BSI Journal - Online Archive


Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Copyright 1985 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

Vol. 35, No. 1January—February 1985

Editors: Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., Edward C. Hall.
Editorial Advisory Board: David Benzing, Racine Foster, Sue Gardner, Victoria Padilla, Ellen Jay Peyton, Robert W. Read, John F. Utley.

Cover photograph
Front: Puya grafii Rauh spec. nov., a small decorative plant. The dense, white trichome covering of the leaf rosette gives the appearance of pure silver. The photograph is by Dr. W. Rauh; the description is on page 21.


CONTENTS
3Bromeliads in American Horticulture Victoria Padilla
8In Search of Tillandsia wagneriana Bill Soerries
10Bromeliad Hybrid and Cultivar Registration Nat DeLeon
13Planting Media for Bromeliad Seeds, Part II Kenneth E. Quinn
15New Directors, 1985-1987
16Neoregelia lillyae, a New, Medium-Size Neoregelia from Brazil Wilhelm Weber
19The Six-headed Best-in-Show Winner Stan Oleson
21Puya grafii, a New Dwarf Puya from Southern Venezuela Werner Rauh
24Notes on the Bromeliaceae of Big Bend National Park Bradley C. Bennett
26Three Mexican Tillandsias Briefly Reported Sue Gardner
28Book Reviews: Manuscript of Bromeliad Hybrids and Cultivars, compiled by Brian Smith Thomas J. Montgomery
The Beauty of the Bromeliads, by Tony Lea Victoria Padilla
30Bromeliad Flower Arrangement, No. 2 May A. Moir
33Another Way to Root Bromeliads Ervin J. Wurthmann
34The Variegated Bromeliad List—New Standardized Cultivar Names Nat De Leon

The Journal, ISSN 0090-8738, is published bimonthly at Orlando, Florida by the Bromeliad Society, Inc. Articles and photo-graphs are earnestly solicited. Closing date is 60 days before month of issue. Advertising rates are listed in the advertising section. Permission is granted to reprint articles in the Journal, in whole or in part, when credit is given to the author and to the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

Please address all membership and subscription correspondence to Membership Secretary Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105.

Subscription price (in U.S. $) is included in the 12-month membership dues: single - $15.00, dual (two members at one address receiving one Journal) - $20.00, contributing - $20.00, fellowship - $25.00, life - $750.00. Please add $5.00 for international mail, except for life members. For first class mail for any class of membership, please add $5.00. Individual copies are $3.25 for U.S., $4.00 for all other addresses, postpaid. Funds over $15.00 from contributing and fellowship members help to pay the cost of Journal color illustrations.

Please see inside back cover for a directory of all officers and services.

Printed by: Robinson Inc., Orlando, Florida


Bromeliads in American Horticulture
Victoria Padilla

romeliads may be said to have entered horticulture during the last part of the 18th century. The earliest known collector was Nicolaus Jaquin, who left Holland in 1755 to go to the West Indies and Venezuela in search of new plants, and he brought back several bromeliads. It was not until the early years of the 19th century, however, that the popular and familiar species such as Aechmea fasciata, Billbergia pyramidalis and Vriesea splendens found their way into the botanical gardens and drawing rooms of Europe.

There is no record of bromeliads being cultivated to any extent in the United States until the 1890's. True, as early as 1857 the pineapple was reported growing in California, but the first reference to a bromeliad in a garden for decorative purposes was that of Pitcairnia corallina in Santa Barbara in 1880. Dr. Francisco Franceschi, the eminent Italian horticulturist who settled in Southern California, listed several puyas, billbergias and dyckias in his catalogue issued in the mid-1890's. In the East, the nursery of Pitcher and Manda in New Jersey listed 76 species in 16 genera in their 1896 catalogue, but these plants were little known and seldom seen outside botanical gardens.

This was the era of the grand estate with its great conservatories and parklike grounds. Such an establishment necessitated the aid of well-educated and experienced gardeners, many of whom were brought from Europe. It is highly possible that many bromeliads were brought to this country by these men to whom bromeliads were familiar plants. One such plantsman was Henry Pfister, who for 30 years managed the White House Conservatories. Along with orchids he featured a number of rare and outstanding bromeliads. Particularly noteworthy were his many guzmanias—all rare items at that time—and his giant-sized Aechmea mariae-reginae, a plant which is difficult to obtain even today.

Undoubtedly, at this time bromeliads began to be introduced into many of the botanical gardens around the country—Chicago, Buffalo, New York and Brooklyn having the beginnings of collections. The Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis was one of the leaders in this field. The earliest recorded species was Pitcairnia latifolia which was listed in 1895 as having been in the Garden for some time. Through the assiduous efforts of Ladislaus Cutak, a sizable collection was eventually accumulated and displayed with the other exotic plants for which the Garden is noted.

BSI photograph
Fig. 1: One of the most colorful of all bromeliads, Guzmania sanguinea.

One of the outstanding estates in the West was that of the railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington, situated in San Marino, California. Under the inspired direction of William Hertrich, the garden became the repository of many rare specimens. Of special interest to bromeliad fanciers is the 25-acre Desert Garden, started in 1907, where the finest collection of xerophytic bromeliads may be seen. Puyas, bromeliads, pitcairnias, hechtias, dyckias—there are some in bloom throughout the year.

In Florida, the first large bromeliad collection of any note was that of Dr. Henry Nehrling in Gotha. As early as 1891 this eminent horticulturist was intrigued by the native tillandsias which then grew in abundance throughout the state, and he collected them for use in his own garden. He obtained bromeliads from Europe, botanical gardens in this country and from their lands of origin. His enthusiasm for these plants was boundless, and he was instrumental in introducing them to growers throughout Florida. He did extensive testing to determine their hardiness and was able to naturalize a number of species heretofore considered too tender. In the early 1920's he published in the American Eagle, a Florida newspaper, a series of notes concerning his garden, which are considered among the most eloquent words written in praise of bromeliads.

