLANDSIA COSSONII WAS described in 1887 by J. G. Baker, curator of the herbarium at Kew Gardens in England. In 1935, when Carl Mez of Germany published his final monograph on the Bromeliaceae, he had found no distinctions between this species and T. prodigiosa (Lemaire) Baker that would support its maintenance as a separate species. Since T. prodigiosa had been described in 1869, although as a species in the genus Vriesea, Mez reduced T. cossonii to a synonym of that species. Smith and Downs (1977) also lacked evidence to contradict Mez’s decision and, therefore, retained it as a synonym under T. prodigiosa.
During the winter of 1980, while collecting specimens of tillandsias in the Mexican state of Michoacan, we found a species that was new to us growing in a pine and oak forest at about 2,300 meters. The plants resembled T. prodigiosa but differed in having an erect inflorescence (fig. 3) in contrast with the pendulous inflorescence of T. prodigiosa.
Later, I had the opportunity to examine the type specimen for T. cossonii and found that while this specimen consists only of a fragment of the inflorescence, certain characters seemed to be in more agreement with our new plant than with T. prodigiosa. The character differences that could be determined from the dry material were more subtle than those found among the living specimens. For instance, the lower primary bracts are more strongly laminate (bearing leaf-like extensions) than occurs in T. prodigiosa. Another characteristic, which at first seemed to be very useful for distinguishing dried specimens, was the presence of a dense border of very large, silvery trichomes on the margins of the floral bracts (fig. 4). These trichomes are, unfortunately, easily knocked off a specimen during handling; therefore, their absence cannot be considered to be a key characteristic. The foliar trichomes were also found to differ significantly from those of T. prodigiosa (fig. 5), which have longer wing cells and a prominent “collar” or thickening at the union of the wing and the outer ring of cells. The trichomes of T. cossonii (fig. 6) are more nearly symmetrical. Our Michoacan specimens give support to the validity of T. cossonii as a species distinct from T. prodigiosa.
Large plants such as these cannot be preserved as whole specimens, but must be cut into pieces for drying and mounting. As a result, a typical good specimen will consist of a leaf or two and a portion of the inflorescence. Under these conditions, the posture of the inflorescence is difficult to determine unless a photograph, or comments regarding the plant’s habit, accompanies the specimen.
Tillandsia cossonii is an attractive plant of considerable ornamental value. It is not, however, adaptable to hot, low elevation climates.
|Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 5: Foliar trichomes of T. prodigiosa showing longer wing cells and the prominent "collar". Bar = 100 micrometers.|
|Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 6: Trichomes of T. cossonii illustrating their symmetry. Bar = 100 micrometers.|
Baker, J. G. 1889. Handbook of the Bromeliaceae. London. Reprint. Lehre: J. Cramer, 1972.
Mez, C. 1935. Bromeliaceae. In Das Pflanzenreich 4, 32.
Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs. 1977. Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae). New York: Published for Organization for Flora Neotropica by Hafner Press.
Corpus Christi, TX
ERE WE HAVE a new year, a new volume, new editors, and, to our surprise, a new printer and mailing service. The chief surprise of the season was the sale of the Kerr Printing Company, which had printed the Journal for the past many years. Now, we have returned to Robinsons Inc., the original printer of the Journal and hope that this tradition of long-lived association may continue.
You will find in this issue an exceptional amount of Society business because we need a formal method of keeping all members informed. We think that every journal needs an annual index not only to inform, but to give a feeling of continuity, and so we provide here Dr. Clyde F. Reed’s generously compiled index to volume 33. The annual membership card customarily mailed with the first issue of the year to all new and renewed members has been discontinued as an unnecessary expense. Your continued receipt of the Journal is evidence of membership. We suggest that you examine page 47 for a complete listing of Society officers and services.
You will also find that every article has been written by an honorary trustee, or by a director. We acknowledge with gratitude the gifts of Dr. Lyman B. Smith and others whose names we don’t know to support the expensive color pictures. We are grateful, indeed, to the few who have also sent in articles, which shall appear soon.
We ask the members to consider that they are not only the prime financial support, but also the prime source of authorship; that their individual interests are, in the main, the interests of all other members. These pages have room for all aspects of writing about bromeliads including scientific reports, collector’s reports, cultural information, special event calendars, and, even, politely and decorously conducted controversies. The greater the fund of contributions the greater the possibility that we may be able to develop regular departments to which readers may turn.
