BSI Journal - Online Archive

Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Copyright 1984 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

Vol. 34, No. 2March—April 1984

Editors: Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., Edward C. Hall.
Editorial Advisory Board: Eloise Beach, David Benzing, Racine Foster, Sue Gardner, Victoria Padilla, Robert W. Read, Edgar Smith, John F. Utley.

Cover photographs (front and back)
Vriesea didistichoides (front cover), Tillandsia didisticha (back cover). See page 73 for descriptions. Photographs by Werner Rauh.
CONTENTS
51Who’s Where, What’s Going On? Linda Harbert
52Morren’s Paintings, 2 Lyman B. Smith
54A New Miniature Tillandsia from Bolivia: Tillandsia comarapaensis Harry E. Luther
56Earth Stars among the Bromeliads Mulford B. Foster
59Some Recommendations for Growing Cryptanthus Herbert Plever, Frank Lowery, Jr., and Cornelius Colin
62A New Natural Hybrid of Tillandsia Sue Gardner
64Bromeliad Frogs of Puerto Rico Juan A. Rivero
68Review: Bromeliaceae Andreanae Werner Rauh
70Tillandsia kautskyi Werner Rauh
72Bromelympics and Counting (Continued) Paul T. Isley III
73Vriesea didistichoides Werner Rauh
74Imperial Majesty: Vriesea imperialis Grace Goode
77Getting Started Claire Vieira
78New on the Scene: Neoregelia marcelli Carol M. Johnson
79Billbergia pyramidalis var. lutea Elton M. C. Leme and Wilhelm Weber
81Raising Bromeliads from Seed Diane E. Pippin

The Journal, ISSN 0090-8738, is published bimonthly at Orlando, FL by the Bromeliad Society, Inc. Subscription price is included in the annual membership dues: Single — $15.00; double (two members at one address receiving one Journal) — $20.00; contributing — $20.00; fellowship — $30.00; life — $750.00. Please add $5.00 for foreign mailing except for life members. Individual copies are $2.50. Memberships begin with January of the current year. Funds over $15.00 from contributing and fellowship members help to pay the cost of Journal color illustrations.

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Permission is granted to reprint articles from the Journal, in whole or in part, when credit is given to the author and to the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

Printed by: Robinsons Inc., Orlando, FL


Who’s Where, What’s Going On
Linda Harbert, BSI Membership Committee Chairman

EING ABSOLUTELY AWARE that you joined the Bromeliad Society to learn about bromeliads and that statistics and percentages are not entertaining, bear with me for the good of the Society while I talk about the genuine need for membership renewals and for new members.

The more members there are, the odds are, the more contributors we will have for articles for the Journal, for stimulating programs, and for people to maintain the organization that provides all of this. Of course you’ve paid your dues for 1984, so why tell you? Who gets new members? Old members! If only one of every five of us gets one new member we could increase by hundreds. That one new member might write the article that you will enjoy the most, or contribute slides to our growing slide library that’s available to all members.

As of the fifteenth of January, forty-five percent of the members had not renewed. Surely, by March when you will be reading this, that percentage will have improved. Among the regions, California has the best record to date for renewals and new members with seventy-seven percent. Texans are going for the double membership recognizing a good deal and a way to say with pride: “I am a member.” Is your society a paid-up member of the BSI? As an affiliate, it should be.

Do the members know that fifty-one countries are represented in the Society and that one-quarter of the membership is from outside the United States?

Please make good use of the enclosed membership form. Give it to a friend, take it, or mail it with a letter, to a botanical garden, a garden center, or a nearby university or public library and suggest that they join. Take a sample copy of the Journal along.

Announce in your newsletters and at meetings that BSI membership is available. Some societies have printed the membership form in their newsletters, or have collected the dues at their meetings and the treasurer has sent them in. Both are effective methods.

Please use my address for all membership matters. You may have more membership forms for the asking. Our combined efforts will make the Society flourish.

2488 E. 49th Tulsa, OK 74105


Morren’s Paintings, 2
Lyman B. Smith

GAIN I AM SHOWING two species of Neoregelia and again they have a very different history. The only record of Neoregelia leucophoea (fig. 1) is Morren’s painting and since the plant may have come from the rainforest within the city of Rio de Janeiro and as that area is steadily shrinking the species may be extinct. However, I have a hunch that it can be found in a reservation above the Rio Botanical Garden. It is called Vista Chineza and the particular spot is the Mesa do Imperador or the emperor’s table where old Dom Pedro Segundo used to picnic and enjoy the view. It was there at the foot of a very tall tree that I found the rotting remains of a neoregelia with very large sepals and those of leucophoea are the largest in the genus.

Photo by Author.
FIG. 1: Neoregelia leucophoea. Painting by C.J.E. Morren.

Photo by Author.
FIG. 2: Neoregelia concentrica (called Karatas acanthocrater). Painting by C.J.E. Morren.

The second species is Neoregelia concentrica, or what Morren called Karatas acanthocrater (fig. 2). This is the granddaddy of all neoregelias having been described by Vellozo in 1825 as a tillandsia and later illustrated by a crude but unmistakable plate. Morren’s plant was obviously a shade form with pale leaves and few dark spots, but the black margin and coarse spines are typical. The typical form has large nearly black spots in infinitely varied patterns as I have seen it growing on bare rock in the park in Teresopolis in the Organ Mountains above Rio and again in Ralph Davis’s garden in Miami. It is in no danger of extinction.

Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C.


A New Miniature Tillandsia From Bolivia: Tillandsia comarapaensis
Harry E. Luther

DIDISTICHA (E. MORR.) BAKER affinis et similis sed bracteis florigeris longioribus et petalis caesiis differt.

Plant stemless, flowering to 15 cm high; leaves many, densely covered with coarse cinerous scales; sheaths obscure, glabrous toward the extreme base, ca. 1.2 cm wide; blades narrowly triangular, attenuate, rigid, channeled, 5-12 cm long, 5-10 mm wide. Scape erect, 2-3 mm in diameter; scape bracts densely imbricate, foliaceous below becoming triangular above, densely cinerous lepidote; primary bracts like the upper scape bracts, exposing nearly all of each branch; in-florescence densely digitate with 5-7 lateral branches (rarely with 1 lateral branch); spikes erect to slightly spreading, narrowly lanceolate, 2-3.5 cm long, 3-7 flowered with 1-3 sterile bracts at the base; floral bracts imbricate and concealing the rhachis when living, slightly spreading when dried, elliptic, acute, 14-16 mm long, exceeding the sepals, somewhat carinate apically, densely adpressed lepidote, green or pale rose when living, but the color mostly obscured by the trichomes; sepals elliptic, acuminate, 11-12 mm long, posteriorly carinate and ca. 1/3 connate, thin, lepidote along the midvein; petals 15-18 mm long, blades spreading, lavender-blue; stamens and pistil included; filaments plicate toward the apex; capsules to 28 mm long.

FIG. 3: Tillandsia comarapaensis. Drawing by Barbara N. Culbertson.

TYPE: Bolivia: Dpto. Santa Cruz: Prov. Caballero: vic. of Comarapa, 1850 m alt. Dry thorn scrub. 18 Jan. 1983, L. Besse, C. & J. Luer, R. Vasquez 1713 (Holotype: SEL).