Also exuberant in his feelings towards these plants was Theodore L. Mead of Oviedo, Florida. From 1905 to 1923 he was interested chiefly in orchids; then he made his first trade of a bromeliad with Dr. Nehrling, and the die was cast. He started one of the great collections, and from 1926 until his death a decade later all his energies went into the hybridization of these plants. To him must go the credit of being the first American to hybridize bromeliads. True, most of the crosses he made had already been done in Europe, but two of his bi-generic crosses, Billbergia nutans × Cryptanthus beuckeri and Billbergia nutans × Cryptanthus bahianus, are popular today. He sent the first cross on to a nurseryman in Escondido, California, W. I. Beecroft, for introduction into the trade.

Beecroft himself tried his hand at hybridizing billbergias, but he is to be remembered chiefly for having introduced into California a number of fine species and hybrids then popular in Europe.

The 1930's showed a marked increase in interest in the bromeliad family throughout the entire country. Particularly in southern California where it was found that these plants were hardy in the milder areas did these plants make their appearance in nurseries. Probably the one person who did more than any other at this time to arouse interest was Richard G. Atkinson of Leucadia, who made many exchanges both here and abroad and amassed a sizable collection. Upon his death his plants were obtained in 1942 by Evans & Reeves of West Los Angeles, a nursery noteworthy for handling plants that were "different" The rockery within their lath-house contained a large specimen of Aechmea fasciata—a sight so stunning that many people at this time were bitten by the "bromeliad bug." In their catalogue for 1943 Evans & Reeves boasted of having thousands of various kinds.

BSI photograph
Fig. 2: Tillandsia brachycaulos growing on a branch.

Two other growers in southern California who were prominent at this time and exerted a not inconsiderable influence on other growers were James Giridlian and David Barry, Jr. James Giridlian, whose establishment, Oakhurst Gardens in Arcadia, was a mecca for rare bulb enthusiasts, offered bromeliads for sale in the early forties and championed them until his death some years later. The most eminent private collector was David Barry, Jr. of West Los Angeles, who used his many contacts throughout the world to gather an assemblage of plants that was second to none in the West. Later, his California Jungle Garden was for many years the best source of European hybrids in the country.

But the figure that looms first and foremost above all bromeliad growers was Mulford B. Foster of Orlando, Florida. One wonders how long it would have taken this family of plants to attain its present status if it had not been for this dynamic and tireless plantsman. His preoccupation with bromeliads began in 1928 with the acquisition of Aechmea fulgens, and was furthered by exchanges made with Theodore L. Mead in 1931. A series of collecting trips to Mexico served as an impetus to go farther into the field, and in 1939 he and his wife Racine went to Brazil and then on to practically every other country in Central and South America. He not only trod the path set out by the early explorers but also blazoned new trails and by doing so discovered 175 new bromeliads.

Foster was aided in the identification of his species by the American botanist Dr. Lyman B. Smith, then with the Gray Herbarium and now Smithsonian Institution botanist emeritus. It goes without saying that today Dr. Smith is the foremost authority on the Bromeliaceae—his massive three-volume study on the family superseding all previous monographs devoted to it.

Foster's famous "Bromelario" in Orlando soon became the ultimate bromeliad garden and brought visitors from all parts of the world. The nursery which Foster established on the grounds issued a mail-order listing in 1942, and for the first time bromeliads became generally available to gardeners throughout the nation.

In the late forties a dozen zealous amateurs from southern California started a bromeliad round robin, which in turn led to the formation of the Bromeliad Society in 1950. Under the aegis of Mulford Foster, the first president and editor of the bulletin for its first 10 years, the society flourished and soon became international in scope. Through the efforts of the members bromeliads found their way into shows, into public plantings and horticultural establishments, and more and more nurseries began to feature these plants.

Today prominent places are assigned to bromeliads in all the major flower shows, and each year scores of exhibits featuring only bromeliads are held by the members. Not satisfied with the varieties that the nurseries have to offer, bromeliad enthusiasts are setting out to collect their own plants in Mexico, Central and South America. Whereas collectors in the forties might have been satisfied with any bromeliads they could lay their hands on, times have changed, and today even the most inexperienced novice has his sights set on those plants which are difficult to obtain and to grow. Hence the interest in the variegated forms of otherwise plain-leaved varieties. They are so in demand that the stocks of them are constantly being depleted and prices for them sometimes reach unbelievable heights.

Also in demand are the plants not yet in cultivation, those which come from the hinterlands of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. No matter that many of these species come from the rarified atmosphere of the high Andes and resent ordinary cultivation, some collectors must have them at any cost. The nurseries of Europe, especially in Belgium and the Netherlands, have been besieged by requests for new hybrids, and so the demand for new plants goes on.

All this in turn has lead to extensive hybridizing among American growers—a situation which has resulted in much confusion in nomenclature. A case in point is the late Ed Hummel of California, who produced some of the finest hybrids to be seen anywhere. He kept no record of his work, and the hundreds of his crosses which flood the market are like orphans—their parentage unknown. And so it is with dozens of other hybridists. However, there have emerged a few serious nurserymen who are endeavoring to bring order into the hybrid mixup.

Although bromeliads may be seen chiefly in the southern states, there are few public gardens throughout the nation that do not have a spot reserved for them in their conservatories.