We shall be happy to read your reactions and we shall be even happier to receive you as authors.
NEW DIRECTORS, 1984-1986:
The Nominating Committee is pleased to announce the names of the 1984-1986 directors:
Paul T. Isley III
Tom J. Montgomery, Jr.
Hedi Guelz Roesler
HE 1984 WORLD Bromeliad Conference will be held at the Los Angeles Hilton and Towers Hotel on June 20-24 with preliminary work to be done on June 18-19. The Conference chairman, Paul T. Isley III, reports that interest in this biennial event is already rising and that registrations are arriving at a record rate. He has provided the following schedule of the Conference. Detailed information will be provided to the registrants.
|Monday–Wednesday, June 18-20: Set up. This period will be devoted to the installation of the Southern California Bromeliad Council display and the various affiliate displays.|
|Wednesday, June 20|
|9:00 A.M.||B.S.I. committee meetings.|
|9:00 A.M.||B.S.I.-sponsored judging school to be conducted by Valerie Steckler, B.S.I. Judges Certification Committee chairman.|
|11:00 A.M.||Meeting of B.S.I. Board of Directors and affiliate presidents.|
|12:00 Noon||B.S.I. Board of Directors meeting after lunch.|
|4:00–10:00 P.M.||Registration of plant entries for judging.|
|Thursday, June 21|
|7:00–9:00 A.M.||Final entries for the 1984 Bromelympics.|
|10:00 A.M.–5:30 P.M.||Judging of entries begins promptly at 10:00 A.M.|
|8:00 A.M.–1:00 P.M.||Commercial and club sales booths will be set up.|
|8:30 A.M.–1:30 P.M.||Bus tour for registrants to the Huntington Gardens, reported to be the largest and finest outdoor collection of cacti and succulents in the world, with many large specimens of xerographic and terrestrial bromeliads.|
|2:30–5:30 P.M.||Preview bromeliad plant sale for registrants only.|
|7:00 P.M.||Official opening of the Conference.|
|Friday, June 22|
|8:00 A.M.–12:00 Noon||Tours of selected gardens and nurseries.|
|8:00 A.M.–12:00 Noon||Show ballroom will be open for registrants.|
|10:00 A.M.–12:00 Noon||All sales open to registrants.|
|1:00 P.M.||Show and sales ballrooms open to the public.|
|1:00 P.M.–6:00 P.M.||Guest speaker series (for registrants).|
|7:30 P.M.||Social hour, followed by benefit auction for the Mulford B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens.|
|Saturday, June 23|
|8:00 A.M.–12:00 Noon||Tours of selected gardens and nurseries.|
|1:00 P.M.–6:00 P.M.||Guest speaker series.|
|7:00 P.M.||Cash bar, followed by the olympic theme awards and entertainment banquet.|
|Sunday, June 24||Enjoy visiting Los Angeles and Southern California. Post-conference tours begin on Monday.|
Valerie L. Steckler
HE JUDGES CERTIFICATION Committee will provide the Journal annually with an up-to-date list of internationally accredited bromeliad judges and student judges in good standing. We hope that this list will be a help to all show and judges chairmen in planning their bromeliad shows. Judges, please check the list carefully, and if there are any corrections needed, notify the committee.
At present, there are three registrars who take care of judges’ records, provide help to affiliates requiring assistance in obtaining judges, assist judges who need a show to judge, and provide answers to any inquiries concerning bromeliad judging schools or symposia. The registrars are:
3956 Minerva Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90066
4413 SW 38th Terrace
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312
Edgar Lee Smith
4415 Vandelia St.
Dallas, TX 75219
Affiliates should send their tentative show schedules and list of prospective judges, as well as their requirements for BSI entry tags, the Mulford B. Foster Best of Show award, and medallions to the Affiliates Shows Committee chairman, Vennie Dobson, 1026 Williams Ave., Natchitoches, LA 71457. Entry tags are still $35.00 per thousand.
Regions or affiliates needing help to organize bromeliad schools or symposia should contact the judges’ certification chairman, Valerie L. Steckler, 40 Oak Valley Court, Austin, TX 78736.
The Handbook has been revised and is being reprinted. Distribution will be made at the Los Angeles World Conference. The following changes were approved by the Board of Directors at the June meeting in Atlanta, Ga.:
1. Every world conference will offer a bromeliad judging school either before or after the conference to provide training for individuals who live in isolated areas where accredited judges are needed. Advance registration is required. The Los Angeles Conference is planning to hold its school on Wednesday, 20 June 1984. Persons interested should contact the CA-IL registrar.