Additional material examined: living plants from the type collection flowered in cultivation under SEL accession #83-21, July 1983, photo.

Tillandsia comarapaensis Luther sp. nov. (fig. 3) is similar to T. didisticha (E. Mon.) Baker and at first was thought to be a depauperate form, but the shorter, digitate, bipinnate inflorescence, slightly longer floral bracts and lavender-blue (not white) petal blades serve to distinguish it. This new species superficially resembles a small form of T. latifolia Meyen of subgenus Allardtia, but the plicate filaments confirm its placement in subg. Anoplophytum.

The heavy fruit set of the type strongly supports the status of this taxon as a fertile, outcrossing species and not a chance hybrid of Tillandsia didisticha and a blue- or violet-flowered species. The living plants from the type collection have not set seed under controlled greenhouse conditions.

Tillandsia comarapaensis presents no special difficulties in cultivation if given a bright, airy position with controlled watering. Conditions suiting T. tenuifolia, T. streptocarpa and T. vernicosa would suffice.

Sarasota, FL


Earth Stars Among The Bromeliads
Mulford B. Foster

OSSIBLY BECAUSE THERE IS something very romantic about stars, whether they be in the heavens in their own galaxy, or whether they are commemorating some great event; whether they may be on the floor of the sea, or perhaps stars on the face of the earth such as our lovely star-like rosettes of the genus Cryptanthus, they are all romantic and should be universally acclaimed.

To suddenly come upon a carpet of leaf mulch studded with quaint star-like plants, i.e., a colony of cryptanthus species, is to feel the thrill of viewing a galaxy of stars, earth stars this time instead of celestial ones.

This could be your experience when searching through a semi-dry dwarf forest in the eastern part of Central Brazil. In our explorations there we found them in a range of localities, in shade and sun, in moist and dry areas, coastal and hinterland, principally in the states of Espirito Santo, Baia, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco in all shapes and sizes, banded and striped, variegated and solid colors ... all intriguing and with an equal range of variety in color and form.

One has gaily colored leaves with stripes of pink, green and brown and crinkled edges as in C. bivittatus. Or we may chance upon C. lacerdae, very precise and symmetrical, its lovely green pointed leaves with a bright silver band running down the center. So well designed in formal lines that they look “custom made.”

Cryptanthus zonatus, however, with its asymmetrical shape and “permanent wave” leaf, carries the informal cross bands zoned in gray over brown and green. The leaves as well as the bands undulate with all the dazzle of a zebra racing across the veldt. Some will say that it is as beautiful as a snake, others are reminded of the pheasant’s feathers, but almost universal is the feeling that this weirdly beautiful plant in your living room would start a conversation on any occasion.

The new species C. fosterianus, described in this issue, is a sophisticated cousin of C. zonatus. Stiff, thick, formal leaves of deep magenta that are barred with precise though informal waves of contrasting gray bands, this new addition to the Earth Stars’ galaxy stands out as one of the first magnitude.

As a stud plant this new species has been proven to have introduced the finest blood for hybrids yet found. In combination with some of the older species and in some of the unpublished ones as well, has been produced the most unusual set of unnamed hybrids that is to be seen in the entire family of bromeliads, for the leaf color range is not to be found in any other genus. In hybridizing we can make predictions by the stars!

And, these earth stars can shine right in your own home as they make ideal house plants, taking neglect and the shade or sun of a room, remarkably well. Their low stature very much finds an appropriate niche on a low table in the living quarters. Their long endurance under adverse conditions of neglect makes them truly an amazing plant. Although they lose some of their best coloration when they are asked to come inside and sit on a table for a few months, they never lose the design or pattern of their markings.

The lowly Cryptanthus earth stars have never reached the branches of the trees like their cousins the Tillandsias. They do not have the brilliant flower spikes of the Vrieseas nor the giant stature of the Puya Raimondii but they deserve acclaim and certainly receive it as the lover of beauty in plants bows down his head to look upon their decorative beauty.

Botanically, the genus Cryptanthus was named by Klotzch, and was first published in the famous German Gartenzeitung in 1836. Analyzing the meaning of the parts of the word we find that Crypt means “hidden” and anthus means “flower” which indicates that the genus characteristic is that the flowers are inconspicuous.

Horticulturally, the earliest record of a Cryptanthus having been introduced into horticulture apparently was when Mrs. Arnold Harrison of Liverpool introduced Cryptanthus undulatus in 1827. Later in 1831 Mr. Sello introduced into cultivation Cryptanthus bromelioides. In 1859 C. bivittatus (the most popular today) was introduced at Kew Gardens and it first flowered there in 1861. This species has been sold commercially for many years as C. rosea-picta and to this day is known under that synonym. Then from 1855 to 1891 the most of the balance of the known species were found and introduced into horticulture. One of the most striking of all the species is C. zonatus; this has been commonly called C. zebrina in horticulture. It was first introduced by Mr. Quesnel from Pernambuco, Brasil, to the Paris Garden about 1842; it created quite a sensation when it was first exhibited and it has not lost any of its glamour to this date, one hundred and ten years later.

Mez, in his last monograph of the bromeliads (Das Pflanzenreich, 1935), recognized twelve species. At least eight of these species with four varieties are represented in the writer’s collection.

In 1939 I found a new species called Cryptanthus bahianus in the state of Bahia, Brazil in the highlands, an area called caatinga which is similar to a mesquite. This was quite a surprise because practically all of the known cryptanthus species had been found in shaded, semi-dry locations. My next new species was Cryptanthus maritimus. This was quite different from the other known species as it has long grass-like leaves and was growing in wooded areas. My third new species was C. pseudoscaposus. This was growing on rocky ledges in moist, shaded conditions and has a character quite unlike any of the members of the genus for its flower head rises up from the leaf rosette on a thick scape-like member. My fourth new species was C. incrassatus and my fifth, discovered that same year, will be published in the near future.

FIG. 4: Cryptanthus zonatus. Drawing by Sigrid Lohss

In 1948 I discovered a few more members of this interesting genus, one of which is described, for the first time, in this issue, C. fosterianus. While this new species resembles, in its markings, the well-known C. zonatus, it is very easily distinguished, not only from its floral parts but by the deep magenta coloring and exceptionally long, thick succulent leaves. One of the first plants I brought back measured thirty-two inches from tip to tip of the leaves when it was fully matured. This species is distinguished by having the greatest number of seeds in each fruit; also the seeds are smaller than any of the other species I have examined with the exception of C. schwackeanus. The other extreme in seed size is C. beuckeri the fruits of which contain but three or four seeds to each fruit. They are not only the largest seeds of any Cryptanthus but they are as large if not larger than any seeds in the entire family of Bromeliaceae.

In 1949 I first found that the flowers of a Cryptanthus are not all perfect flowers. The past descriptions of the genus have been “flores, hermaphroditi,” in fact, all of the flowers of the bromeliad family are supposed to be such; perfect flowers with both male and female parts. When I first started hybridizing these interesting species I found that the little cluster of flowers in the center of the rosettes were practically always imperfect or male flowers and the flowers that appeared among the leaf bracts below the center cluster were perfect flowers; these generally appeared after all of the male flowers above had finished blooming. This meant that daily observation must be made both as to when the perfect flowers were in bloom and also the hour when the pistil was receptive to pollination. To date I have more than twenty successful hybrids in this genus; they make a most unusual array both in form and exquisite leaf coloring.