Florida and coastal southern California are the two areas where most of these plants may be grown outdoors the year round. In the Deep South with its humidity and heat, neoregelias with their colorful foliage and brilliant hearts reign supreme. This is true, also, in Florida, but other genera, those originally from lower elevations, thrive—the frequent rainfall proving to be a boon to these plants. In the Pacific Southwest, where semi-desert conditions prevail, tillandsias take their stand and decorate many a tree in the collector's garden. Xerophytic types also abound here.

Reprinted from American Horticulturist, vol. 59, no. 5, 1980, with permission.


In Search of Tillandsia wagneriana
Bill Soerries

t was late March 1984. We had been in Peru for almost two weeks and finding numerous bromeliads and orchids had made our trip a richly rewarding experience.

The project for this afternoon was to be the highlight of our trip, "the search for the gold," the ultimate prize: Tillandsia wagneriana L. B. Smith. We packed and double checked our gear after lunch, and met our guide whose grandfather had directed Lee Moore to the forest area where he discovered the elusive T wagneriana in 1963. Understandably, we were at razor-edge anticipation.

After boarding our motorized dugout near the city of Moyabamba, we traveled down the Rio Mayo for about an hour. The forest on both sides of the river seemed just about impenetrable. All along the way I kept noticing a species of huge tillandsia in full bloom growing near the tops of giant trees. Their inflorescences glowed in the sun and seemed to point the way.

Photo by the author.
Fig. 3: Tillandsia wagneriana L. B. Smith. A very tall (4 dm when flowering) Peruvian species of the subgenus Phytarrhiza. Here the blue petals of the fully developed inflorescence are in evidence.

At a place known to the guide, we landed and secured our craft, from there we made our way on foot while the sun blazed down onto the forest. We crossed sugar cane fields, waded up to our hips through clear, cool creeks, over hills and back into the thickets. We stopped occasionally to admire an unusual, fuzzy fern, magnificent vine, or the super large leaves of a giant anthurium. Plant life, lush and abundant, was every-where. Our excitement steadily growing, we went on and on. Time? Who cared?

Now the forest was getting more dense with every step. Some orchids, their beautifully brilliant flowerspikes contrasting drastically with the surroundings, caught our attention. We went deeper and deeper into the forest, the sun now barely filtering through the leaf canopy. At times, we flushed a colorful bird, or heard the distant chatter of a monkey. Our guides pushed on relentlessly. Large-leaf philodendrons, clinging to the trunks of their giant hosts, made a lasting impression on the travelers' memories.

Suddenly, as if entering an imperial domain, we found ourselves surrounded by T. wagneriana just as our guide had told us would happen, and his grandfather before him had told Lee Moore.

We stood there in total amazement for a while, the sunlight barely filtering through this maze. Then it was time to unpack and use instruments to get a more precise knowledge of this environment.

It seemed to me that other habitat descriptions had been partially incorrect. For one thing, the forest was much thicker than had been reported. Light meter readings at various locations showed 1000-1125 FC at 2:30 p.m. on a clear day. We were at an altitude of 2,925 feet, the air was almost still, the temperature was 88° F, and the humidity 82%. The PH meter indicated 5.8. Picture taking was the next order of business.

One of the most interesting of the growing conditions was that many of the plants were nearly covered with dead leaves and other matter forming a mulch with just the inflorescence standing erect above the plant. After brushing this debris aside and scrambling some critters—scorpions and the like—in all directions, I noticed that the lower leaves showed a much lighter green, but that they were just as healthy as the more exposed and darker green leaf sections. Under greenhouse conditions, I would have feared the presence of fungus or other diseases. None whatsoever was visible here, although it was obvious that the plants had been covered for some time. Some of the plants measured 15 to 22 inches in diameter with inflorescences towering up to 20 inches.

With the instruments read and repacked and the photographs taken, I carefully collected specimens of various sizes and stages of maturity, 22 plants in all. This same area was also inhabited by one or two species of guzmanias and at least one vriesea. These plants have not yet been identified.

Much too soon, our guide reminded us of our return journey. On leaving, I knew that I had made a brief visit into the habitat of one of the most spectacular tillandsias ever found and introduced into cultivation.

Now it is fall in Georgia. My collected T. wagneriana specimens are thriving in my greenhouse to the extent that at least one plant has produced a beautiful flowerspike. I have lost only two.

My special thanks are due to Fred Fuchs, of Naranja, Florida, our superb leader without whom this trip would not have been possible, to Lee Moore, the discoverer of T. wagneriana, and to the guide who led us to this elusive treasure.

Columbus, Georgia


Bromeliad Hybrid and Cultivar Registration
Nat DeLeon, BSI Hybrid Registrar

he BSI Board of Directors at its 1984 meeting in Los Angeles voted to revise the International Checklist of Bromeliad Hybrids, published in 1979, and approved related matters including the following items:

  1. The name of the revised register will be the International Bromeliad Hybrid Register.

  2. The procedure for hybrid and cultivar registration will follow the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants-1980.

  3. For a hybrid to be approved for registration, the parents of such hybrid, when they are also hybrids, must be registered. This rule shall be retroactive to 31 December 1978, the final date of the listing in the 1979 Checklist. Unregistered hybrids of unknown parentage will first be required to be registered as cultivars before being acceptable.

  4. Illegitimately formed varietal names of variegated plants in cultivation shall be grandfathered in as cultivars. After 1 January 1985, variegated bromeliads are required to have cultivar names formed in the manner specified in the Code (Articles 27-32). This rule does not apply, of course, to Latin-named plants, properly described.

  5. Registration is free for any number of cultivars except that the application for registration of cultivars of a single grex is limited to ten. A fee of $10.00 will be charged to register each additional cultivar of that grex. The imposition of this fee is intended to encourage the registration of only the best grex cultivars. This requirement will be reviewed by the Board at its 1985 regular meeting. It should be noted, as a matter of comparison, that the registration of orchids is limited to grex hybrids and that it costs $12.00 to register each grex hybrid.