2. Affiliates in each region should sponsor a symposium every year for judges’ continuing education. Judges are required to renew their certificates every three years and at-tending such symposia is one of the eligibility requirements. If unable to attend a symposium, a judge may request an extension of time by applying through his state registrar to the Judges Certification Committee.
3. The cost of medallions will remain at $6.00 each, but for the first time, the BSI will charge $15.00 for the Foster award. The fee for handling and mailing medallions, the Foster award, and entry tags is $5.00. If an affiliate’s request is received so close to the show date that special mailing is required, that cost also will be passed on to the affiliate.
4. All student judges will be required to pay $10.00 when they take their final examination. That fee is to cover the cost of record keeping, pins, and certificates. Similarly, all accredited judges will pay $5.00 at the time of certificate renewal.
5. Attempts to encourage hybridizers to register their hybrids have met with little success. Therefore, individuals are encouraged to register hybrids. If the hybridizer is known, he may be identified, but his permission is not required to register the hybrid. Individuals should follow the rules of registration and obtain the proper form from the hybrid registration chairman, Harry Luther, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 S. Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 33577.
6. For a hybrid to be eligible to earn the Foster award, it must be listed in the International Checklist of Bromeliad Hybrids, be subsequently registered by the hybrid registrar, or be listed by formula (parentage). This addition to the rule makes all unregistered hybrids eligible for the top award in the standard bromeliad show. Additionally, all medallion winners must meet the same criteria. Every show schedule must state this rule regarding the Foster award and the medallions rule (see Handbook page 4, item 7d). Further, an entry must be properly named (genus, species, variety or cultivar (if applicable), and score 95 or more points to earn a BSI medallion, or the Foster award.
7. The definition of the standard bromeliad show has been changed to state that the divisions listed on page 5 of the Handbook are now recommended instead of being required.
8. An affiliate must provide a judges division or section in which judges actively engaged in judging the show may compete for ribbons or judges’ trophies, but not for any major awards. This division or section must be listed in the show schedule. Judges must choose between judging the show and entering their plants in the judges division or section, or not judging and entering their plants in the general competition.
9. The show schedule must list the currently recommended scales of points to be used in all divisions as stated in the Handbook, or state that the scales of points to be used are those in the Handbook.
10. On the recommendation of the Committee, three Californians were grandfathered in as internationally accredited bromeliad judges. They are: Elmer Lorenz, Thelma O’Reilly, and Bill Paylen. Congratulations to all.
Please turn to page 31 for BSI Judge’s Directory.
W. W. G. Moir
N A SHORT, unpublished book on this subject, I have tried to explain how the factors of environment, time, and place (E.T.P.) control all things whether animate or inanimate. Since most of my examples have been in the Bromeliaceae, I would like to give you a view of how E.T.P. affects your favorite plants.
One has to realize that all matter was created first, but out of what no one really knows. It had to be hydrogen, the simplest element. The Big Bang theory of how everything was created starts with a cloud of dust and gas so it is, therefore, not the start. Scientists have not yet thought far enough back to make it clear how all this happened.
The most recent investigation of chloroplasts in leaves shows that the chlorophyll containing cells are bacteria-like organisms which, like several other parts of the same cell, are other organisms. At one time in history these joined together to work out a system of life from the elements created originally from hydrogen. Just which organisms got the job to decide the form they would present will never be known, but the template, or file, or card index, or dictionary as different scientists name them, got called the genes. Then, the genes became the ready reference in case the marvelous chemical system which these combined organisms set up (with the use of light for energy) forgot the form they should take.
Since the E.T.P. factor varies widely because of all the natural forces at work in the universe, the organism called a species will always be a collection of variants. If you see how nature works and do not listen to some man-made theory you will see how variable it is all around you; probably no species as variable as Homo sapiens.
Bromeliads, like all epiphytes, live only where moist air moves and where there is a degree of light appropriate for them. If you call this control natural selection then Darwinism has a better meaning. But, it is a case of take it or leave it for the organisms because they are only partially responsible for the environment. They act only in mass and together with other organisms to aid environment.
The word stress is the name of the mover of change. Luxury, the other extreme, is always the easy life and is in no way as important as stress. I shall try to tell you how to use stress for the accomplishment of new variants. But always remember that the cells have the drive to maintain form; their genes are not easy to change. How that form was decided a long time ago we really can only guess and your guess is as good as anyone else’s.