From the general appearance, a Cryptanthus plant seems to be rather distant in its family relationship from a Billbergia, yet, several bi-generic hybrids have been made by crossing those two genera. It is believed that the first bi-generic cross was made by Theodore L. Mead when he succeeded in hybridizing C. beuckeri with Billbergia nutans. Since that time the writer has crossed C. bahianus with B. nutans, also C. maritimus with B. amoena. Other attempts at crossing these two genera have not been very successful; this remains an open field for experimentation and it is hoped that we will find additional species which will cross successfully. Whether placed in first rank among groups of other plants in planter arrangements or as individual plant specimens, there is a great future for many of these new species and hybrids.

 

Reprinted from The Bromeliad Society Bulletin Vol. 2 No. 6 November-December 1952. 67


Some Recommendations For Growing Cryptanthus

[These observations and recommendations have been adapted from articles in Bromeliana (the New York Bromeliad Society) by Herb Plever and by Frank Lowery, Jr. The editor is also grateful to Cornelius Colin of Apopka, FL, for his advice on fertilizing and a planting mix. Herb Plever begins the article.]

N THE COURSE of making up the current cryptanthus order for our Society members I note the acceleration of a disturbing trend: bromeliad growers in large numbers are refraining from buying cryptanthus, and most bromeliad nurseries, especially in the South, are not stocking cryptanthus for sale.

Growers with greenhouses predominate in the group not ordering cryptanthus. Among those purchasing these plants, in our current order for instance, only one has a greenhouse. The number of indoor growers who have ordered cryptanthus is far fewer than the number ordering other genera, or even the number who ordered cryptanthus in other years. I have checked with our members and with growers around the country and find that the reason for this negative attitude is not aesthetic. It is conceded by most that cryptanthus are beautiful plants. Most growers complain that their cryptanthus just don’t grow well in the house, lath-house, or indoors so they have stopped buying new plants. As a result of this drying up of demand, there are only one or two nurseries left in the country with a decent selection and supply.

Are cryptanthus really difficult to grow? The answer may depend on the particular species or hybrid involved, and on where and how you grow them. During the many years that bromeliads have been grown in protected surroundings, a considerable body of cultural lore and experience has been acquired. Yet, misconceptions about cryptanthus have gained wide-spread acceptance, and these may account, in part, for the growing problems that people have with this genus.

Natural Growing Conditions

Cryptanthus have been reputed to be low-light terrestrials growing on the shaded forest floor and needing the highest humidity. For this reason they are supposed to like the dank conditions of a terrarium. When you look, however, at the literature describing the growing conditions in Brazil, for example, you are surprised to note the diversity of their environments.

Most cryptanthus are saxicolous or terrestrial. A few like C. glazioui are xerophytic, growing very dry at an altitude of about 4,500 feet. A number of the terrestrials, such as C. bahianus, grow in dry thickets, and species which normally grow on the forest floor at sea level don’t grow in the moist humus, but on rocks. C. sinuosus, for example. C. zonatus is a forest terrestrial, but C. pickelii and C. fosterianus are found in the forest as both terrestrials and rock growers. The latter (saxicolous) aspect of the cryptanthus has not been stressed in the literature and growers appear generally unaware of its significance. Believing these plants to be forest floor terrestrials, they have been growing them wet in heavy media including a lot of soil and humus. You hear greenhouse growers boasting that they grow all of their cryptanthus under the benches. We should have suspected that this perception was inaccurate because the usually shallow root structure is more consistent with an open, drier environment than with a rich, humusy soil.

Particularized Culture

Some of us who have grown cryptanthus for a long time found out years ago that general cultural literature on bromeliads was useless for our environments. By trial and error (and a lot of dead plants) we had to create a new cultural lore suitable for indoor growing. We will now have to develop a more particularized cryptanthus culture for each different environment — the greenhouse, the lath-house, the windowsill, and the fluorescent light garden. We will also have to learn to adjust these rules to the more particular needs of individual species just as we have been doing for our other bromeliads.

Avoidance of Fungus

These beautiful earth stars grow so flat that their lower leaves touch, or almost touch, the medium. They are thus extra vulnerable to the development of fungus on the medium and at the base of the plant. Since cryptanthus do not form a tight cup and, therefore, hold little water, there is the conflict between having to provide enough water for their needs and, at the same time, preventing the development of fungus. Clearly, the regular use of a fungicide such as Physan 20 or Benlate is indicated.

Cleanliness

[Here Frank Lowery takes over.] Although cryptanthus have tough leaves, you may find mealy bugs and scale hidden in the leaf axils, under the leaves, or at the base. If they are found, clean each leaf with a cotton swab and alcohol. Push a cloth into the top of the pot to retain the medium and place the plant sideways under the tap letting tepid water flood the leaves to clean them of dust, dirt, and some insects. The plant will really perk up and look much better if you give it a sink shower routinely every month or two, year round.

If necessary, spray with your favorite plant insecticide. You should, of course, follow up with a second spraying a week or so later to get rid of any newly hatched pests from eggs that might have been missed the first time.

Feeding

Fertilize very little during the winter, perhaps once or twice, very lightly using a weak solution of water-soluble fertilizer such as Peters 20-10-20. On warm days you can mix a little fish emulsion in the water when you mist. Fish emulsion is an excellent fertilizer and it will give the plants a midwinter lift (but open the windows for a few minutes).

Protection from the Cold

Despite their reputation for being sensitive to cold, cryptanthus can stand temperatures low enough that thin ice can form on the drain trays, but only for a short time. The temperature should be kept to at least the mid-60°F range, if possible, for regular growth.

A Potting Mix, and a Conclusion

Cornelius Colin, a wholesale grower, admits that prescribing a potting mix to meet the varied conditions of the many growers is a brave venture. A fist-full of blue ribbons is the evidence of the success that he has had using the following formula for all cryptanthus species:

2 parts Metro-Mix (a W. R. Grace product containing composted pine bark in a coarse acidic mixture)
1 part Canadian peat
1 part pine bark soil conditioner (ground-up bark)
2 parts poly beads

While these ingredients may not be commonly available, the emphasis is on the acidity and the porosity of the mix.

Some say that cryptanthus are so tough they can grow without attention, but nothing looks as bad as a potentially beautiful specimen with dry leaf tips and browning or folded leaves. Of course, there is such a thing as pampering a plant to death by over-watering or by moving it around too much. With careful cleaning, attention to spraying with a fungicide and an insecticide, with regular feeding, and with giving your plants as much light as reasonable they will keep looking attractive both indoors and out.


A New Natural Hybrid of Tillandsia
Sue Gardner

ILLANDSIA PUNCTULATA Schlechtendal & Chamisso and T. kirchoffiana Wittmack grow in a dense, mixed population, (fig. 5) in the highlands of northern Puebla, Mexico. Although the leaf form of the two species is similar (both have broad leaf-sheaths and narrow leaf-blades), inflorescence characteristics are distinct. Tillandsia punctulata has short, broad and slightly inflated spikes or branches that are arranged in a dense head with large red primary bracts that have the appearance of an involucre below the nearly globose head. Floral bracts are green and the nocturnal flowers are deep purple with white tips. Tillandsia kirchoffiana has long narrow branches bearing red floral bracts and lavender diurnal flowers.

