Copyright 1984 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.
|Vol. 34, No. 3||May—June 1984|
Editors: Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., Edward C. Hall.
Editorial Advisory Board: Eloise Beach, David Benzing, Racine Foster, Sue Gardner, Victoria Padilla, Robert W. Read, Edgar Smith, John F. Utley.
|99||Walter Richter: On his Eightieth Birthday Wilhelm Weber|
|102||A New Tillandsia from Bolivia: Dedicated to Walter Richter Wilhelm Weber|
|104||Aechmea macvaughii Seeds Distributed Sue Gardner|
|105||1984 Election of Directors Allan G. Edgar, Jr.|
|106||New Bromeliads – 1: Brocchinia amazonica Lyman B. Smith|
|108||A Final Comparison of Tillandsia dyeriana with T. venusta Harry E. Luther|
|111||Micropropagation of Tillandsia dyeriana Susan E. Rogers|
|114||Guzmania bismarckii: A New Species from Northeastern Peru Werner Rauh|
|118||A Giant Tillandsia from Southern Mexico Jürg Rutschmann|
|121||Bromeliad Society Directors’ Address List|
|121||Vriesea carinata Wawra var. flavo-miniata Elton M. C. Leme|
|123||Tillandsia wisdomiana Paul T. Isley III|
|125||Bromeliads Down Under Olwen Ferris|
|128||Why Bother? What do Bromeliad Shows Accomplish? Valerie L. Steckler|
The Journal, ISSN 0090-8738, is published bimonthly at Orlando, FL by the Bromeliad Society, Inc. Articles and photographs are earnestly solicited. Closing date is 60 days before month of issue. Advertising rates are listed in the advertising section. Permission is granted to reprint articles in the Journal, in whole or in part, when credit is given to the author and to the Bromeliad Society, Inc.
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he Nestor of bromeliad and orchid culture, our Honorary Trustee Walter Richter of Crimmitzschau, GDR, will be eighty years old on June 16, 1984. He is known throughout the world not only for his outstanding ability as a plant grower, but also as a superior plant photographer and eminent writer in his field. Thanks to his work, bromeliad cultivation has reached new heights of popularity.
In 1918, Walter Richter began learning the gardening profession in the nursery founded in 1890 by his father, Emil. During his Wanderjahre, he expanded his knowledge in Dresden-Pillnitz, Berlin, Hannover, and Hamburg. In 1928, he was once again active in the family’s nursery becoming its director in 1945. He is still the director of this enterprise, which was nationalized in 1972 and is now known as VEB Orchideen-Bromelien Crimmitzschau.
Walter Richter’s special interest in bromeliads was awakened in 1929 when he received a shipment of plants from Belgium. His first bromeliad hybrid introduction, Billbergia ‘Fascinator,’ came about in 1932 from the cross of B. windii with B. chlorosticta (saundersii). It was followed in 1935 with Cryptanthus × mirabilis, from a cross of C. beuckeri and C. osyanus. His famous Vriesea ‘Flaming Sword’ first bloomed in 1940. That hybrid resulted from a cross that he made in 1937 of V. splendens major and V. longibracteata. During the difficult years of World War II came Guzmania ‘Intermedia’ from G. lingulata var cardinalis × G. lingulata var splendens, and G. ‘Magnifica’ from G. lingulata var × cardinalis × G. lingulata var minor, both important in commerce. They bloomed for the first time in the winter of 1945 and the spring of 1946.
One can hardly imagine how much Richter’s enthusiasm had to do with countering the hardships of those war and post-war years as he struggled to keep his sensitive tropical plants from freezing. Many people died of cold and hunger in war-destroyed Germany and other parts of Europe. There was hardly enough coal for heating and stomachs growled constantly from a diet of watery soup. Anyone growing completely useless tropical plants then instead of vegetables was considered by his contemporaries to be a little crazy, but Walter Richter was not swayed from his belief in better times. Under these most difficult ‘conditions he rescued much irreplaceable plant material. Once the post-war misery was past, this material became the basis of many further hybrids such as Aechmea polyantha, Ae. × exotica, Neoregelia ‘Vulkan,’ Vriesea ‘Gnom,’ V. ‘Komet,’ and V. ‘Brasilia.’
|Photo by iga/Keil.|
|FIG. 1: Walter Richter of Crimmitzschau with Tillandsia tectorum in his nursery.|
Another major interest has been his activity as a professional writer and as a plant photographer. In addition to writing numerous articles for journals, Walter Richter has published seven books on bromeliads, orchids, and other tropical plants. Some titles, in translation, have achieved world-wide distribution and fame. His artistic and sensitive, but factual, description of plant characteristics has introduced many readers to the fascinating world of tropical plants. Such was my case.
After reading his 1953 book, Blüten aus Tropenfernen (Blossoms from the Distant Tropics), and especially the inspiring description of a visit with the well-remembered pioneer of tillandsia cultivation, Dr. Richard Oeser, I was also moved to pursue the study of tillandsias and other bromeliads. I soon made my first visit to Crimmitzschau and was able, fortunately, to take home a big basket of plants as the beginning of my own collection. All succeeding visits have ended with the acquisition of new plants for my collection. Many other plant lovers have had the same experience; the basis of their own collections has always come from Crimmitzschau.
Not to be forgotten are the numerous slide lectures given by Walter Richter, in which he informs a wide public about the beauties and habits of his favorites with his brilliant use of language; his sensitive and poetic choice of words.
We, the world-wide community of bromeliad fanciers, thank Walter Richter on his birthday from the bottom of our hearts for his wonderful work and wish him many more years of health and pleasure with these fascinating bromeliads.
Translated by Harvey L. Kendall
Waldsteinberg, German Democratic Republic
illandsia walter-richteri Weber spec. nov. A Tillandsia argentina C. H. Wright 1907 valde affinis, inflorescentia lax subpolysticha, sepala posteriore usque ad 6 mm alto-connata, petala coeruleo-violacea differt.