The bromeliads are probably the most willing plants to vary under stress. The aechmeas, nidulariums, and vrieseas are easiest to work with for results, but others are useful, too. These variants can come in different shapes, colors, and in flowers (yes, flowers). The variants in some species are often given species names while in some genera they are just given varietal names. This naming depends on how observant the collector is. Danger arises in changing the names to a single system since we now have learned how to recognize the form of each with their imperfectly assigned names, and know what is what, or do we?
Now, how do you use stress to get what you want? The crowding of plants of the same kind under adverse conditions or poor air movement, little water, and less light can do wonders with a variant of chantinii. Even constant cutting up of the plant into parts can do it, too, as can relocating to a new growing area of different conditions. If you start with a highly colored variant like ‘Ash Blonde’, the first reaction will be a green spot on the leaf. Then the spot will grow down the leaf to the stem, then show up in the next leaves, and, finally, will end up some months later with a new shoot or growth with silver banded design on light green like amazonica. Yes, there will be different leaves in width and breadth and flower head that go with this "species." Up the stem on the same rhizome can occur other variants also of less stressful type. You can have several. I doubt that this could be done in pot culture. You have to let these changes take place without disturbing the plant. You have to let this change reoccur in place for at least two new growths successively, or the plant will revert.
Another way of establishing differences is to plant sections of the same clone in very different locations. If Ae. orlandiana is planted in a very poor location where the sun is very stressful, the plant will barely survive. If it does keep going for two years or more, it shortens its leaves, becomes very compact and close to the growing medium. If the medium is not good the plant will lose considerable amounts of its green appearance and become whitish, but will still retain enough green to remain alive. With all of these changes it is still a variant of the same species. Then white lines will appear and become more numerous, and these plants will flower, but in reduced size of stem and flower head. The summer weather is hardest on the plants at this stage, but they still make their growths. We took some of these growths off the parent plants and grew them in pots. They retained their whiteness, but the green was a little brighter than I would have guessed. In our way of thinking, these plants have a more attractive appearance than ‘Ensign’ or other variegated Ae. orlandiana. The new growth in the pot plant is still the same as the mother plant except that some are reverting. With all of these changes it is still a variant of the same species.
If you grow Ae. caudata in crowded areas you soon get white striped variants, but these will disappear once more food is applied. There is a true variant of caudata that has shorter, wider leaves and this form maintains the variegation whether crowded or not. The only differences that can be seen are that some growths have wider stripes of white, sometimes. The flowers of this shorter growing variant are a little different in color and shape, but this plant, unlike the tall caudata that flowers every year, is reluctant to flower.
Nidularium innocentii variants are even more interesting as they have an even wider range of coloring. There are forms with deep red-purple coloring both top and bottom of the leaf, others, have the red-purple on the under side of the leaf and green on top. There are many differences in those that are green and white striped even to some plants that are almost all white. All of these variants can exist on one clump of plants.
In the vriesea genus, one can demonstrate the effect of E.T.P. on a single tree. In our garden, the seed of Vr. rodigasiana blew on to a very tall plumeria tree and germinated at different levels. The plants that grew at four feet above the ground grew the fastest while those at sixteen feet were exceedingly slow to develop. The higher up they were, the redder the foliage and the more compact the growth. The plants at the four-foot level flowered in about five years and have been flowering there ever since, but the little ones sixteen feet up the tree have not flowered yet. A couple of the middle level ones have bloomed this year. I can watch all this from my room which is about ten feet above the ground, so I look right into the midst of the plumeria.
We see so much of our garden from inside the house that it is easy to observe the daily changes and we receive great pleasure by living in the middle of it. A large bay window faces our windiest area and we thoroughly enjoy seeing how the plants in this special E.T.P. react. We purposely placed the dry-loving tillandsias in high, dry places. Tillandsia cyanea, we find, is adaptable to all sorts of conditions and likes lots of water. In fact, we are able to grow it as a bedding plant so long as it is on rough fiber, rocks, or cinders. We have hundreds of flowers on the cyanea for at least six months of the year. At any time of the year we can usually find one or two odd plants that are in bloom because of different environment. All the T. cyanea that we grow are from seed sent to us by Mulford Foster about twenty-five years or more ago.