In spite of the difference in flowering time some hybrids are produced (fig. 6). The number of hybrids to reach flowering is apparently small; only two intermediate specimens were encountered after examining several hundred individuals of each species in situ across a distance of several kilometers. Hybrid sterility is often given as one of the factors that keep species genetically separate when breeding barriers fail.

A method that has been used to test for fertility is pollen stainability with lactophenol-cotton blue (Wilson 1980). Pollen samples from both species and an intermediate specimen were stained. A minimum of 200 grains per sample was counted. Samples from both putative parent species were 95% stainable while a sample from an intermediate specimen was only 50% stained (Gardner 1982). The reduced pollen viability and the intermediate morphology support the notion that the specimen is of hybrid origin.

REFERENCES:
Gardner, C.S. 1982. A systematic study of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia. Ph.D. diss., Texas A & M University.
Wilson, H.D. 1980. Artificial hybridization among species of Chenopodium sect. Chenopodium. Syst. Bot. 5:253-263.

Corpus Christi, Texas

Photo by Author.
FIG. 5: Tillandsia punctulata and T. kirchoffiana in a mixed population.

Photo by Author.
FIG. 6: (Left to right) Tillandsia punctulata, putative hybrid, and T. kirchoffiana.


Bromeliad Frogs Of Puerto Rico
Juan A. Rivero

ROMELIAD FROGS MAY BE classified into four general types: those that lay their eggs in bromeliads or elsewhere in a terrestrial environment, but do not pass through a tadpole stage (their development is direct), those that bear their young alive without passing through a free egg or tadpole stage (they are ovoviviparous), those that lay their eggs in bromeliads and pass through a tadpole stage in the water contained in the plant, and those that lay their eggs elsewhere, but carry the tadpoles to bromeliads on the back of one of the parents.

Frogs in the latter two categories face two difficult problems: the scarcity of food and the limitations of space. In adapting to these problems, tadpoles are usually carnivorous and cannibalistic. They feed not only on the invertebrate inhabitants of the plant, but also on the eggs and larvae of their own and other species. A case is known where the female frog lays infertile eggs in the bromeliad and these serve as a continuous food supply for the developing larvae. This is probably the only case known where a frog takes care of feeding its larvae. Other evidences of adaptation are that bromeliad frog eggs are few in number, and the tadpoles are small, slender, and elongated.

Ovoviviparous frogs and those that omit the tadpole stage do not have to face these problems as eggs develop into froglets, or froglets are born from the mother frog, and they are immediately capable of fending for themselves in the terrestrial environment.

Puerto Rican frogs belong to these two categories. Of the eighteen native species, sixteen belong to the genus Eleutherodactylus (from the Gr. meaning free digits) and of these, seven are bromeliad inhabitants. All members of the genus Eleutherodactylus have direct development, except that one species, Eleutherodactylus jasperi bears its young alive.

The bromelicolous species may be further subdivided into the obligatory inhabitants of bromeliads of which there are three species, and those that are optional or opportunistic users of bromeliads. The latter may lay their eggs in bromeliads and may stay in these plants during the daytime, but they may also reproduce and stay in other humid environments.

The most notable of the obligatory bromeliad inhabitants is also the most recently described species: Eleutherodactylus jasperi (fig. 7). It is a small frog, not more than 20 mm in snoutvent length, and it is of a beautiful yellow or greenish yellow color, but its most distinctive feature is that it bears its young alive. There is no other ovoviviparous frog in the Western Hemisphere, and in the world there are only a few species of African toads (genus Nectophrynoides) that give birth to living young. E. jasperi is very limited in its distribution and is now protected by federal law.

The other two species that are in bromeliads most of the time are E. gryllus and E. cochranae. The first is a very small (16mm) and slender frog with long legs and a brownish green or yellowish green coloration that is sometimes divided along the middorsal line by a whitish stripe. It is an inhabitant of forested areas at high elevation, where its voice, a cricket-like series of chirps (hence the name gryllus [L. gryllus cricket]) is often heard at night.

E. cochranae is more partial to the dry and intermediate areas where the only bromeliads available may be members of the genus Tillandsia. It is also a small frog, its basic dorsal color is gray, and it generally has two markings in the form of externally concave parenthesis on the anterior part of the back. As it is sometimes found in places where bromeliads do not occur, it is perhaps the least obligatory of the three species mentioned.

The opportunistic species are E. coqui, E. portoricensis and E. locustus.

E. coqui is the most famous Puerto Rican frog, not only because it is considered the national animal and because its bird-like song can be heard practically everywhere, including the big hotels in the tourist section of the capital city, but also because it was the first frog in which direct development (omitting the tadpole stage) was observed (fig. 8). E. coqui, furthermore, is one of the few animals whose call has two components, one of which (the co-of co-kee) serves as a mating call while the other (the kee-of co-kee) has a territorial function. The name E. coqui comes from the onomatopoetic sound of its voice and from the common name used to designate the species (coqui, pl. coquies). It is said that some people get so used to the voice of the coqui that they cannot sleep when they don’t hear it and have to take a record of the voice whenever they travel to the outside. For many years there was a colony of this species at the Fairchild Gardens in Miami and there is a thriving one at the Kerry’s Nurseries in Homestead, Florida. For more than four years, a few males have been calling from bromeliads in Jeanne Garman’s garden in New Orleans.

E. portoricensis is so similar to E. coqui that for many years they were thought to represent one and the same species. But it was discovered that the voice of some specimens was faster and had a higher pitch than others, and when properly examined they were found to have chalky white eyes (the upper half) and white freckled venter. These were found to represent E. portoricensis. The other species with a much wider distribution, a lower pitched voice, brown or gray eyes and muddy colored venter was named E. coqui.

Both species, E. coqui and E. portoricensis, may lay their eggs (fifteen to twenty-five) in bromeliads and they may also stay in bromeliads during the daytime, but they may also stay and lay their eggs in other humid places.

Photo by Author. Photo by Author.
FIG. 7: Eleutherodactylus jasperi. Full size (20mm). FIG. 8: Eleutherodactylus coqui.

E. locustus is also a small frog, about 20 mm long, having very protuberant and large eyes and, as in the case of E. cochrane, with an inverted parenthesis on the back. In the very humid forest it is seldom found in bromeliads, but in intermediate areas it may be found in bromeliads together with E. jasperi.

E. monensis occurs only in Mona Island, forty-five miles west of mainland Puerto Rico. It is an occasional inhabitant of tillandsias (the only bromeliads on Mona), but it is more often found in sinkholes or in shallow caves.

REFERENCE:
Rivero, J.A. 1978. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Puerto Rico. Rio Piedras, P.R.: Editoral Universitaria. (Photographs from the book).

Mayaguez, P.R.