Why Register?

The Code (Art. 1) states: "Cultivated plants are essential to civilization. It is important, therefore, that a precise, stable, and internationally accepted system should be available for their naming." While some may doubt that all bromeliads are "essential to civilization," it must be accepted that bromeliads belong to the plant kingdom and that the objective of promoting "uniformity, accuracy, and fixity in the naming of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural cultivars" (Art. 3) is desirable.

Basic Considerations

Anyone may ask for registration forms, but applicants must be familiar with the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants—1980* as the bases of the registration process.

The formation of hybrid and cultivar names, one of the frequently misunderstood and consequently abused practices, is thoroughly explained in the Code. Here are some examples:

Aechmea orlandiana × Ae. fosteriana = Ae. Bert grex (Art. 18) (a collective epithet).
Aechmea orlandiana 'Ensign' × Ae. fosteriana = Ae. Bert 'Red King'.
Neoregelia johannis × N. concentrica = N. Vulkan.
Neoregelia johannis × N. concentrica 'Moonshine' = N. Vulkan 'Sunset'.

It is not necessary to know the parents of cultivars of hybrid origin. All that is required is a good description in a modern language and two photographs as described below under "Registration Procedures." In the case of intergeneric hybrids, however, the names of the parent genera must be stated (Art. 17).

Self-fertilized hybrids must also be registered. The registrar will accept, for the purpose of clarification, the designation (F2) immediately following the grex or cultivar name, for example:

Aechmea Bert (F2) = Ae. Bert 'Razzle Dazzle'.
Neoregelia 'Luxurians' (F2) = N. 'Luxurians Red Glow', or N. 'Red Glow'.

While we all know that species of some genera, Tillandsia being a notorious example, are extremely variable, the variations may not be important enough to the taxonomist to warrant being given a varietal or forma name. Many are, however, important horticulturally and should be given cultivar names if genetically stable. We encourage nurserymen and other bromeliad growers to begin registering these as cultivars. Differences in plant size (when genetically stable), leaf coloration, color of inflorescence bracts, and growth habit are characteristics on which cultivar selection should be based. Descriptions of cultivars should state how they differ from the typical form.

Completion of the new Register will take many months. Enough time must be allowed for the registration of the many bromeliads now in cultivation that could and should be registered as cultivars. While the Register is being prepared, we shall publish a supplement to the Checklist to include all hybrids registered since December 1978. This supplement will be available by the end of January 1985. It will be of interest particularly to societies conducting judged shows. The availability date and price will be announced here.

Including cultivars in the registration process should go a long way toward reducing the confusion surrounding bromeliad nomenclature. We hope to persuade nurserymen to rewrite their lists to conform with the Code and the forthcoming Register. With this aid, bromeliad societies will have an authoritative source for their classification committees to use. We hope that all readers will provide their constructive criticism when pointing out possible errors. With the potential of international cooperation, we shall work toward the goal of beginning to speak, at long last, the same language.

Registration Procedure

Write to the BSI Hybrid Registrar at P.O. Box 560524, Miami, FL 33256-0524 for copies of the newly revised registration application form and for related information. Enclose a self-addressed, stamped, legal-size (10" or equivalent) envelope with your letter.

Return the completed application with two color slides suitable for use with a conventional projector (2" × 2", or 5 cm × 5 cm) one showing the overall view of the plant, the other a closeup view of the inflorescence when applicable, or a closeup of the foliage when that is the dominant element. Color or black and white prints will not be accepted. Slides of exceptional quality may be published in the Journal and a copy may be made for the BSI Slide Library.

Every application will be acted on promptly. If the application cannot be accepted an explanation will be given. Procedures for appeal are being formulated and will be announced.

Miami, Florida

*The Code may be purchased from the American Horticultural Society, Mt. Vernon, VA 22121 at $10.50 each copy. It may also be obtained from the International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature, Tweede Transitorium, Uithof, Utrecht, Netherlands, and from the Royal Horticultural Society, Vincent Square, London, SW 1 P2PE, Great Britain. Write directly to them for price and postal charges.


Planting Media for Bromeliad Seeds, Part II
Kenneth E. Quinn

n the 1983 November-December number of the Journal I discussed my experiences with several kinds of bromeliad seeds and concluded that the best medium seemed to be a mixture of peat pellets, potting soil, and fertilized peat. This article summarizes my further experiences with starting plants from the seed of different bromeliad species.

Observations Concerning Various Media

Osmunda. I did not recommend osmunda in the earlier article because I found it hard to keep moist. With subsequent attempts, however, I met with greater success by using a dense and fine-fibered osmunda. Although seeds of Aechmea lueddemanniana germinated and the seedlings grew very well on this medium, I still do not recommend it for use by a novice.

Paper tissue. Several publications have recommended using paper tissue as a germination medium. The problem with this material is that the roots rapidly become attached to the tissue and the seedlings are very hard to separate and transplant. Seeds should be sown on a medium on which the seedlings can grow for the first six months or longer.

Cork granules averaging several millimeters in diameter were tried with very poor results. Despite being kept constantly moist, the seeds placed on the cork did not germinate, while seeds from the same packet, placed on soil, germinated rapidly.

Pure sand is also difficult to keep moist. When mixed with potting soil the drainage rate increases with the amount of sand added. Pitcairnioideae seedlings, in particular, seem to appreciate the drainage that a high proportion of sand provides.

Moss-covered rocks. In the Bromeliaceae by L. B. Smith and Robert J. Downs there is frequent reference to specimens found growing on "moss-covered rocks." This information led me to experiment with living moss as a seed germination medium. I observed that the seeds germinated and grew vigorously and that there were no problems with fungus. Any competition between the moss and the seedlings for nutrients was not evident. In some cases I tried starting seed from one packet on both moss and soil. The moss-grown seedlings have been larger, without exception.