In all my eighty years of plant study I have observed some really unbelievable variants both in color and shape. These changes do not occur unless the E.T.P. has changed and stress has brought about the changes. It bothers me to read of research work done on man-trained plants in conditions unlike native habitat. The results are controlled by the operator and could not be repeated out in nature. That is why I try hard to grow things in conditions as near their natural environment as possible.
An exception that I make to this rule is that I sometimes use Florel to stimulate flowering. We use only one application for the year in the spring, and only on those plants that do not flower readily. We had a large clump of Vr. flammea about two and one-half feet across that had never flowered, but after a thorough spraying with Florel it produced about sixty of the most wonderful spikes in bright red with small white flowers, as you can see in the picture (fig. 11). The spikes stood one and one-half feet above the low growth, and all of this on the top of a mound of tree fern logs and fiber.
My general conclusions are that you should be certain that air movement is maintained to all corners and crannies and that you know what each plant needs or what you want out of it in its place. Remember that white variegated leaved plants are a form of degeneration and need special care when they are up in the air and limited in luxury.
Bromeliads give a great deal of pleasure when their E.T.P. is right. The greatest single factor in the garden is how each planting helps the other. If only man could learn to be good neighbors like the plants.
|Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 11: Sixty bloom spikes of Vriesea flammea clump resulting from Florel treatment.|
BOUT FOURTEEN YEARS ago, Drew Schulz of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, collected a large quantity of Tillandsia ionantha near the city of Vera Cruz, Mexico. Nothing unusual appeared until 1971 when Drew was surprised to find a plant that turned bright yellow in the center and produced flowers with white petals (fig. 8), in contrast with the plant that blushes red and has violet flowers (the name ionantha refers to the color violet). One by one, more of the unusual yellow plants appeared in that original group until six were found. Those six were given lots of tender loving care.
The cultivar name, 'Druid' was selected to give an aura of mystery, while incorporating the collector’s name.
When not in bloom, T. ionantha 'Druid' looks like the common ionantha: it is a miniature rosette, only two-three inches tall, and the leaves are covered with silvery scales. It should be mounted, not potted, and can be grown in shady to nearly full sun locations. Spring is the usual blooming time.
While Tillandsia ionantha has many different sizes and shapes, few tillandsias in bloom command more admiration. Now, T. ionantha 'Druid' joins this variety-filled group and introduces a strikingly different color. Nature is full of surprises!
|Photo by Martin Robertson.|
|FIG. 8: T. ionantha 'Druid' displaying its bright yellow coloration.|
Carol M. Johnson
T ONE OF our judging school classes, Valerie S. said with a shudder, "There are those who think it is great fun to go to a strange country, slog around in mud, be chased by snakes and bugs, get lost, and succumb to dysentery from the water. Not me, I’ll get my bromeliads from a nurseryman or by mail, thank you very much." Me? I live for and do without many things just to be able to suffer all of those deprivations. To be sure, it is a strenuous vacation at best and the bromeliads look terrible in the wild. They are filled with debris, chewed on and inhabited by insects and miscellaneous varmints, and most generally are out of reach. It is difficult to keep one’s eyes on the trees and the feet at the same time, resulting in some sloppy falls. Your warmest welcome will come from the chiggers, ants, and ticks; ants especially, and mostly the stinging kind. The snakes everyone worries about have so far been no problem. With all that, nothing can compare with the joy of collecting your own plants, carrying them home and seeing them pretty up. And, who knows, there might be a new species among them.
A collecting trip is not just a matter of making a plane reservation and saying "bye-bye". It is best to research the plant restrictions imposed by the various Latin and Caribbean countries (and also the political situation). Mexico and Brazil, for example, no longer allow indiscriminate collecting, or even casual collecting. After you have decided where to go, ascertain what plants grow there. Are they worth the trip? Next, find out when the dry season is. We collected in Costa Rica and Dominica in the rainy season, and it was miserable. For us, however, it was then or never.