PLANTA: breve caulescentibus, gregaria, florens usque ad 20 cm longa. FOLIA: suberecta, dense polysticha, ad 11 cm longa, sordido-viridia. VAGINAE: indistincte limitatae, ad 15 mm longae, 9 mm latae, rugosae, dense imbricatae, ad basim glaber. LAMINAE: anguste triangulatae, acutae, ad 85 mm longae, supra vaginam ad 6 mm latae, valde subtubulare canaliculatae, utrimque dense subappresso-lepidotae. SCAPUS: usque ad 75 mm longus, teres, glaber, leviter curvatus, viridus, 1.5 mm diametiens. BRACTEAE SCAPALIS: suberectae, anguste lanceolatae, basales ad 20 mm laminatae, superiores apiculatae, apices subdense lepidotis, nervatae, viridiae vel modice rosaceae, breviora quam internodia. INFLORESCENTIA: simplex, laxe subpolysticha 4-5 florae, 35-45 mm longa, rhachis geniculatis. BRACTEAE FLORALIS: suberectae, anguste lanceolatea, longe acuminatae et leviter incurvatae, 15-24 mm longae, ad 6 mm latae, coriaceae et late hyalino-marginatae, nervatae, ecarinatae, tantum ad apices indistincte, disperse lepidotae, roseatae. FLORES: subsessilis, erectis, ad 26 mm longis. SEPALA: lanceolata, acuminata, 13-18 mm longa, glaber, rosacea, posteriore valde carinata et usque ad 6 mm alto-connata, multo breviores quam bracteis floralis. PETALA: ad 25 mm longa, lineare-tubulata, ad basim albida, superiore et lamina coeruleo-violacea, recurvata. STAMINA: albida, applanta, 12 mm longa, in tertiam superiore transversale plicata, ANTHERAE: 3 mm longae, subbasifixae. STYLUS: aequilonga quam stamina, teres, stigmata indistincte minuta, glandulosa. OVARIUM: oviformum, 5 mm longum, viridium.
Leg. Dr. Helmut et Lotte Hromadnik 5142; 24 July 1979; Bolivia: Dept. Tarija, Narvaez, saxicola, 1800 msm., floruit hort. Peter Schneideri Jan. 1982 et Feb. 1984. Holotypus: WEB 410.
|Drawing by Author.|
FIG. 2: Tillandsia walter-richteri Weber spec. nov.|
a. Habitus; b. Single flower; c. Flower bract; d. Sepals;
PLANT: short caulescent, flowered to 20 cm long, saxicolous in dense cushions. LEAVES: suberect, dense polystichous, to 11 cm long, solid green. SHEATHS: indistinct, to 15 mm long, 9 mm wide, densely imbricate, bottom third glabrous, rugose. BLADES: narrowly triangular, to 95 mm long, above the sheaths 6 mm wide, acute, rigid, somewhat channeled, with subappressed dense scales on both sides. SCAPE: to 75 mm long, terete, glabrous, slightly curved, green, 1.5 mm in diameter. SCAPE BRACTS: erect, narrow lanceolate, the lower with 20 mm long-foliaceous blades, the higher with gradually reduced blades becoming apiculate; at apex dissite lepidote, nerved, coriaceous, shorter than the 15-20 mm long internodes, changing from green to rose. INFLORESCENCE: simple, laxly subpolystichous, 4-5 flowered, 35-45 mm long, rhachis geniculate. FLOWER BRACTS: suberect, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, somewhat incurved, 15-24 mm long, to 6 mm wide, coriaceous with broad hyaline margins, nerved, rose. FLOWERS: subsessil, erect, to 26 mm long. SEPALS: lanceolate, acuminate, 13-18 mm long, glabrous, rose, the posterior ones strongly carinate and usually to 6 mm high connate, much shorter than the flower bracts. PETALS: to 25 mm long, linear-tubular at base and white, the higher parts and the narrow ovate blades blue-lilac, obtuse, reflexed. STAMENS: white, 12 mm long, flattened, in the upper third transversal plicate. ANTHERS: 3 mm long, dark yellow, subbasifixed. STYLE: terete, white, equal in length to the stamens, stigmata indistinct, minute, glandulous. OVARY: egg-shaped, to 5 mm long, green.
This interesting new species was collected by Dr. Helmut Hromadnik and his wife, Lotte, of Austria, on 24 July 1979 in Bolivia, Dept. of Tarija, near Narvaez. It was found growing on steep rocks with Tillandsia maxima in a xerophytic forest. Specimens collected at that time flowered first in January 1982 and again in February 1984 in the collection of Peter Schneider, Greiz, G.D.R.
Tillandsia walter-richteri is closely related to the well known, but variable, T. argentina. The differences are mainly the suberect, not curved, leaves with acute, not abruptly obtuse-acute apices; the lax elongate, nearly polystichous inflorescence with geniculate axis, the relatively high connate, not subfree posterior sepals, and the blue-lilac, not rose, petals.
Waldsteinberg, German Democratic Republic
|Photo by E. C. Hall.|
|FIG. 3: Aechmea macvaughii.|
echmea macvaughii L. B. Smith is an attractive species as evidenced by the cover of the March-April 1980 Journal. A well-flowered specimen, grown by Eloise Beach, was displayed at the 1980 World Bromeliad Conference in Orlando, Florida (fig. 2). It is one of five species of the subgenus Podachmea [SP?] Mez. Three other members of the subgenus, also found in Mexico, are: A. galeottii Baker, A. lueddemanniana (K. Koch) Mez, and A. mexicana Baker. The first of these species, and A. macvaughii, are known from the type collections only while the latter two species are more widely distributed. The fifth species, A. ferruginea L. B. Smith, is from Peru.
The limited habitat of this species in Jalisco, Mexico, has been further reduced by clearing of agricultural plots. At present, only a few large trees, hosts to several large clumps of this species remain standing in corn fields. Further clearing could eliminate the species if the distribution is no greater than is currently known.
Aechmea macvaughii is a large plant with leaves up to one meter in length. The inflorescence is a simple, white, lanate spike bearing metallic purple flowers with long recurved petals. The vegetative plants resemble A. mexicana, but can be distinguished from it easily by the simple inflorescence and deep purple petals of flowering specimens or large fruit (up to one inch) of fruiting specimens.