Observations Concerning Various Seeds

Pitcairnioideae seeds from several species have now been successfully germinated and grown for several months. Good drainage seems to be appreciated by the more xeric species. A humid atmosphere is necessary, but the planting medium works best when only slightly damp. Species native to moist environments respond to the same treatment as aechmea seeds, that is, a constantly moist medium. I still have problems with xeric species; perhaps I keep them too moist.

Since arid environments may offer good conditions for seed germination only at intervals, one would expect plants native to such areas, and possibly their descendants, to show long seed life. I was given recently nine-month-old seeds collected in a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Two packets were tillandsia species and one was a pitcairnia species. The germination rate of the tillandsias was nearly zero with only one feeble seedling. The pitcairnia seeds, on the other hand, had an excellent germination rate. One instance proves very little, of course, and the tillandsia seeds may have been infertile. Further investigation along this line may provide useful information.

Tank tillandsioid seeds germinate and become established readily on peat pellets as well as on fernwood logs. Other media have been either too soggy or too dry. I tried osmunda clippings but had problems with fungus.

Light Requirements

Once the seeds have germinated, care must be given to lighting. Many seedlings, especially the fast growing such as billbergia species and Aechmea macvaughii rapidly become spindly and elongated if not given strong overhead lighting. Outdoor bright shade is ideal. Under such conditions, growth occurs rapidly and specimens remain erect.

Separating and Transplanting

The seedlings will have reached adequate size in anywhere from three to six months after sowing. Billbergia species and Hohenbergiopsis develop twice as fast as Aechmea lueddemanniana which takes up to six months. Neoregelia species are very slow. In any case, the grower must be ready to separate and transplant the seedlings as soon as they have developed between six and eight leaves. These procedures demand care and patience. The root systems are typically still very small, therefore, root damage is that much more detrimental when it does occur. I move seedlings to community pots to give them more room than available in individual pots. Some loss is inevitable at this stage, but some small, weak seedlings can often be saved by placing them on their own peat pellet.

Summary

There is no one right way to grow bromeliads from seed. Hobbyists growing seeds for the first time should try some seeds from each packet on several media. I suggest peat pellets as the most likely to give good results. I also suggest beginning with billbergia, and the larger aechmea species, or Acanthostachys stobilacea. All of these species have rapid, robust growth and will tolerate some neglect, and the pellets will most likely give good results.

Huntsville, Alabama


New Directors, 1985-1987

he Nominating Committee is pleased to announce the names of the 1985-1987 directors:

Nat De Leon
Gerald A. Raack
Stan Oleson
Linda Harbert
Ervin Wurthmann
Herbert Plever
Bobbie H. Beard
Robert E. Soppe
At-large
At-large
California
Central
Florida
Northeast
Southern
Western


Neoregelia lillyae, a New Medium-Size Neoregelia from Brazil
Wilhelm Weber

ome unidentified bromeliads received in 1978 from Senhora Amanda Bleher of Lotus Osiris in Brazil included interesting, medium-size neoregelias with red-spotted leaves (fig. 4 and 5). These plants flowered for me in August 1981. Careful dissection, examination, and comparison with already described species established that this is a new species. I have named it in honor of my wife, Lilly, because without her great patience and help I could never spend so much time working in the scientia amabilia.

Neoregelia lillyae Weber.

Plant ca. 20 cm high, offsets emerging directly from the base without stolons. Leaves 10-15, suberect to divergent, forming a rosette to 30 cm in diameter, pale green, the lower half purplish-red spotted, indistinctly appressed lepidote. Sheaths ovate, distinct, to 60 mm long and 40 mm wide, subinflated, their margins membranaceous and entire. Blades lingulate, to 17 cm long and to 40 mm wide, the outer subacuminate and subulate apiculate, the inner rounded and apiculate, canaliculate, the margins armed with small brown spines. Scape very short, terete, 8 mm in diameter, white, dissite brown lepidote, internodes only 3-5 mm long. Scape bracts ovate, subulate acuminate, greenish-white, dissite brown lepidote, margins indistinct surrulate, the higher involucrate, membranaceous and apiculate, pale purplish. Inflorescence simple, densely capitate ca. 25-flowered, to 35 mm high and 25 mm in diameter. Flowers 35 mm long with 10-mm long white brownish lepidote pedicel. Flower bracts 17-22 mm long, 5-6 mm wide, apices rounded and minutely apiculate, membranaceous, nerved, dissite lepidote, as long as the ovary or somewhat longer. Sepals lanceolate with a subulate terminal mucro, 15 mm long, ca. 2 mm high connate, purplish with some pale yellow-green spots, margins membranaceous and strongly asymmetrical. Petals to 7 mm high, tubular, connate, white, their blades in anthesis recurved, lanceolate, violacea, on the inner surface without longitudinal calli. Stamens and style included. Filaments 10 mm long, white, the inner circle 7 mm high, the outer completely grown to the petals. Anthers 3 mm long, trigonous, yellowish-white, dorsifixed. Ovary long ovoid, 7 mm long, 3.5 mm in diameter, glabrous, white; ovules apical, loculated. Style terete, 16 mm long, white; stigma spirally contorted and sightly fimbriated.

Leg. Amanda and Michael Bleher s.n. 1978, Brazil, exact habitat unknown. Holotype: WEB 314.

Drawing by Author..
Fig. 4: Neoregelia lillyae var. lillyae W. Weber spec. nov.