If you would prefer to order plants by mail after thinking about these warnings, it is fairly easy to do so. In either case you must have an import permit. This permit is issued free upon application to: U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Plant Protection & Quarantine Program. Federal Building, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Allow several weeks for receipt of the permit. With your permit you will receive information regarding the provisions of the Endangered Species Convention Regulations, including a list of plant genera not prohibited or subject to post-entry quarantine. There will also be a list of restricted items. There is a good deal of paper work, and often complete frustration, involved in bringing in restricted list plants. Detailed information about restricted list permits and documentation may be obtained from: Chief, Wildlife Permit Office, U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, U. S. Dept. of the Interior. 1717 H. St., NW, Washington, D. C. 20240. Please note that the Endangered Species Convention (ESC) is not administered by the USDA as your plant import permit is, and those documentation requirements are separate and distinct. Bromeliads are not on the restricted list, but orchids definitely are—all species. In the early days of ESC, thousands and thousands of orchids perished in Miami and other entry points through the ignorance of the importer as to the documentation requirements.
Upon your arrival at the port of entry, you must declare your plants and pass them through the U. S. Customs, and you must make arrangements to have them transported to the USDA Inspection Station by a customs broker (at your expense). Not many years ago, it was possible to transport one’s own plants from the customs dock to USDA, but then someone skipped on by and carried plants right on home and USDA clamped down. At the inspection station your plants will be carefully inspected, one by one, for IAB’s (illegal alien bugs) and disease (rust and fungus, usually). One bad bug can result in the methyl-bromide fumigation of all of your plants. Clean the plants in the field, not once, but many times, before packing them for the trip home. Bring them home as dry as possible because wet plants do not do well if they must be fumigated. It is a good idea to put all of the plants that you are worried about in one box and bring in several boxes. Out of four boxes, for example, the inspector may pass three and fumigate one. The inspectors are very conscientious: don’t argue with them. My advice is: don’t leave the port of entry without your plants. Do not plan to arrive on Friday or a weekend. It takes time to get the plants from the airport to USDA and time to inspect and/or fumigate them. Nothing gets done between 5 P.M. Friday and opening time on Monday morning. Be advised.
All of the foregoing sounds terribly complicated, doesn’t it? If you speak Spanish and are a seasoned traveler, you will probably have no trouble. If not, plan to join a group where all the paper work is included in the cost of the trip. We went with Fred Fuchs to Honduras and to Peru. Group travel is the most satisfactory of all arrangements, and besides, there is the pleasure of the company of other plant collectors.
So far, we have considered mainly plants. How about yourself? You will have to get your body back and forth, and about, also. Consider the following:
- A passport. Some countries,
mainly Central American, don’t require one, but try to get a traveler’s check
cashed without one. The cost is $42.00 plus the required two photos. All South
American countries require a passport.
- Immunization. Get specific
information from your local health department. All of South America requires
yellow fever immunization and preventive malaria medication. There has been an
outbreak of polio in the Caribbean, so they now require polio immunization.
- The only 100 percent sure way
to prevent diarrhea while you are away is not to eat or drink anything, but
that procedure makes the cure worse than the disease and infinitely more permanent.
Your doctor can prescribe medicine to take with you. Don’t neglect this. It is
no joke and could ruin your trip.
- Clothing. Take old clothing
that can be discarded and replaced by the souvenirs that you buy. But, remember
to respect the traditions of the country where you will be a guest and to dress
accordingly. Always carry a raincoat and rubber boots.
- Food. If you are a snacker,
or are worried about the foreign food, better carry your snacks with you.
Whatever you carry, be sure that it is tightly packaged, is lightweight, and
not liable to melting.
- Camera, film, reference
books, radio-tape recorder, cassettes. How else will you prove that you were
there? Do not assume there will be electricity where you go. Even if there is,
find out the voltage before you blow up your electric razor or hair dryer with
- Insurance. Be sure that your
regular policy (life and health) covers you when away from the U.S. and also
during air travel. If not, it is possible to buy trip insurance. Some credit
card memberships (American Express, for one) include automatic insurance
coverage if you purchase your ticket with the card.
- Money. The U. S. dollar goes
a long way in most places. Your newspaper lists exchange rates. On arrival,
exchange your dollars for some local money as soon as possible.
- Duty free on departure.
Purchases made in a duty-free shop (liquor, cigarettes, gifts, etc.) at the
airport will be put on your flight to be delivered to you after takeoff. Have a
|Photo by Nelson Redfern.|
FIG. 7: Habitat photograph of
the happy collector:|
"The blood is real."
Bulletins Q-37-2, Q-37-4, Q-37-6, USDA. Plant Protection & Quarantine Programs. Hyattsville, MD.
Isley, Paul T. III. "Changing the Federal Policy of Gassing Bromeliads at U.S. Ports of Entry." Journal of the Bromeliad Society 30, no. 4 (July-Aug. 1980): 179-180.