If you would like to raise some of these plants and help to maintain the species, I have a limited number of seed packets still available. Please send me a stamped, self-addressed envelope.
Smith, L. B. and R. J. Downs. 1979. Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae). New York: Published for Flora Neotropica by The New York Botanical Garden.
33 Camden Place, Corpus Christi, TX 78412
Allan G. Edgar, Jr., Chairman, Nominations Committee
allots for the 1984 election of directors of the Bromeliad Society, Inc. are included with this issue. All members are urged to vote for two members-at-large. Members living in California, Central Region, Florida, Northeastern Region, Southern Region, Western Region, and Outer Region are asked to vote also for one director to represent their region. Be sure to return your completed ballot in the official envelope provided. Please vote now.
The membership of the Society on 26 September 1983 was distributed as shown below. At that time, the total membership was 2190, a loss of 165 from 1982.
|REGION|| MEMBERSHIP |
| DIRECTORS |
Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin
Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont
All countries outside the United States
Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia
Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming
Affiliated societies can help their regions gain more directors by conducting membership drives for the Bromeliad Society, Inc.
Lyman B. Smith
he Guayana Highland stretching from central Suriname to southeastern Colombia is a region of tepuis or mesas and is easily the most remote and inaccessible of all the areas where bromeliads are found. This fact is shown dramatically by the history of the endemic species.
In 1820, after a long and toilsome journey up the Amazon and the Rio Japura, Martius arrived at the Serra de Araracuara where he collected Navia acaulis and Navia caulescens on nearby Serra de Cupaty. For over a hundred years there was only a single new species collected, then in 1928 a succession of explorer-collectors fought their way up the tepuis and the flood was on. Now there are over seventy species of Navia and the list is still growing. Also, Navia was only the first endemic genus and it was followed by Brocchinia, Lindmania, Connellia, and Ayensua with two more now awaiting publication in Venezuela. The present species of Brocchinia is especially interesting as the first record of that genus over the line into northern Brazil where only Navia was known before.
Brocchinia amazonica L. B. Smith, sp. nov. (fig. #4)
A Brocchinia delicatula L. B. Smith, cui valde affinis, foliorum laminis ligulatis multo latioribusque, omnibus partibus majoribus crassioribusque differt.
Plant flowering over 45 cm high (stem incomplete); stem curved, 10 mm in diameter, covered with the dark remains of old leaf-sheaths. Leaves rosulate at the apex of the stem, to 23 cm long, sparsely appressed-lepidote; sheaths ovate, 3 cm long, the lower ones dark castaneous, the upper green except for a dark narrow basal band; blades ligulate, attenuate, 20 mm wide, flat, pale green, entire. Scape curved, slender, glabrous; scape-bracts erect, remote, small, narrowly triangular, sparsely lepidote. Inflorescence subdensely tripinnate, 20 cm long; primary bracts like the scape-bracts, much shorter than the sterile bases of the branches, the remainder of the inflorescence glabrous; branches suberect, to 11 cm long, very slender. Floral bracts ovate, acute, 2.5 mm long, membranaceous; flowers suberect, short-pedicellate. Sepals elliptic, obtuse, 3-4 mm long, firm with membranaceous margins; petals about equaling the sepals, elliptic, obtuse, white; ovary 9 mm long, very slightly superior.
TYPE. N. A. Rosa & S. B. Lira 2259 (holotype, US, isotypes MG, NY), Amazonia, Brazil, 28 January 1978.
DISTRIBUTION. Saxicolous on river banks, vicinity of the Rio da Serra Aracá.
United States National Museum, Washington, D.C.
|Photo by U.S. Nat’l Herbarium.|
FIG. 4: Brocchinia amazonica|
a. Flower; b. Sepal and stamen; c. Immature petal; d. Apex of ovary; e. Seed..
Harry E. Luther
he accompanying illustrations prepared from living plants of documented wild collections at Selby Gardens and my comments are presented for the purpose of ending, finally, the confusion surrounding the identities of Tillandsia dyeriana André and T. venusta Mez & Werclé. T. dyeriana has been established in North American and European horticulture for not more than nine or ten years. It is often sold under the synonym T. rutschmannii Rauh (Rauh 1974, 1979). T. venusta, on the other hand, has been in limited cultivation for the past fifteen years at least, but only recently was it correctly determined (Luther, 1982).
T. dyeriana (fig. 5), from the wet lowlands of western Ecuador, is characterized by small diurnal flowers which turn black after ten to fifteen hours. No scent has been detected from them. The combination of brilliantly colored floral bracts, odorless day flowers, and a rather heliconia-like inflorescence predicts that this species is adapted to hummingbirds as a pollen vector. This condition is a novelty in Tillandsia subgenus Phytarrhiza where all other taxa seem most suited to moth, bee, or, possibly, butterfly pollination.
T. venusta (fig. 6) has been collected in Costa Rica (the type locality) and western Ecuador, but nearly all of the cultivated material is of Ecuadorian origin. The white, fragrant flowers, larger than those of T. dyeriana, last for up to twenty-four hours and are probably pollinated by nocturnal moths, although the production of fragrance through the day suggests that bees may also be pollinators.
Both species can be recommended for cultivation. T. venusta seems somewhat easier to manage because it grows well when mounted (with adequate moisture) or potted and given vriesea conditions. T. dyeriana collected plants presented some problems initially and have been most successful when mounted on cork bark. Fully domesticated plantlets will probably be more tolerant. The spectacular coloration of the latter species certainly makes any extra efforts on the part of the grower a worthwhile endeavor.
Luther, H. E. 1982. Tillandsia venusta; the correct name for a showy, cultivated Tillandsia. J. Brom. Soc. 32:22-24, 31.
Rauh, W. 1974, Bromelienstudien III. Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt 12:19-26.