Book Review
Werner Rauh

ROMELIACEAE ANDREANAE, by Edouard Francois André. Translated and annotated by Michael Rothenberg, with foreword by Victoria Padilla, and introduction by Lyman B. Smith and Robert W. Read. Berkeley, CA: Twowindows Press, 1983. 211 pp., 40 plates, portrait, map. Price $175.00.

One of the most important, older publications about bromeliads is Edouard André’s book: Bromeliaceae Andreanae: déscription et histoire des broméliacées, recoltées dans la Colombie, l’Ecuador et le Venezuela. It appeared originally between August and December 1889, nearly at the same time that Baker was issuing his famous Handbook of the Bromeliaceae. The original edition of Andreanae is, today, a most valuable and rare book obtainable only with the help of an antiquarian. One would have to congratulate himself on being lucky enough to find a copy. Now, it is to the credit of Michael Rothenberg to have published an excellent new edition in English with contributions by Victoria Padilla, Robert W. Read and Lyman B. Smith.

Miss Padilla has written the foreword in which she supplies some of the dates of André’s life and a short account of his great expedition of November 1875 to December 1876. During that time he journeyed from the mouth of the Magdalena River in northern Colombia up to Loja in southern Ecuador. That itinerary was to some degree similar to the one followed by Bonpland and Humboldt in 1801-1802, covering incredibly difficult terrain from the torrid lowlands to the frigid wastes of the altoplano. We must remember that there were no roads in the region then and that the explorers could move over this terrible terrain only on foot and with the help of mules and canoes. Drawings from André’s sketch-book effectively illustrate the landscape and the difficulties encountered on these expeditions.

Dr. Smith and Dr. Read state in the introduction that Bonpland and Humboldt collected only nineteen bromeliads on their great expedition, and that Ruiz and Pavon found only twenty-eight species in Peru. Andre, in contrast, recorded 129 species and fourteen varieties, with nearly 100 of these being new to science. Many of these species are represented in lithographs on thirty-nine plates. The editor has added a fortieth plate, Aechmea drakeana, in color, originally published in the Révue horticole de Belgique. The reproduction of the lithographs is excellent in this edition as is the quality of the paper.

Mr. Rothenberg has changed the original book only by translating the descriptions of the plants from French to English, by adding the foreword and introduction, and by listing the valid and present bromeliad names in footnotes. All in all, he provides an excellent reprint which can be recommended most heartily to all bromeliad collectors.

Heidelberg, Germany

Photo by H. E. Luther.
FIG. 9: Tillandsia dyeriana, a reproduction of Plate XXXII, Bromeliaceae Andreanae.


Tillandsia kautskyi
Werner Rauh

ILLANDSIA KAUTSKYI E. Pereira (1974) was named after Roberto Kautsky who has discovered within the last few years some interesting new bromeliads growing on his extensive farm, a half-natural mountain forest in Domingos Martins, Espirito Santo, Brazil. T. kautskyi is a nice, small plant, no larger than 8-10 cm when flowering. The polystichous leaves form a small subbulbous rosette. Their blades are long attenuate, up to 5 cm long and silver-gray lepidote. The erect or curving inflorescence is mostly compound at the base exceeding the leaves; primary bracts pale red and long acuminate, exceeding the 2-flowered branches; the pale red floral bracts exceed the sepals; the petals are of a lilac color.

Photo by Author. Photo by Author.
FIG. 10: Tillandsia kautskyi, simple inflorescence. FIG. 11: Tillandsia kautskyi, compound inflorescence.

T. kautskyi is closely related to T. sprengeliana Klotzsch ex Mez, which also grows in Espirito Santo, and differs from T. kautskyi in the simple inflorescences. We have recently received from Sr. Kautsky type locality plants which have compound as well as simple inflorescences (figs. 10 & II) indicating that transition forms exist between T. sprengeliana and T. kautskyi.

Heidelberg, Germany


Bromelympics, And Counting (continued)
Paul T. Isley III

HE NOVEMBER-DECEMBER issue of the Journal identified as World Bromeliad Conference speakers Dr. Ramon Ferreyra, Dr. Mildred Mathias, Sr. Alexander Hirtz, and Mr. William Harris. Seven other widely known specialists, whose talks will reflect some of their most recent activities, will augment the list of distinguished speakers. They are:

Dr. David Benzing, professor of biology at Oberlin College, Ohio, and author of the standard text, The Biology of Bromeliads. Dr. Benzing has been a featured speaker for many years at bromeliad shows and conferences. He will discuss “The Several Ways Bromeliads use Animals for Nutrition.”

Mr. Chet Blackburn, of Sacramento, has carefully cataloged and researched bromeliads, especially tillandsias, for many years. He has developed a remarkable system for documenting the plants and a filing system for retrieving that information. He will share this knowledge with you at the Conference.

Dr. Mark Dimmitt is the curator of plants at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson, Arizona. He will describe the growth rates of tillandsias and how a grower can realize the full potential of his plants. Dr. Dimmitt has been growing bromeliads with an emphasis on xeric tillandsias for over twenty years and has demonstrated the ability to grow the largest specimen clumps of tillandsias known in cultivation. His fascinating lectures will interest and instruct both the specialist and the hobbyist.

Dr. Susan Gardner, author and lecturer, wrote her Ph.D. dissertation on the tillandsias of Mexico. Just completed, it is already being hailed as breaking new ground in many areas of tillandsia research. Her talk for one of the Conference seminars is entitled “The Trends in Evolution in Tillandsias.”

Mr. Enrique Graf, the noted botanist from Caracas, Venezuela, will be providing a fascinating program on “The Bromeliads of the Lost World.” That region of southeast Venezuela adjacent to Guyana is considered especially different from other bromeliad habitats because, in part, of its difficult accessibility. Some of the least known genera and species are to be found there. This will be an opportunity to hear a description of little known plants from little known territory.

Mr. Jeffrey Kent, of Kent’s Bromeliads, Vista, California, will give a new look at the Bromeliaceae of Brazil. Jeffrey has explored large areas of that vast country on a number of occasions (as recently reported in the Journal) and has an exciting slide program designed to give his audience a close-up view. He is exceptionally well prepared to discuss this topic and will describe species found on his explorations.

Mr. Harry Luther, director of the Mulford B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center at the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, will lecture on the subject of the bromeliads of Ecuador. Harry has travelled extensively during recent months in Ecuador. He and Dr. Amy Jean Gilmartin reported their progress on the revision of the bromeliads for the Flora of Ecuador Project in Journal volume 33, number 3 (1983). Harry will describe and illustrate recent findings.

The seminars will be open to Conference members on June 22d and 23d from 1:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M.

Los Angeles, CA

Bromelympics Notes
AS FURTHER ENTICEMENT: We have learned that the Official Olympic Arts Festival, with dance, theatre, music, and opera companies from around the world will appear in various parts of the Los Angeles area from July 1st through August 12th. Such organizations as the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Korean National Dance Company, and the China Performing Arts Company will take part. Information about the festival may be obtained from Douglas Raglin, 827 N. Hilldale, Los Angeles, CA 90069. (213) 275-0760.


Vriesea didistichoides
Werner Rauh

INCE THE PUBLICATION of my two articles, “The Bromeliad Vegetation of the Dominican Republic,” in volume 33, numbers 3 and 4 (1983) of this journal, another beautiful bromeliad collected at the same time has flowered in the Heidelberg Botanical Garden. I would like to add the description of that plant, Vriesea didistichoides (Mez) L.B. Smith, to the group reported on earlier.