A. Inner leaf with inflorescence, typical variety. B. Inner leaf with inflorescence, var. acuminata. C. Flower with flower bract.
D. Flower bract. E. Sepal. F. Petals with stamens. G. Longitudinal section of ovary with style.

Photos by the author.
Fig. 5: N. lillyae var. lillyae with flower detail.

Fig. 6: N. lillyae var. acuminata. The long leaves tapering to little points are clearly in evidence.

With the same shipment I received two other plants with the same flower characteristics, but the long, acuminate and apiculate leaves were about twice as long. I have described this variety as N. lillyae var. acuminata (Holotype: WEB 313) (fig. 6).

The Latin description of both varieties was published in Feddes Repertorium 94:599, fig. 3 and 4. 1983.

Neoregelia lillyae is easy to cultivate as are most of the neoregelias from eastern Brazil. The neat and decorative red spots become bright and intense especially if cultivated in full sun.

Waldsteinberg, German Democratic Republic


The Six-Headed Best-in-Show Winner
Stan Oleson

Photo by the author.
Fig. 7: A six-headed, best-in-show prize winning Aechmea fasciata 'Silver King'.

owena Thompson of Wilmington, California, began her bromeliad career in 1979 with a gift: Aechmea fasciata 'Silver King'. When the South Bay Bromeliad Associates was preparing its annual show in May 1981, Rowena told me of her aechmea that now had three inflorescences. She had removed the mother plant when the three pups were about half the size of the mother and had been rewarded with three, equally beautiful plants in one pot. I encouraged her to enter it into competition. She won a second place award.

Later that year, with two large pups on each of the three mother plants, she again cut off the mother plants leaving the pups in the original pot. Since the six pups were crowding one another I suggested that she apply wooden spacers to encourage a symmetrical pattern. During the August 1983 South Bay Bromeliad Associates Show, Rowena won best-in-show for this outstanding specimen with the six, striking, pink inflorescences dotted with lavender-blue flowers (fig. 7).

Rowena did something that most of us usually do not do. Instead of cutting off the pups to increase her collection, she removed the mother plant to increase the size of her specimen plant. Now we are waiting to see if each plant will again produce two pups. What a show stopper that would be: twelve blooms.

San Pedro, California


Puya grafii, a New Dwarf Puya from Southern Venezuela
Werner Rauh

n February 1984 I received from Enrique Graf, of Caracas, Venezuela, a small but very decorative puya with a bulbous stem and a rosette of narrowly triangular leaves carrying a dense, white trichome covering. The plant looks like pure silver. One plant has now flowered. Since we cannot further identify this beautiful plant, we shall describe it as a new species*. Following is the diagnosis:

Puya grafii Rauh spec. nov.

Plant stemless, flowering up to 80 cm high (in cultivation), growing single; it is not known if the plant branches after the flowering period. The stembase forms a thick bulb of 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm height. Leaves numerous, densely imbricate, spirostichous, forming a spreading rosette of 50-60 cm in diameter. Sheaths conspicuous, covering the bulb 3.5-4 cm wide at the base and 2 cm high, glabrous at the base, densely lepidote in the upper half. Blades narrow-lineal, above the sheath 5 mm wide, up to 30 cm long, tapering into a long, soon-dying tip, dentate at the margins; the teeth forward uncinate, 2 mm long, brown, 1-2 cm separate from each other; densely silver-white lepidote when young, becoming glabrous on the upper side, slightly canaliculate, spreading up to recurved. Inflorescence scape up to 70 cm long, 0.7 cm thick, erect, greenish, white-woolly lepidote. Scape bracts lax, much longer than the internodes, very smooth at anthesis, the basal ones subfoliate, with a long, erect, reddish-green, dentated sheath and a strongly recurved, laxly lepidote and therefore green blade; the upper scape bracts long-triangular-acute, erect. Inflorescence simple, erect, laxly cylindrical, 10-12 cm long, 2 cm thick, with 15 flowers more or less. Floral bracts prefloral erect, lanceolate-acute, the basal ones up to 3.5 cm long, 0.8 cm wide at the base, as long as the sepals, the upper bracts shorter, even at the margin, gray lepidote on both sides, their tips drying off early, violet, then nerved. Flowers up to 6 cm long, with a short, thick, densely lepidote pedicel, actinomorphic, radiating from the center, prefloral erect, at the time of anthesis divergent. Sepals long-lanceolate, ±3.5 cm long, 0.8 cm wide, acute, ecarinate, free, green, densely gray-lepidote. Petals ligulate, up to 6 cm long, 1 cm wide, obtuse, recurved, pale yellow, with wine-red lines at the margin, underneath, about in the region of the midrib, with white, starlike scales. Stamens and style shorter than the petals, but visible. Filaments white, anthers narrow-lineate, white; pollengrains white; style white with white spiralized stigmas.

Fig. 9: Puya grafii inflorescence detail showing the regular flowers in radial pattern, with pale yellow petals outlined with wine-red lines.
Photos by the author.

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 8: Puya grafii Rauh,
a newly described species.

Type: Coll. Enrique Graf, Venezuela, s.N. = B.G.H. 64663, in Herb. Inst. System. Bot., Univ. Heidelberg (HEID).

Distribution: Yuta-Hé, Prov. Amazonas (southern Venezuela) on grassy-rocky slopes.

P. grafii is a very interesting plant in its vegetative state, but the inflorescences are not very attractive. They resemble slightly those of P. mirabilis from Peru. It seems that this plant has no close relatives in Venezuela. The typical characteristics of P. grafii are the bulbous stembases, the narrow-linear, silver-white, hard rosette leaves with the contrasting green, thin scape bracts. In a second specimen, in which the formation of the inflorescence has been suppressed, only a tuft of scape bracts has been developed. These bracts present a remarkable contrast with their green color to the silver-white rosette-leaves.