Rauh, W. 1979, Bromelienstudien VIII. Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt 27:441-442.
|Drawing by Barbara N. Culbertson.|
|FIG. 5: Tillandsia dyeriana.|
|Drawing by Barbara N. Culbertson.|
|FIG. 6: Tillandsia venusta.|
Susan E. Rogers
illandsia dyeriana André is an attractive, highly localized, mesic epiphyte endemic to western Ecuador. Plants consist of a few-leaved rosette with a branched inflorescence of coral-red bracts and white spreading flowers. A picture of the inflorescence is on the cover of the March-April 1982 Journal. This species was unknown in cultivation until recently, but the related T. venusta Mez & Werklé has been often labeled as such in collections, as noted by Harry Luther, director of the M. B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center. The true T. dyeriana remains rare in horticulture because it grows slowly and has a low potential for conventional asexual reproduction, a condition common among plants with few leaves. In order to prevent overcollection of this plant in the wild to meet commercial demands, I placed this species in culture with the help of Dr. C. H. Dodson and Mr. Luther. I can now report that the work has been successful.
In July 1982, Dr. Dodson, (then director of research at the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens) collected several specimens of T. dyeriana (Dodson 13098 at SEL) from large red mangroves on the Rio Limones in extreme northwestern Ecuador. These plants, including several with developing seed capsules, were later successfully introduced into cultivation at the Gardens.
One of the naturally set, unopened, mature seed capsules1 was used as tissue source for two main reasons: first, that the gene pool of the cultivated population would be broadened. This condition could lead to the production of superior clones and avoid problems of self-incompatibility if further seed production were attempted. Second, this procedure would avoid problems associated with disinfestation of a wild, collected plant for in vitro propagation. Although this procedure is inappropriate for multiplying selected clones or hybrids, it is very useful with choice and uncommon species when a heterozygous population is desirable.
An unopened, mature seed capsule was washed in a 50% Clorox solution for approximately one hour and then opened using aseptic technique in a laminar airflow hood. Extracted seeds with entire or shortened seed coma (hairs) were placed into sterile medium in Magenta GA-7 containers (Magenta Corp., Chicago). The germination medium (Stage I) was composed of modified Vacin and Went salts2, vitamins,3 2% sugar, 0.2% Bacto-Peptone (Difco Lab., Detroit, Michigan), 10% coconut water, 0.2% Gelrite (Kelco, San Diego, CA). Germination occurred within thirty days. In addition, an opened capsule was attempted; however, the seed wash procedure of 10% Clorox plus wetting agent for ten minutes yielded contaminated cultures.
The proliferation medium (Stage II) was the germination medium plus 0.10 mg/liter A-Napthalene-acetic acid and 2.0 mg/liter 6-Benzylaminopurine. Seedings were recultured back onto fresh Stage II medium approximately every three months until the desired number of plants was obtained. After five recultures multiplying tissue still appeared normal. Plants which were on a gyratory shaker in liquid Stage II medium with gelling agent absent died. The Stage II multiplication rate was two- to four times in thirty days.
When plantlets on Stage II were larger than 5 mm, they were subcultured onto the rooting phase (Stage III). Although rooting on Stage III was erratic these plantlets increased in size most rapidly in this stage. Smaller propagules suffered set back or died. Plants larger than 1 cm were separated from clusters and placed individually in a GA-7. Stage III plants smaller than 1 cm were left in clusters until they reached 1 cm and were then separated. The Stage III medium was composed of modified Vacin and Went inorganic salts, vitamins, 2% sucrose, 0.2% Bacto-Peptone, 0.2% activated neutralized charcoal (K.C. Bio.), 0.2% Gelrite, 1.0 mg/liter Indole-3-butyric acid, and 1.0 mg/liter A-Naphtalene-acetic acid. The plants remained in this phase from two to six months depending on initial Stage III size.
All in vitro cultures were maintained on a sixteen-hour light cycle of 300 foot-candles and 80° to 85° F temperature range in a positive airflow room.
Plants were transferred to the greenhouse (Stage IV) when 15-20 mm in height. They were grown in community pots or flats of finely ground Guatemalan tree fern and were placed under 63% shade with 5 sec./5 min. intermittent mist. Root growth, if not present at transplanting, was evident after four to six weeks in Stage IV. After a total of six to eight weeks, plants were removed from the mist bench. Plants transplanted on 20 December 1983 were 5 cm in height with leaves 6 mm wide a month later.
Other species of Bromeliaceae germinated and produced with this procedure are T. andreana E. Morr. ex André, T. atroviridipetala Matuda, and T. paraensis Mez × T. chiapensis Gardner. T. dyeriana plants will be distributed to members of the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens and offered to commercial bromeliad growers in late 1984.
1. A mature seed capsule is characterized by its full size, turning from green or olive to brown or yellow, and the suture between the locules lightening in color.
2. E. Vacin and F. Went, "Some pH Changes in Nutrient Solutions," Botanical Gazette, 110 (1949): 605-613.
3. Vitamins per liter of medium: 1.0 mg nicotinic acid, 10.0 mg thiamine-HCl, 1.0 mg pyridoxine-HCl, 100.0 mg myo-inositol.
Eric Young Micropropagation Centre,
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens,
he Bromeliad Society Color Slide Loan Service, which, according to the thirty-year cumulative index, has not been mentioned in these pages since 1961, has been revived. There are four programs of slides and written narration now available:
- Tillandsias (80 slides)
- Costa Rican Bromeliad Adventure (73 slides)
- Aechmea Jewels (75 slides)
- Brazilian Bromeliads: habitats and homelands (84 slides).
- Costa Rican Bromeliad Adventure (73 slides)
The editors of the Journal propose to supply, given the permission of the contributors, copies of all transparencies used in the Journal. This source will provide a few slides on a regular basis, but hardly in the quantity needed for entire programs and certainly not in clearly arranged program sequence.
The success of the new library will take the continuing interest and contributions of many individual members and their local societies. Please communicate directly with Tinker Musleh at the following address: BSI Media Center Library, Rt. 2, Box 2452, Melrose, FL 32666.
|Photo by Author.|
FIG. 7: Klaus von Bismarck
Guzmania bismarckii, near Rioja, Peru.
n 1980, we found in the Dept. of Loreto, Peru, about twenty kilometers west of Rioja, a big guzmania growing terrestrially in a sandy, swamp forest at an altitude of 800 meters.