V. didistichoides is a very handsome plant when flowering and not too big for cultivation (front cover). Our specimen can be described as follows: Plant stemless, flowering up to 30 cm high. Leaves numerous; sheaths broadly ovate, up to 6 cm long and 5 cm wide, forming a pseudobulb up to 6 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, deep castaneous, lepidote on both sides; blades narrowly triangular, recurved, involute-subulate, densely cinerous, lepidote. Scape erect to decurved, slender, shorter than the rosette leaves; scape bracts imbricate, the lower ones subfoliate, the upper ones broad-ovate, caudate, and inflated. Inflorescence laxly bipinnate with ± 10 erect to divergent spikes; primary bracts like the upper scape-bracts, much shorter than the spikes, as long or longer than the erect, flattened, laxly brown lepidote petiole of the spikes; spikes linear-lanceolate (without petiole) 4-5 cm long and 1 cm wide, strongly complanate, densely 8-10-flowered, with several sterile bracts at the base and an alate rhachis. Floral bracts erect, acute, carinate, even (when fresh), strongly nerved when dry, up to 15 mm long, exceeding the sepals, carmine-red in the upper half, green at the base, obscurely lepidote. Sepals lanceolate, ecarinate, glabrous, free, acute; petals 20 mm long, lilac with white, curved back tips near the base, with a dendate ligula; stamens shorter than the petals; style somewhat exserted.

Collection number: RAUH 58 616 (4.7.1982)

Distribution. Dominican Republic, near Escondido, pine forest, 2100 m.

We noted that the spikes are distichous at the base and spirostichous near the apex of the inflorescence.

V. didistichoides grows epiphytically in rainforest at an altitude of 550-1200 meters in Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, and Trinidad. It is also found in pine forest in the Dominican Republic, as noted earlier. It is not to be confused with Tillandsia didisticha (E. Morren) Baker (although it has a similar name), which grows in dry, deciduous forests, on trees, or on rocks in Peru (?), Bolivia, southwestern Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina.

T. didisticha is also a handsome plant (back cover) which grows usually in clumps; the rosettes are very dense, the leaf-sheaths obscure, flat and small; the gray cinerous blades are very narrowly triangular, long attenuate, 6-20 mm wide and channeled. The erect inflorescence is densely bipinnate, at the base sometimes tripinnate and the spikes mostly distichous in one plane. These are curved-spreading from an erect, sterile base with imbricate, reduced bracts. The carinate, strongly nerved, usually densely cinerous lepidote floral bracts are as long (11-15 mm) as the carinate sepals. The eligulate petals are white, recurved at the tips; stamens and style included.

T. didisticha is easier to cultivate than V. didistichoides.

Heidelberg, Germany


Imperial Majesty: Vriesea imperialis
Grace Goode

HIS PLANT WAS GIVEN to me when it was a small offset about six inches (15 cm) high. I planted it in the main neoregelia bed on the crest. Here it reigned as king for ten years, often castigated by me for the amount of space it took for itself, roughly ten feet (300 cm) in diameter.

It blessed me with many offsets in its first years, then it concentrated on the business of growing big. Often I peered into its murky depths, hoping for a flower spike, but I gave that exercise away when it grew too tall for me to inspect, contenting myself with veiled threats as to what would happen to it if it did not do the right thing, and soon.

Then, last spring, a tall member of our society, investigating the inner sanctum of the monster, said, “It is going to bloom.” I hastily got the step-ladder and, behold! it was true. Coming up through the centre was a flat disc of many green bracteal leaves, layer on layer. This was the first of September. By the twenty-third, the spike was emerging from the mass of the bracts, taking inner bracts with it as it rose. The disc measured twelve inches (31 cm) across, the outer edges held upwards by the pressure of the main leaves of the plant.

By the twelfth of October, the spike could be seen above the leaves. I no longer needed the stepladder. The bracts were turning red on the edges and ends, a rusty red. By the twenty-fourth, side branches on the spike could be seen. It was all very exciting; I had waited ten years for this to happen. On the first of November, the Queensland Bromeliad Society held a field day here and sixty members saw Vriesea imperialis in bloom for the first time. (fig. 12).

Photo by Bob Rope. Photo by Author.
FIG. 12: Vriesea imperialis. FIG. 13: Vriesea imperialis flower detail.

On the sixteenth of November, the first cream flowers came out (fig. 13) and by the twenty-fourth there were many flowers. The inflorescence reached its zenith of twelve feet (361 cm) on the first of December and the last flowers came on the thirtieth of March. Because of the many buds on the bottom branches, the inflorescence had flowers from bottom to top, unlike most vrieseas which bloom from the bottom and work upwards. There were between fifty and sixty branches on the spike, each carrying about thirty-five seed pods, lessening off to twenty-five pods on the upper branches. This was going to be some harvest.

Now that my plant will die, I have my regrets about having critisized it. Such a stately monster it was, with its gray-green leaves, dominating the landscape for so many years. I will miss it very much, as will the many small frogs whose home it was. It certainly lived up to it name — Imperial Majesty!

[The photograph by Bob Rope of W.C. Frase with his V. imperialis in Orlando, Florida, in August 1978 has been supplied. Still another photo, taken by J. Padilla, was published on the cover of vol. 30, no. 1 (1980). Conveying the size and complexity of this plant is a challenge in itself. Ed.]

Alexandra Headlands, Q’ land.


Getting Started
Claire Vieira

Y INTEREST IN bromeliads began over five years ago while living in Michigan. I had been collecting the more common houseplants and would often search local nurseries and plant shops for something new and different. Then one day I stumbled across a fairly large selection of Aechmea chantinii, a Billbergia species, probably horrida var. tigrina, and some Dyckia species in one of the larger nurseries in the area. Many of the plants had no name tags on them at all, but those that did were simply labeled “Bromeliad.” I was immediately fascinated, not only because of their very interesting and attractive foliage and shape, (none was in bloom), but also because it was obvious that such a varied assortment had to have more specific names than merely “Bromeliad.”

I didn’t purchase one that first day because I wouldn’t have known what to do with it if I had. Instead, I embarked on a rather lengthy and often frustrating investigation into a more complete identification of these fascinating plants. Beginning at libraries and book stores, I found only the barest mention in standard horticulture books and garden magazines: they were epiphytes with “cups” to hold water. Occasionally I would find a picture, again only with the inscription, “Bromeliad.” The mystery deepened and my curiosity increased.

Very gradually I gathered more information, bit by bit, until I finally discovered the Journal of the Bromeliad Society. I very quickly joined the Society, purchased all available back issues of the Journal, as well as all other BSI publications and began to devour them as completely as I could.

Not only had I fallen in love with these plants at first sight, but the scarcity of readily available information had created an intellectual challenge that I found irresistible. And since I was limited by the cold midwest winters to acquiring only the number of bromeliads that would fit in available window space, studying bromeliad literature became a very rewarding and enjoyable endeavor in itself.