P. grafii is a very attractive plant for bromeliad and cactus growers because it is relatively small. It may be difficult, however, to get seeds or young plants.

Heidelberg, West Germany

*The plant is dedicated to Enrique Graf, an orchid cultivator in Caracas. I am very indebted to him for sending living material. The Latin diagnosis will appear in "Bromelienstudien" XVI, Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt.


Notes on the Bromeliaceae of Big Bend National Park
Bradley C. Bennett

hree bromeliad species are found in Big Bend National Park, Texas: Hechtia scariosa L. B. Smith, H. texensis S. Watson, and Tillandsia recurvata (Linnaeus) Linnaeus. H. Texensis is similar to H. scariosa, but is known with certainty only from the type collection (Johnston and Correll 1970, Smith and Downs 1974). H. scariosa, the false agave, is common on limestone substrates in BBNP and the Chihuahuan Desert of northern Mexico. Mohlenbrock (1982) recently discussed some aspects of H. scariosa in this Journal. Here, I provide further observations on H. scariosa and also discuss the distribution of T. recurvata in BBNP and morphological variation within the species.

Because of its resemblance to Agave lechuguilla, H. scariosa is commonly called the false agave. I found populations of this plant at three sites in BBNP. On limestone hills near Boquillas Canyon it is codominant with fluffgrass (Erioneuron pulchellum) and lechuguilla. In Santa Elana Canyon it occurs with lechuguilla and several cactus species including Opuntia lindheimeri and O. rufida. The false agave is widely scattered around Dagger Flats where the dominant species are lechuguilla and the Spanish dagger (Yucca carnerosana).

H. scariosa and A. lechuguilla often are positively associated in BBNP. Lechuguilla, however, has broader ecological tolerances and is often found independent of H. scariosa and in greater densities.

In the specimens of H. scariosa that I observed, the scapes began to emerge in early March, 1983. No flowers were seen at that time. The inflorescences of the previous year persisted, but the unappendaged seeds were not found in any capsules. Seedlings of H. scariosa were either absent or unrecognizable. Establishment in these desert communities is probably episodic, occurring only during optimal years. Vegetative propagation predominates.

Tillandsia recurvata, the ball moss, was found in Boot Canyon, at an elevation of 6,800 feet. Normally epiphytic, T recurvata is saxicolous at this site. A few individuals were found on a dead oak tree, but most were located on vertical rock exposures.

Low temperatures associated with both the altitude and the latitude (29° 10') may prevent epiphytic establishment. Since heat stored in the rock mass creates a warmer microclimate than that found on surrounding trees, plants growing on rocks of certain exposures may experience smaller temperature fluctuations. Ball moss was found mostly on east-facing exposures probably because northern rock exposures in the steep canyon receive little direct sunlight and rock faces with southern or western exposures experience high summer temperatures.

The occurrence of T recurvata in Boot Canyon is noteworthy. While climatological data are not available, the woody vegetation at this site (including Arizona cypress, Douglas fir, and bigtooth maple) indicates that this specific climate is cooler and moister than that of adjacent areas. An interesting comparison is the absence of ball moss in many counties of northern Florida (approximately the same latitude) where the temperature range is less severe. From this observation it is apparent that other ecological factors influence the distribution of this species.

Morphologically, the BBNP populations of ball moss are much different from those found in Florida. Leaf, scape, and capsule lengths are shorter in the Chihauhaun Desert populations. Trichome cover is more dense, almost pruinose, in these populations as well. The differences are not entirely clinal as shown in the accompanying table. Herbarium and living specimens were examined from eight sites in Florida, Texas, and Arizona. One-way analysis of variance indicated that sample location had a significant effect on leaf, scape, and capsule lengths. Individual means were compared by Scheffe's Method. In the chart, sample means with the same letters are not significantly different from one another.

Two trends are immediately apparent. First, leaf, scape, and capsule lengths in the BBNP population are significantly shorter than in the Florida populations. Second, the Arizona specimens are intermediate between the Florida and BBNP samples with respect to those three characteristics. More information is needed to determine if these trends are real or merely a result of sample sizes. Intuitively, the data are satisfying. One might suspect a trend toward vegetative reduction in the more severe environments. Saxicolous habitats are more nutrient- and moisture-stressed than are epiphytic habitats.

Variation among the ball moss populations can be explained by ecological rather than geographical gradients. If the differences between the BBNP and other populations of T recurvata are discrete infraspecific recognition of this population may be warranted.

Mean leaf, scape, and capsule lengths of T. recurvata in samples from Florida (FL1, FL2, FL3, FL4, FL5), east Texas (TX1), Arizona (AR1), and Big Bend National Park (CH1)


LEAF (cm)SCAPE (cm)CAPSULE (cm)

FL1
FL2
FL3
FL4
TX1
AR1
CH1
7.8 A
8.6 A
8.0 A
6.9 A B
5.2     B C
5.5     B C
3.8         C
8.2 A
9.3 A
7.9 A
8.9 A
6.9 A B
4.5     B C
2.7         C
2.7 A
3.2 A
2.9 A
2.9 A
2.8 A
2.2 A B
1.3     B

Mean Values with the same letter are not significantly different from one another.

REFERENCES:
Correll, D. S.; Johnston, M. C. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Renner: Texas Research Foundation; 1970.
Mohlenbrock, M. W. Hechtia scariosa - a Chihuahuan Desert bromeliad. J. Bromel. Soc. 32:156-158; 1982.
Smith, L. B.; Downs, R. J. Pitcairnioideae (Bromeliaceae). Flora Neotropica monograph, no. 14, pt. 1. New York: Hafner Press; 1974.