The plant very much resembled G. lindenii (André) Mez with its cross-banded leaves. This discovery made us think that we had found a new locality of G. lindenii, which we had rediscovered some years ago in the mountainous forest near Oxapampa in the Dept. of Chachamayo, at an altitude of 2,000 meters. We had found, unfortunately, only sterile, nonflowering plants. Later we saw the same species in Moyabamba in the collection of Moises Lopez, an orchid collector, who also sold it under the name of G. lindenii. We took back bigger plants to Lima, hoping to bring them into flower there, but in vain; all plants died. It became obvious that they were much more difficult to cultivate than G. lindenii.
We returned in August 1983 to the region of Rioja and Moyabama intending to search for flowering plants of the still-unknown guzmania. But within those few years the landscape had changed completely. The forests bordering the new road, constructed not many years before, had been cut down and replaced with plantations of cultivated plants. An old Indian, to whom we described our plant, told us that there were still some growing in a small section of forest. A young boy led us there and we found many plants, small and big, growing terrestrially in the deep shade of the rainforest. Once more, our search for flowering plants was unsuccessful, but we did find some in full fruit. With that evidence we were able to decide that the Rioja guzmania is completely different from G. lindenii of the Oxapampa region. Although the flowers are still unknown, we shall describe the Rioja guzmania as a new species and dedicate it to Klaus von Bismarck of Lima, Peru, who had assumed in 1980 that it is a new species. The description1 follows:
|Photo by Author.|
FIG. 8: G. bismarckii
showing part of the inflorescence with opened capsules.|
Guzmania bismarckii Rauh. Plant stemless, but with a thick rhizomatous base, covered with the residue of the old sheaths, flowering up to 2-2.5 m high. Leaves numerous, mostly erect (fig. 7), forming a large funnel-shaped rosette, up to 1.5 m high and 1 m in diameter. Sheaths broadly ovate, 15-20 cm long, 10-12 cm wide, dark-brown, nearly black beneath, dark leather-brown on the adaxial side above. Blades 1-1.5 m long, 10 cm wide (above the sheath), with a sharp, acute 1 cm long tip, laxly lepidote on both sides, some prominent ribs beneath, dark-green on both sides (young leaves chocolate brown beneath) with 3-4 cm broad, dark brown-violet, hieroglyphic bands. Inflorescence (fig. 8) up to 2.5 m long, erect, laxly bipinnate. Scape erect, 0.7-1 or 1.5 m long, 1 cm thick, round, even, glabrous, green, sometimes brown-violet spotted.
Scape bracts not subfoliate, erect, long-ovate-acute; the basal ones longer, the upper ones mostly shorter than the internodes laxly lepidote, brown-violet banded, fresh even, nerved when dry; fertile part of the inflorescence 70-100 cm long, postfloral up to 8 cm wide. Primary bracts lanceolate, acute, shorter than the spikes, nerved when dry. Inflorescence-axis erect, round, green, even, glabrous; internodes 6-4 cm long. Spikes numerous, up to 15-20, sessile, some short petiolated (1 cm), stroboliform, ovoid, postfloral 4-5 cm long, up to 3 cm thick, with numerous spirally arranged flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate-ovate, acute, up to 2 cm long, dark-green, with an undulate, hyaline margin, beneath (on the abaxial side) somewhat verrucose, ebracteate, ecarinate to the base, exceeding the free sepals; these narrow lanceolate, acute, the posterior ones carinate, 13 mm long, 5 mm wide, dark-green (?). Petals unknown; fruit up to 2.5 long. Capsules brilliant black on the upper side when opening. Seeds with short, brown hairs.
Distribution and locality: Rainforest and sandy swamps, about 20 km west of Rioja, 800 m, growing terrestrially in dark forests (Dept. Loreto).
Collection no. and holotype: Rauh and von Bismarck 63 679, 12.8.83 in the Herbarium of the Institute of Systematic Botany of the University of Heidelberg (HEID).
The nonflowering plant was also collected in 1980 under the number 53 681. The plant is cultivated in Lima and in the Botanical Garden of the University of Heidelberg.
Guzmania bismarckii, which is similar to G. lindenii (in vegetative state), differs from the latter in the following characteristics:
Plant growing terrestrially, rarely epiphytic, in humid, swampy-sandy forests; leaves broad-ligulate, mostly erect, underneath with prominent, broad rips, never losing chlorophyll in cultivation as G. lindenii.
Inflorescence with sessile or short, petiolated ovoid spikes.
Seeds with short, leather brown hairs.
There is no doubt that G. bismarckii is related to G. lindenii, but the difference between the two are so evident that the former may be considered an own species. Guzmania bismarckii is a beautiful species, worthy of cultivation as an ornamental plant.
l. The Latin diagnosis will be published in: Bromelienstudien XI, Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt.
2. Photographs of G. lindenii: see Rauh, W. 1983. Bromelienstudien XIV. Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt 43:108-109.
Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany
he tributaries of the Rio Grijalva, or Rio Chiapa, enter Mexico from Guatemala, and the river then runs through the wide depression between the Sierra Madre and the Chiapas highlands. Near the rapidly growing, modern capital of the state of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, it breaks through a high limestone range on its way to the Tabasco lowlands and, ultimately, the Gulf, forming the tremendous Sumidero Gorge (fig. 9). For about twenty kilometers, the river flows between nearly vertical rock walls up to about 1,000 meters in height.