When we moved to California from Michigan in 1979, I had already purchased about fifty plants, mostly from mail order sources. The last thing I did before leaving was to bare-root, wrap, and pack my bromeliads into the van for the cross-country drive—along with three children, two poodles, a parrot, a cockatiel, and a hamster. If there had not been enough room, the plants would have been the last to be left behind. I guess you could say that I was fairly well hooked by this time.

It was exactly two weeks before we were moved into our new home and I was able to unwrap and repot the bromeliads. They all came through in perfect condition and went on to bloom and multiply. Of course I knew they would: I had read it in the Journal!

My very next project that first month in California was to order seeds from the Seed Fund. I had read the excellent articles in the Journal by Harvey Kendall and Aria Rutledge on how to grow bromeliads from seed (vol. 27, no. 3 and 6, 1977; vol. 28, no. 5, 1978) and was eager to try now that I was no longer hampered by an inhospitable climate. I followed their instructions quite literally except for the choice of potting mix (I had a long-standing prejudice for peat moss and vermiculite). And of course it worked just as they said it would. I, however, had the impression that I would be receiving only about twenty seeds in each packet so I ordered two packets each of five species. After germination and after each seedling had grown sufficiently to be transplanted into individual two-inch pots, I began to count a minimum of 200 seedlings per species — in other words, a total of more than 1,000 seedlings. Evidently I had close to 100 percent germination success. I later realized that I had selected species that were the easiest to grow and in abundant supply (beginner’s luck). The sight of all these seedlings caused my friends and relatives to question my sanity. I have continued, nevertheless, to start seeds on a fairly regular basis up to this day, and am now in the process of moving into a larger greenhouse/lath-house for the third time in three and a half years.

It has been a challenging, rewarding, and truly enjoyable experience for which I am indebted to all the people who so generously shared their experience and knowledge in Journal articles. I find that the more I learn about bromeliads, the more I want to know. And I am constantly going back again and again to past Journals to refresh my mind or discover something I had previously overlooked.

Escondido, CA


New On The Scene: Neoregelia marcelli
Carol M. Johnson

N 1977, AN UNTAGGED plant came into my possession as one of a few survivors of a shipment from Lotus Osiris in Brazil. The first flowering passed unnoticed perhaps because it was languishing under a bench. When I did, finally, pay it some attention, I guessed that it might be Aechmea nidularioides. Then I thought because of the leaf texture and shape that it might be A. victoriana var. discolor rather than a species of Neoregelia.

I sent an inflorescence specimen with color photographs to Harry Luther at the Mulford B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center in the spring of 1982, and he identified it as Neoregelia marcelli. This new species (fig. 14) is related to N. fosteriana L.B. Smith and is readily distinguished from that plant by the apex of the leaves, the white corolla, and the scape. It is also related to N. lymaniana R. Braga & Sucre, from which it differs in the color of the corolla, in the margin of the leaf limb, the size of the sepals, and the shape of the floral bracts. It is named for Marcelo Correia de Araujo who discovered it and whose love of plants makes him worthy of this honor.

Photo by Author.
FIG. 14: Neoregelia marcelli.

In my greenhouse the leaves flush rosy red, the plant pups freely, and it is somewhat tender. It seems to have no set blooming season.

Longwood, FL


Billbergia pyramidalis var. lutea
Elton M.C. Leme and Wilhelm Weber

URING AN excursion at the District of Rio das Ostras, State of Rio de Janeiro, in January 1978, a new variety of the well known Billbergia pyramidalis was collected. That finding impelled us to do an accurate investigation over the region to obtain more complete data on that new variety. Dried materials deposited in the herbariums of the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro (RB) and DECAN-FEEMA were also examined to provide elaboration of information in preparing this paper.

Photo by Author.
FIG. 15: Billbergia pyramidalis (Sims) Lindley var. lutea Leme and Weber, var. nov..

This new variety (fig. 15) differs from the type and the var. concolor L.B. Smith, in its bright yellow petals which are purplish tipped only at the extreme apex.

In comparison with the geographical distribution and the ecological preferences of the typical Billbergia pyramidalis which grows mainly as a terrestrial in humid forest at altitudes between 500-1700 m above sea level this new variety showed us some peculiarities: it occurs along the Atlantic coast from the County of Sao Pedro D’Aldeia up to Macaé at low elevations from sea level to approximately 500 m (C. Farney). Its population can be found predominantly near the sea where the arboreal thicket formation is the covering vegetation. We observed it growing terrestrially and rarely as epiphyte, sometimes with numerous specimens grouped. Until now the known B. pyramidalis has been neither collected nor reported to that region. While the evidence is that the typical plant does not exist in the coastal section in the referred area, this new variety positively dominates in this kind of vegetation strongly influenced by the proximity of the ocean.

Billbergia pyramidalis (Sims) Lindley var. lutea Leme and Weber, var. nov.

Var. pyramidalis et comcolor petalis luteis tantum apicis purpureis differt.

TYPUS: Brazil, State of Rio de Jameiro, District of Rio das Ostras, Costa Azul. Leg. Elton Leme no. 118-C, January 1978. Flowered in cultivation 17 Apr. 1983. HOLOTYPUS RB no. 214.134, ISOTYPUS WEB no. 548. Growing terrestrially in formation, under the arboreal thicket vegetation (Restinga arborea). PARATYPUS RB no. 140.933, Cabo Frio, Restinga de Cabo Frio. Leg. D. Sucre no. 3957, 14 Oct. 1968; RB no. 140.934, Cabo Frio, Morro do Gavião. Leg. D. Sucre no. 3911, 13 Oct. 1968; RB no. 199.460, Cabo Frio, Armação de Búzios, Restinga entre a Praia do Forno e das Focas, 0-50 m above sea level. Leg. G. Martinelli no. 5611, 11 Jan. 1979; RB no. 208.860, Barra de São João, Leg. G. Martinelli no. 7801, Nov. 1981; RB no. 210.385, Macaé, Arraial do Sana, Caminho em direção da Pedra Peito de Pombo, aprox. 500 m above sea level. Leg. C. Farney no. 72, 21 Aug. 1982; DECAN-FEEMA no. 14.780, Cabo Frio, Fazenda Campos Novos, Ilha do Jacaré. Leg. Dorothy Araújo no. 2277 and P. Carauta, 27 Mar. 1979: DECAN-FEEMA no. 19.511, Cabo Frio, Armação de Búzios, Restinga atrás da Praia da Armação. Leg. P.F. Souza no. 400, 21 Apr. 1981.

REFERENCES:
Smith, Lyman B. & R.J. Downs. 1979. Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae). New York. Published for Organization for Flora Neotropica by the New York Botanical Garden.

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Raising Bromeliads From Seed
Diane E. Pippin

N INEXPENSIVE AND rewarding way to increase a bromeliad collection is to raise plants from seed. There are probably as many different methods and arrangements for growing seeds as there are growers, but I shall attempt to cover the basics and then each individual can modify the general instructions as needed.