Kinish, D. R. "About the Endangered Species Act." JBS 30, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1980): 195-196. "Know Before You Go." U. S. Customs Bureau, Washington, D. C.
Rauh, W. 1979. Bromeliads for Home, Garden, and Greenhouse. Poole, Dorset: Blandford Press.
Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs. 1974-1979. Flora neotropica. Monograph no. 14, parts 1-3.
Your bank balance.
Reprinted from the Florida Council of Bromeliad Societies Quarterly Newsletter, vol. 3, no. 2., May 1983.
Paul T. Isley III
|FIG. 12: A small section of Fred Lenert’s collection to be seen by World Conference members.|
|FIG. 13: Integrated plantings of bromeliads with orchids, ferns, and cycads by Pat Gotcher.|
US TOURS TO selected gardens and nurseries in the Los Angeles area will be available to Conference registrants on both Friday and Saturday, June 22d and 23d. Included in the itinerary are the homes of Fred Lenert, Bill Paylen, Pat Gotcher, and two nurseries, Fuchsia Land, and Rainforest Flora. The following condensed descriptions should give those already registered and those making up their minds an idea of what they will see.
Fred Lenert lives in Santa Monica, close to the ocean where the moderating air temperature and humidity help to create ideal growing conditions. His extensive cactus and succulent collection is one of the best. He has won numerous trophies during the past two years with a broad range of plants of many kinds, but his strongpoint is his outstanding tillandsia collection numbering more than 200 species. Most of his bromeliads are grown under shade cloth (fig. 12), but some are housed in his orchid greenhouse.
Bill Paylen is probably the most knowledgeable plantsman in all of Southern California. In spite of his landscaping business and participation in many other activities related to horticulture, he has been able to create a magnificent garden. Two enormous sycamore trees covered with an array of plants dominate this garden. On the south side of his home you can see what tillandsias look like after growing for twenty years: thousands of seedlings that have germinated and are growing everywhere. Bill has been a member of the Bromeliad Society for over twenty years and was a member of the Board of Directors for many of those years.
The third garden is Pat Gotcher’s. He has been working with bromeliads for the past five years and in that time has relandscaped his front and back yards integrating bromeliads with orchids, ferns, and cycads. His plants are arranged in a setting of brick, railroad ties, and stained glass windows of his own design and manufacture. Since much of that work has been done in the last few years it makes a fresh appearance and provides encouragement for others interested in landscaping (fig. 13).
Fuchsia Land is the oldest bromeliad nursery in Los Angeles and is known especially for having bromeliad, and particularly, tillandsia, clumps that are unequalled in size and beauty. Mike and Jean Kashkin have collected plants during the past twenty years, travelling to Latin American by truck and gathering great numbers of unusual species. In addition to bromeliads they have in their unusually large and varied collection specimen ferns, begonias, and other plants.
The second nursery on the tour is Rainforest Flora, located on two acres very close to the Airport Hilton. While Rainforest Flora is primarily a wholesale nursery known for grapewood-mounted tillandsias, it also operates a retail business with large stocks of both tillandsias and neoregelias. The nursery will have available for the Conference newly released Carl Lambert neo hybrids.
Los Angeles, CA
HE HEIDELBERG BOTANICAL Garden Specimen of Pitcairnia corallina has recently flowered. It is really a beautiful and, at the same time, most curious species. The original diagnosis is very short and can be expanded as follows:
Plant with short, up to 10 cm. long, thick stems, branching from the base so that the plant forms dense bushes up to 30 cm. high. Leaves are dimorphic; the outer ones ovate-acute, up to 15 cm. long, soon dying off and enveloping the stems; rosette-leaves few (up to 6 per rosette) up to 45 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide, canaliculate, beneath brown-woolly, spiny petiole; the spines are black, curved down; the blades are lanceolate, up to 100 cm. long, 12 cm. wide, long attenuate, strongly plicate, glabrous and dark green above, densely and fine white lepidote beneath. Inflorescence simple, dense, many-flowered, trailing on the ground, up to 25 cm. long. Scape round, 1 cm. thick, bright carmine red, densely white woolly, at first (about 10-20 cm.) erect, then sharply turning down. Rhachis angled through the bases of the bracts; these are narrow-lanceolate, up to 2.5 cm. long, very soon drying off, as long or longer than the 0.7-1 cm. long, red pedicels. Flowers at anthesis erect, strongly zygomorphic; sepals straight, up to 2.5 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, subtriangular, bright red. Petals up to 7 cm. long, bright red with a narrow white margin, at the base with 1 cm.-long ligulae. Stamens with white filaments and yellow anthers slightly shorter than the petals. Style with red stigma a little longer than the anthers. Ovary about half superior; ovules and seeds winged [subgenus Pepinia (Brogn. and Andre) Baker]. Our plant, Botanical Garden number 26 774, was collected in northwestern Peru, near Tarapoto, Dept. of San Martin. The area of the var. corallina is Colombia, northeastern Peru, and northwestern Brazil.