The river is dammed in three places for electricity production forming huge reservoirs, one of them, above the Chicoasen dam, occupying the whole length of the gorge. The water, previously very rapid, is, therefore, quiet nowadays and can be navigated with launches.
|Photo by Author.||Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 9: The Sumidero Gorge.||FIG. 10: Newly reported Tillandsia species.|
Near the entrance to the gorge, the river is crossed by the famous Pan-American highway bridge of Chiapa de Corzo. The immediate surroundings of this bridge are the type locality of the very pretty Tillandsia ionantha var. vanhyningii M. B. Foster and of T. socialis L. B. Smith. From the upper rim of the rock face below the vantage point “El Mirador” T. beutelspacheri Matuda has been described. From these findings, it seemed that the region had been well explored, especially since it is comfortably accessible being less than thirty minutes from a major town with a university and a botanical garden.
It was all the more a surprise when we visited the canyon in December of 1983 to observe a profusion of flowering plants of a presumably new, large tillandsia (fig. 10) growing on the vertical rock walls from the upper rim near El Mirador down to the water, that is, an altitude difference of more than 900 meters. The species seems to prefer the rock faces not too much exposed to the sun, whereas the silvery-rose hanging cushions of vanhyningii, the tufts of beutelspacheri with its yellow, decurved inflorescences, and the rarer socialis grow in very sunny places.
The characteristics of the species, in my opinion, set it clearly apart from any other Mexican member of the genus. It forms a large rosette of green, flat, pointed leaves about 60 cm long and 8 cm wide. The tripinnate inflorescence is pendent and up to 150 cm long, consisting of a relatively thin axis and compound branches emerging from beneath rose-colored, spreading primary bracts about 10 cm long and 3-4 cm wide. The branches divide into 2-4 terete, roseate spikes, about the thickness of a pencil and up to 35 cm long, spreading horizontally. The flower bracts are imbricate, ecarinate and also roseate, the flowers violet with the stamens exserted. They are visited by hummingbirds.
Most of the plants were in flower; almost no immature or juvenile specimens could be seen when searching the rocks with the binoculars. The plant community, therefore, seems to be highly synchronized, a phenomenon which has been observed in other species and which might explain why the plant, although very conspicuous when flowering, has not been noticed up to now. Vegetatively it could perhaps be mistaken for T. grandis, T. viridiflora, or a vriesea. But quite apart from the interesting botanical aspects of the Grijalva Gorge, it is in our opinion one of the most worthwhile sights in Mexico, especially when visited by boat.
The plant presented here will be described scientifically and named by Prof. Werner Rauh, of Heidelberg, if its novelty is established beyond any doubt.
California Region –
Chet Blackburn, 720 Millertown Rd., Auburn, CA 95603. Term: 1984-86.
Paul T. Isley III, 1400 3rd St., Manhattan Beach, CA 90266. Term: 1984-86.
Central Region –
Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105. Term: 1982-84.
Florida Region –
Connie Johnson, 13075 SW 60th Avenue, Miami, FL 33156. Term: 1983-85.
Carol M. Johnson, 3961 Markham Woods Road, Longwood, FL 32750. Term: 1984-86.
Louisiana Region –
Jack B. Grubb, 10008 Hyde Place, River Ridge, LA 70123. Term: 1984-86.
Northeastern Region –
Herbert Plever, 172-34 133rd Avenue, #8A, Jamaica, NY 11434. Term: 1982-84.
Outer Region –
Peter Paroz, 3 Derribong Street, Boondall, Brisbane 4034, Australia. Term: 1982-84.
Ron J. Lucibell, Botany Dept., Queen Mary College, London, El 4NS, England. Term: 1983-85.
Hedi Guelz Roesler, Samlandweg l, 6368 Bad Virbel 2, Federal Republic of Germany. Term: 1984-86.
Southern Region –
Allan G. Edgar, Jr., 5460 Saratoga Drive, Jackson, MS 39211. Term: 1982-84.
Texas Region –
Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., 206 Eastway, Galena Park, TX 77547. Term: 1984-86.
Western Region –
Annie Navetta, 3236 SE Clinton, Portland, OR 97202. Term: 1982-84.
David Benzing, Dept. of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074. Term: 1983-85.
Valerie L. Steckler, 40 Oak Valley Court, Austin, TX 78736. Term: 1983-85.
George Anderson, 4409 Apollo Drive, Metairie, LA 70003. Term: 1984-86.
H. W. Wiedman, Dept. of Biological Science, California State University-Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 95819. Term: 1984-86.
Thomas U. Lineham, 1508 Lake Shore Drive, Orlando, FL 32803.
Edward C. Hall, 1111 Glen Garry Circle, Maitland, FL 32751
Elton M. C. Leme
|Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 11: Vriesea carinata var. flavo-miniata.|
he Vriesea carinata is one of the most popular species of the genus Vriesea in culture. It grows naturally from the state of Bahia to the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, being a typical species of the humid forest that covers the coastal relief. In such vegetation, this common species belongs to the shade-loving category since it grows predominantly on bushes and on low tree branches always protected from the direct incidence of sunlight.
This species has been used in a great number of artificial crosses, providing us with numerous hybrids of distinctive shape and color. Vriesea carinata is also said to be responsible for many natural hybrids with a huge number of different species.
The new variety described here came from a region of humid forest in the state of Espirito Santo, known for its very high vegetation and diversity of bromeliad and orchid species. Although we observed the occurrence of other vrieseas in the area, we have refused the possibility that the new variety developed as a natural hybrid. The absence of the typical V. carinata or any other probable parent specie in the vicinity assures our position.
Vriesea carinata Wawra var. flavo-miniata Leme var. nov. Differt a var. carinata bracteis floriferis plene miniatis et petalis undique flavis.
Typus: Brazil, state of Espirito Santo, District of Alfredo Chaves, Vila de Sao Bento de Urania, Frazenda Zechini. Leg. G. Martinelli 8079 & R. Kautsky, E. Leme, 5 May 1982. Holotypus HB: Isotypus RB 21321 Flowered in cultivation 10 Dec. 1982, under the number 104-B (E. Leme).
This new variety differs from var. carinata by its plain red floral bracts as well as by the full yellow petals. It is certain that the inclusion of such a gracious variety to horticulture will be welcomed by bromeliad lovers.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Paul T. Isley III
|Photo by Author.|
|FIG. 12: Tillandsia × wisdomiana.|
ybrida naturalis e Tillandsia xerographica Rohweder et T. paucifolia Baker.