The berry type seeds, such as aechmeas, and billbergias, and the winged seeds, such as dyckias and puyas are the fastest and easiest to grow. The first thing one will need is a container. It should maintain a humid environment, but not a wet one. I recommend the use of two-inch plastic pots which will fit into a clear plastic shoebox. Plastic bread boxes also work well if small holes are drilled through the bottom for drainage. One clever grower has converted plastic soft drink bottles into mini greenhouses. He did this by popping the solid, colored bottom off the two-liter size and saving it for the greenhouse base. That leaves a clear bottle, round at one end and with a spout at the other. Next, the spout is cut off approximately two inches from the top. The remaining section becomes the top of the greenhouse and it is inverted into the base after the seed bed is prepared. This construction is described in detail in vol. 30, no. 3 (May-June 1980).

The second need is a growing medium. Whatever your choice, it should be sterilized to prevent fungi. Fill the pots with a medium such as: commercial potting soil mixed with mulch, or a combination of peat moss and vermiculite, or crushed fern bark, or plain, coarse sand. To sterilize, run boiling water through each pot. That action not only treats the soil, but (after a short cooling period) gives the seeds a warm start. Other methods of sterilization include the use of chemicals and baking the mix in the oven for forty minutes at a temperature of not over 185°F.

The third step is to label each pot with the name of the seed and the date planted. Now, sprinkle the seed across the top of the medium. Do not cover the seeds with soil. After all the pots have been planted, put them in the shoe box and put the lid on the box. Since each pot was damp at the time of planting and the shoe box, or plastic bottle, is nearly airtight, it will not be necessary to water the seedlings for several weeks. Set the little greenhouses in a warm, lighted area.

In about a week to ten days the seed will begin to germinate. The seedlings will grow more rapidly if you add very dilute amounts of your favorite liquid fertilizer when watering. Let the water be absorbed through the bottom of the pot or bottle. If using a bread box, place the box, pots and all, into a shallow pan and then add the water. When the seedlings are one-half to one inch tall and are beginning to crowd each other, they will need transplanting. Because a rapid change in conditions will kill many of them, harden them off by exposing them slowly to the outside air for a few days. Finally, when they are living without a top on the container, they are ready for transplanting. With some of the faster growing species one may have mature plants in as little as one year.

The hairy seeds such as tillandsias and guzmanias are grown in a similar manner except that the growing medium would be a piece of rough bark, a fern fiber slab, or some other kind of rigid, porous material. After pressing the seeds into the bark, put it into a shoebox or an inflated plastic bag. You cannot expect germination to be as quick and the plants will probably not be ready for trans-planting for several years. These seedlings will take about five years or more to become mature.

The Society has published a number of comprehensive articles on growing seeds in both the Journal and in Bromeliads; a Cultural Handbook.

For those interested in growing seed, the Society Seed Fund has a new offering of seed monthly. The January 1984 list is included with this article as a sample. You can see from the list that the diversity of seed is generally good giving growers a chance to obtain rare plants. The seed comes from collectors’ plants, both species and hybrids, in the United States and other parts of the world.

REFERENCES:
Journal of the Bromeliad Society:
Gerber, Frederick H. 1962. "Novice seed growing." 12:67-69.
Oeser, Richard. 1966. "Propagation of tillandsias from seed." 16:8-12.
Rutledge, Aria and H. Kendall. 1972. "Aechmeas from seed to seed." 27:100-105.
_______. 1977. "Neoregelias from seed to seed." 27:252-258.
_______. 1978. "Cryptanthus from seed to seed." 28:211-213.
Wiley, Charles A. 1966. "Bromeliads from seed." 16:133-134.

Riverside, CA


The Bromeliad Society, Inc.

The purpose of this nonprofit corporation is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of Bromeliaceae, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world. You are invited to join.

OFFICERS
President – Nat De Leon, 9300 Old Cutler Rd., Miami, FL 33156.
Vice President – Edgar Smith, 4415 Vandelia St., Dallas, TX 75219.
Corresponding Secretary – Owana Jo Myers, 14895 Garden Hill Dr., La Mirada, CA 90638.
Recording Secretary – Connie Johnson, 13075 SW 60th Ave., Miami, FL 33156.
Treasurer – David Gardner, 33 Camden PI., Corpus Christi, TX 78412.

DIRECTORS
(Regions represented are shown in italics)
1982-1984: Allen Edgar, Jr., Texas, Linda Harbert, Central, Annie Navetta, Western, Peter Paroz, Outer, Herbert Plever, Northeastern.
1983-1985: David Benzing, At-large, Connie Johnson, Florida, Ron Lucibell, Outer, Valerie L. Steckler, At-large.
1984-1986: George Anderson, At-large, Chet Blackburn, California, Jack Grubb, Louisiana, Paul T. Isley III, California, Carol M. Johnson, Florida, Hedi Guelz Roesler, Outer, Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., Texas, H. W. Wiedman, At-large.

HONORARY TRUSTEES
Luis Ariza Julia, Dominican Republic; Olwen Ferris, Australia; Marcel Lecoufle, France; Harold Martin, New Zealand; Werner Rauh, Germany; Raulino Reitz, Brazil; Walter Richter, Germany; Lyman B. Smith, U.S.; Robert G. Wilson, Costa Rica; Robert W. Read, U.S.; W. W. G. Moir, U.S.; Roberto Burle Marx, Brazil; Victoria Padilla, U.S.; Wilhelm Weber, Germany.

DIRECTORY OF SERVICES AND COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN
Advertising: See Editorial Office.
Awards, approval of show schedules, entry tags, and related matters: Vennie Dobson, 1026 Williams Ave., Natchitoches, LA 71457.
Affiliated societies newsletter and liaison: Mary Jane Lincoln, 1201 Waltham St., Metairie, LA 70001.
Conservation: Sue Gardner, 33 Camden Pl., Corpus Christi, TX 78412.
Editorial office: 1508 Lake Shore Drive, Orlando, FL 32803. Advertising rates upon request. Address claims for current volume issues to the editor; for back issues other than current volume, address H. W. Wiedman, Dept. of Biological Science, Calif. State University-Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 93819.
Finance and audit: Myron Keys, 7640 SW 60th Ave., Miami, FL 33143.
Hybrid registration: Harry E. Luther, M.B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 33577.
Judges certification, handbook changes, and schools: Valerie L. Steckler, 40 Oak Valley Court, Austin, TX 78736.
Membership and subscriptions: Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105. See title page, for membership dues.
Mulford B. Foster Identification Center: Send specimens and contributions to Harry E. Luther, at the Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 33577.
Nominations: Allan Edgar, Jr., 5460 Saratoga Dr., Jackson, MS 39211.
Seed Bank: Diana E. Pippin, P. O. Box 2352, Riverside, CA 92516.
Slide Programs: Mary E. Musleh, Rt. 2, Box 2452, Melrose, FL 32666.
World Conference Liaison: Michael P. McMahon, 1021 Wald Rd., Orlando, FL 32806.


Tillandsia didisticha


Calendar of Shows
April 13-14The Bromeliad Society of Greater Mobile (Alabama). Chairman, Irene Bates.
May 12-13Houston Bromeliad Society Show and Sale. Houston Garden Center, Hermann Park Member Sale, May 11, 12:00 to 8:00 P.M.
May 19-20Acadiana Bromeliad Society, Lafayette, LA.
June 1-2Golden Triangle Bromeliad Society, Beaumont, TX.
June 9-10Shreveport Regional Bromeliad Society.
June 20-24World Bromeliad Conference, Los Angeles, CA.


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