There is another known variety: Var. viridis L. B. Smith, which has very narrow leaves and yellow-green inflorescences. It is known only from the Rio Vaupes (240 m. altitude), Colombia.
Photo by Author.
FIG. 9: Pitcairnia corallina var. corallina.
Photo by Author.|
FIG. 10: P. corallina var. corallina inflorescence.
and Student Judges in Good Standing
October 31, 1983
|CALIFORNIA – ILLINOIS|
Paylen, William R.
Isley, Paul T. III
551 Hawthorne Court
Los Altos, CA 94022
Myers, Owana Jo
|FLORIDA — GEORGIA|
Allen, Craig M.
13191 S.W. 82nd Ave.
Miami, FL 33156
Barbie, John P.
Chirnside, Vicky Lee
Elmore, James V.
Fairchild, B. Dean
Frazel, Maureen S.
Frazel, William E.
Johnson, Carol M.
Lineham, Thomas U.
Loerke, Virginia A.
McMillan Stan D.
433 Cypress Lane
Lake Worth, FL 33460
Pearl, Marjorie A.
Peyton, Ellen Jay
Quilhot, Hazel H.
Steinmetz, Nancy L.
Thompson, James III
Wood, J. Brian
Wurthmann, Ervin J.
Yetkow, Barbara A.
|FLORIDA — GEORGIA STUDENT JUDGES|
Rt. 3 Box 737
Dover, FL 33527
Mullins, Dr. Stephen
2883 Florence Dr.
Columbus, GA 31907
|LOUISIANA — OKLAHOMA — TEXAS|
4513 Birdwell Lane
Bossier City, LA 71111
Baham, Robbi A.
DiGiovanni, Allen R.
Jones, Sara Lee
Lincoln, Mary Jane
Marshall, V. G.
Miller, Dr. Robert L.|
4700 St. Roch Ave.
New Orleans, LA 70122
Montgomery, Dr. Tom
Nunn, Jo Ann
Ross, Fred B.
Steckler, Valerie L.
Webb, H K
|LOUISIANA — OKLAHOMA — TEXAS STUDENT JUDGES|
Calamari, Timothy A. Jr.
1016 Rosa Ave.
Metarie, LA 70005
406 Witcher Lane
Houston, TX 77076
The purpose of this nonprofit corporation is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of Bromeliaceae, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world. You are invited to join.
Vice President – Edgar Smith, 4415 Vandelia St., Dallas, TX 75219.
Corresponding Secretary – Owana Jo Myers, 14895 Garden Hill Dr., La Mirada, CA 90638.
Recording Secretary – Connie Johnson, 13075 SW 60th Ave., Miami, FL 33156.
(Regions represented are shown in italics)
1983-1985: David Benzing, At-large, Connie Johnson, Florida, Ron Lucibell, Outer, Valerie L. Steckler, At-large.
1984-1986: George Anderson, At-large, Chet Blackburn, California, Jack Grubb, Louisiana, Paul T. Isley III, California, Carol M. Johnson, Florida, Hedi Guelz Roesler, Outer, Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., Texas, H. W. Wiedman, At-large.
|Photo by Don Beadle.|
|March 30-April 1||Southwest Bromeliad Guild, Corpus Christi, TX.|
|April 13-15||Bromeliad Guild of Tampa Bay, Tampa, FL. Eastlake Square Mall, Hillsborough Ave. and 56th St.|
|May 5-6||Tarrant County Bromeliad Society, Fort Worth, TX.|
|May 12-13||Bromeliad Society/Houston, Inc.|
|May 19-20||Bromeliad Society of South Florida, Miami.|
|May 26-27||Great Dallas-Fort Worth Bromeliad Society, Dallas, TX.|
Please consult the BSI Directory for the names and addresses of society representatives.