Plant stemless, flowering to 51 cm high. Leaves thick, covered with coarse, closely appressed cinereous scales; sheaths large, broadly ovate, forming an ovoid or ellipsoid pseudobulb 7-10 cm long, merging gradually into the blades, the outer sheaths much reduced and bladeless; blades involute, narrowly triangular, somewhat recurved, slightly contorted, 11-29 cm long and 2 cm wide. Scape erect, stout, glabrous, colored cherry to ruby; scape-bracts imbricate, foliaceous, lanceolate, the blades arching-recurved, slightly contorted, appressed lepidote. Inflorescence bipinnate from a few spikes; primary spikes suberect, narrowly lanceolate or sublinear, 15-19 cm long, 1.5 cm wide; rachis glabrous, colored as scape. Floral bracts imbricate and covering the rhachis, lanceolate, acute or submucronate, 3.5 to 4.5 cm long; terminal bracts citron green when immature, mature bracts varying from brick red to salmon, exceeding the sepals, 4-6 times as long as the internodes, straight toward apex, slightly, if at all, carinate, coriaceous with a hyaline margin, more or less nerved, glabrous, lustrous. Sepals linear-lanceolate, acute, 28-31 mm long, 3 mm wide, thin except the subcoriaceous base, nerved, posteriorly carinate and connate for ½ or more; petals tubular-erect, 5 cm long, lavender; stamens and pistil exserted.
Etymology: The specific name honors Mrs. William B. Wisdom of New Orleans, a founding member of the Greater New Orleans Bromeliad Society.
Type: P. Isley (holotype SEL), without specific locality, El Rancho, Guatemala. Included in a shipment of plants to the United States in 1977.
T. × wisdomiana Isley, hyb. nov. (fig. 12) forms a beautiful intermediate between the sympatric T xerographica Rohweder and T. paucifolia Baker. Although this plant is much larger than T. paucifolia, the base has the bulbous shape common to the group that also includes T. caput-medusae Morren, T. butzii Mez, and T. bulbosa Hooker. Because of the spreading and contorting leaf influence derived from T. xerographica, this plant at first appears to have T. caput-medusae as one of its parents rather than T. paucifolia. That condition is not considered likely because the former does not overlap its habitat range with T. xerographica in the El Rancho region as does T. paucifolia.
The pseudobulb of T. × wisdomiana is like that of T. paucifolia, but more ovate, suggesting the influence of T. xerographica. T. × wisdomiana more closely resembles T. paucifolia than T. xerographica with its broad, ovate pseudobulb, the narrowly triangular and involute leaf blades, and blunted, soft leaf tips. The scape and inflorescence are, however, similar to T. xerographica, but much reduced in size.
Los Angeles, CA.
have many people to thank for the plants in my collection and for the knowledge so ungrudgingly shared with me over the years. On walking through our display garden, nearly all the plants remind me of someone. Billbergia nutans, B. pyramidalis var. pyramidalis, Cryptanthus acaulis and C. bivittatus go back over fifty years to my mother’s collection of pot plants.
We lived in a farming community where the growing of certified seed potatoes brought agricultural inspectors twice annually to inspect the crop, and these men who were billeted at our home always brought my mother choice plants for her little glasshouse on the eastern verandah.
One of the many bromeliads that my mother-in-law added to my collection was Billbergia vittata × B. pyramidalis var. concolor, a hybrid made by the late Charles Webb, a member of the B.S.I. in the early 1950’s (here in Australia, this hybrid is now known as B. ‘Charles Webb’). Later on, I named in her honor, a cultivar that I had grown: B. (g. Pria) ‘Myee,’ acknowledging at the same time Joan White’s hybrid B. ‘Pria’ which had provided the seed.
I owe much to the late Dr. Richard Oeser of Germany. We shared many thoughts on how bromeliads had managed to survive during the change of environment with the upheaval of the Andes with the resulting climatic changes in altitude and rainfall. It was easier for him to write in German and my next door neighbour was librarian at Sydney University and could get me translations within twenty-four hours. Dr. Oeser shared seed of many hybrids and species, not only with us in Australia, but with enthusiasts in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand. When, through illness, my husband had to give up his demanding job, I was able to start our Display Garden with a well representative collection of attractive bromeliads, many of which had started as seed from Dr. Oeser.
The late Merle Watson, of Florida, added tillandsias to my collection in the late 1960’s in return for species of the Australian cycads. I am presently flowering Tillandsia fasciculata var. clavispica and the smaller T. fasciculata var. floridana. They bring with them memories of Merle, his wife Janie, and Ervin Wurthmann.
With the late Adda Abendroth, I shared a seed swap of Australian native grevillia trees and Brazilian bromeliad seeds. Adda found that tillandsia plants grew very well on the grevillia and I have planted some on the same trees here. Many of my tillandsia and neoregelia plants started off as seed from Brazil.
In the early years of the Bromeliad Society of Australia I was asked if I would take over the running of our Seed Bank. I had read somewhere of a round robin among gesneriad growers in the United States and started robins among our bromeliad seed growers. This activity eventually reached the ears of Mrs. Beryl Allen of Tampa, Florida, who wrote asking to join with us. Imagine my surprise when I found that she was the person who had started the gesneriad round robin and later the bromeliad round robins in the United States.
Beryl and I corresponded until her death, swapping seeds and ideas. She sent me a few seeds of Dyckia encholirioides gathered for her in the wilds by someone who saw a magnificent clone, much taller and darker in colour than the rest of the plants which were growing over a fairly large area. This plant starts to flower at the top of the tall, branched inflorescence and has ripe seed before the last of the branches have finished their blaze of orange-red petals. The collector could see the petal colour when he harvested the seed from the top of the inflorescence. From seven seeds only one grew to maturity and the first offset was given to Grace Goode in Queensland. When we moved to southeast Queensland from Sydney, some plants were left to be picked up the following week. Only one plant was stolen and this was Dyckia encholirioides in a large decorative pot. We visited Grace after settling in and were given a large section from the original offset. This prospered in our new garden and flowered, fitting the description given with the seed. The branched inflorescence was over two meters high. One family noted the date of the flowering and timed their visits to coincide with the annual flowering.
|Photo by Author.|
|FlG. 13: Olwen Ferris, honorary trustee, admires her Tillandsia streptophylla friendship plant.|
At one time, when the plant had divided into five heads, each with inflorescences half grown, I had a visitor who claimed that plants hated her. I looked around in time to see two leaves of this huge dyckia reverse their half circle curve and catch the lady on the leg. Since I had been thinking for some time that the dyckia was sprawling too close to the path, I decided after her departure that it was time to act. A few leaves were cut back to allow the saw to cut through the thick woody stem. Three sections came away, leaving a nice double head in the garden. I loosened the roots with a mattock and was lifting the triple-headed plant with the aid of a long handled rake, when who should walk in but the man who called to see Dyckia encholirioides during its annual flowering. He was speechless. That morning at six he suddenly knew he was not going to work but had to drive the sixty miles south, for what he had no idea. My part did not begin until 10 A.M. and as I lifted the plant out he bought it on the spot. I told him what had happened, and, as he lifted it up, he said, surprised "It isn’t even prickling me." No plant ever went to a more loving home and each Christmas I get a card from plant and proud owner.
Yesterday, I repotted three lovely Vriesea gladioliflora grown from seed gathered by Victoria Padilla, for so many years editor of the Journal. So you see, my garden is full of friendship plants and this to me is most rewarding. Over the years the mail order side of the business keeps me going full time, but I never get bored because enough people look us up as they go through this part of the coast to keep me in touch with bromeliad happenings all over our vast continent and I never seem to have time to catch up on all my mail.
Paradise Point, Queensland
Valerie L. Steckler
hroughout the countries that make up the BSI, affiliate life goes on despite the harsh winds, grey skies, overcrowded greenhouses, and soaring heating bills. And every spring, with the inevitability of the arrival of the robins, or the first crocus peeping through the snow, affiliates around the country gear up for the affiliate’s annual spring show. There are many reasons for the popularity of this ritual. A bromeliad show accomplishes many things, and it does them better than any other event or happening that we have available. The spring show comes at a time when life itself seems new. In many places around the country, plants in winter are housed so tightly that while we may water them, we cannot admire them. The gloominess of winter days is forgotten, however, as we begin the annual “coming out ceremony.” The days warm up, the sun starts providing the plants with more ultraviolet rays, and bromeliads, being the accommodating plants that they are, reward good cultural practices with compactness and well colored leaves. The grower’s enthusiasm and optimism is probably at its highest during this period. Most growers are, therefore, anxious to display their plants for their peers, in the hope that the good care that they have given the plants will be recognized and rewarded.
But this is only one small part of what the bromeliad show is all about, for there are many other reasons for staging one. First of all, bromeliads are beautiful, and when an auditorium, bank building, or gymnasium is filled with them for viewing by the general public, the community benefits from the aesthetic quality prevalent throughout the showroom. At the same time, because the plants are all properly labeled, the public is also educated. Once interested, it is often possible to entice a visitor to take the literature available, and often both the BSI and the local affiliate’s membership soars upward after a successful show. Even if the majority of the viewing public does not feel sufficiently awed to join the national society or the affiliate, at the very least they are better acquainted with bromeliads as a family. Certainly one of the most important things that the show does is to inspire the membership to grow better plants after viewing the cultural expertise of some of its members who have won major awards in the show. A society’s standard of growing excellence is always markedly increased by the show. When growers compete and see how well the plant’s can be grown, they are stimulated to grow better for next year’s competition.
Not every affiliate is ready to put on the standard bromeliad show, but for those that accept the challenge, and choose to award the medallions, and plaques of the international organization there are many pluses. A gold medallion whether won in Texas, or California, England, or Africa means the same thing — the summit of growing excellence. Affiliates desiring to stage the standard show should consult with the Affiliate Shows Chairman for details, and should purchase the Handbook for Judges and Exhibitors.
Some affiliates prefer to stage an annual exhibit or display, rather than stage the bromeliad show. While this is certainly a worthwhile effort, I challenge them to try a little competition for a change. It will certainly be a little more work, for while a display or exhibit can be put together by one or two hardy individuals, the show requires the cooperation of all the membership, both in the mechanics of putting it together, and also in entering the plants. No one has ever been enraptured by empty show tables, and full tables take the cooperation of all. And perhaps, the greatest benefits of all: the camaraderie and sense of belonging, and the satisfying feeling of achievement that envelops the membership as the show comes together. That’s what makes all the bother worthwhile!
The purpose of this nonprofit corporation is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of Bromeliaceae, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world. You are invited to join.
Vice President – Edgar Smith, 4415 Vandelia St., Dallas, TX 75219.
Corresponding Secretary – Owana Jo Myers, 14895 Garden Hill Dr., La Mirada, CA 90638.
Recording Secretary – Connie Johnson, 13075 SW 60th Ave., Miami, FL 33156.
Treasurer – David Gardner, 33 Camden PI., Corpus Christi, TX 78412.
(Regions represented are shown in italics)
1983-1985: David Benzing, At-large, Connie Johnson, Florida, Ron Lucibell, Outer, Valerie L. Steckler, At-large.
1984-1986: George Anderson, At-large, Chet Blackburn, California, Jack Grubb, Louisiana, Paul T. Isley III, California, Carol M. Johnson, Florida, Hedi Guelz Roesler, Outer, Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., Texas, H. W. Wiedman, At-large.
|May 19-20||Acadiana Bromeliad Society, Lafayette, LA.|
|June 9-10||Southwest Guild Show, Shreveport, LA.|
|June 20-24||World Bromeliad Conference, Los Angeles, CA.|
|August 17-19||Atlanta Bromeliad Society 6th Annual Show. Gwinnet Place, Exit 40, 1-85 N and Pleasant Hill Rd., Atlanta, GA. Displays, competition, sales. Mrs. Millie Burchardt (404) 981-4976.|