Chapel Hill, North Carolina


Three Mexican Tillandsias Briefly Reported
Sue Gardner

[Reports of these three tillandsias, two from the State of Chiapas and the third from central Mexico have been infrequent. Although described in Tillandsioideae by Lyman B. Smith and Robert J. Downs, there is no indication of their having been discussed in the Journal. This report by Dr. Gardner is of particular significance because of the accompanying photographs. Dr. Smith's descriptions in abbreviated form have been added.]

Photo by the author.
Fig. 10: Tillandsia acostae. The first color photograph of this species to appear in these pages.

he eruption of El Chichón, a small volcano in the State of Chiapas, Mexico, for first time in more than a thousand years was described in the November 1982 National Geographic Magazine by Boris Weintraub. It pumped ten times as much ash into the air as did Mount St. Helens in 1980. It buried several villages, killing many people and driving thousands from their homes.

Remnants of a tropical forest that occur on the lower flanks of El Chichón are the habitat of populations of several interesting tillandsia species. Among these are Tillandsia acostae Mez & Tonduz (fig. 10), T flabellata Baker, T. filifolia Schlectendal & Chamisso, as well as T. chlorophylla L. B. Smith (fig. 11). The latter species has been known earlier only from Guatemala and Belize. Recent encouraging reports indicate that these lower slopes received only a heavy deposit of ash and that the vegetation is recovering.

Fig. 11: T. chlorophylla. Another first color photograph of this species known earlier only from Guatemala and Belize.
Photos by the author.

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 12: T. albida, a very tall, rootless plant, found only in Hidalgo, Mexico.

T. acostae. Plant 20-25 cm high; sheaths 3-4 cm long; blades 10-15 mm wide at the base; scape erect, short. Inflorescence: primary and floral bracts 2 cm long; spikes 7-14 cm long, 2 cm in diameter.

T. chlorophylla. Plant stemless. Leaves 5 dm long; sheaths 6 cm long, 1 cm wide at the base. Inflorescence 8-12 cm long; spikes 3-5 cm long, 7-10 mm wide; 3-6 flowered.


Tillandsia albida Mez & Purpus ex Mez is endemic to a single canyon in the central Mexican State of Hidalgo. It differs from T. utriculata and its other close relatives by its elongate stem covered with short, arching, persistent leaves (fig. 12). This species does not grow on trees or rocks except for rare specimens, but occurs on desert slopes of a river canyon where the dominant species is Cephalocereus senilis (Old Man cactus).

The seeds of this plant typically germinate on twigs of small shrubs that are not strong enough to support them when mature. The twigs soon break and the plants fall to the rocky desert floor. There, T. albida continues to grow, offsetting freely, and never producing roots after the initial seedling roots. Large colonies of a single clone, occasionally reaching a meter in height, are held erect by the surrounding vegetation.

T. albida. Plant flowering to 4 dm high. Leaves 12 cm long. Inflorescence 13 cm long, 3 cm wide, laxly 6-flowered; floral bracts up to 21 mm long.

Corpus Christi, Texas


Book Reviews

anuscript of Bromeliad Hybrids and Cultivars. Complied by Brian Smith. 2nd edition. Typescript. 8½" × 11" format in pressboard covers with nylon posts to simplify adding updates. $13.00. The compiler, 3035 Montego, Plano, TX 75023.

Brian Smith's second edition of this Manuscript of Bromeliad Hybrids and Cultivars is, without doubt, the most complete list available today. We must be greatly indebted to this man who has spent countless hours of research and filing to produce this document.

The new edition incorporates 616 new listings and 163 changes or corrections. The author's persistence in seeking out information, and his willingness to make corrections give his work vitality and freshness. As a small example, he has moved the plant widely known as Orthanthus 'Little Bit' (Hummel) to Ortholarium 'Little Bit' (Hummel), a small step, dealing with what is, perhaps, an insignificant plant, but here is one more error corrected and one more bit of knowledge added. This transfer was not a capricious act, but one based on sound information from those who have studied the flower. In fact, some Florida nurseries have changed their listings of this plant name to conform with this change.

Another valuable aid found here is the listing of plants in circulation under such names as Neoregelia 'Copper Penny', N. 'Citation', and N. 'Orange Fire' in their proper place as cultivars of N. carolinae 'Meyendorffii' (in hort.). Also, many hybrids known generally by their cultivar name, for example, N. 'City of Gold' are actually cultivars of a known grex as in this case, N. Eldorado and are so listed.

It is to be regretted that this edition does not carry the author's research notes. Having been privileged to follow the development of this catalog for several years, I have gained insight into the detail available for the justification of many of the entries. In the handwritten, prepublication version, for example, Aechmea 'Burgundy' carries the following data: distichantha var. schlumbergeri × weilbachii var. leodiensis, M. Foster 1962; Neotropica, p. 1953;* Bromeliads, by V. Padilla, p. 123; Bromeliads for Modern Living, by Louis Wilson, p. 22; Bromeliads, by R. G. and C. Wilson, p. 45; Bromeliad Society of Houston, Inc. Bulletin 1969, no. 3, p.12; Bromeliad Society, Inc. Journal, 1966, no. 5, p. 116." These references and information should be invaluable for years to come. This information is available through correspondence with Mr. Smith.

Since the compiler has been successful in helping to clarify the hybrid and cultivar confusion perhaps he might now address the use and misuse of botanical names in Latin in forming the name of a cultivar. Nat De Leon in the January-February 1983 number of the Journal suggested that more than ninety percent of all variegated bromeliads in cultivation today are improperly named. It would be helpful to have these erroneously formed names listed for easy reference. [See pages 36 and 37, Ed.]

*In Bromelioideae by L. B. Smith and R. J. Downs, p. 1953, this cultivar formula is given as distichantha × species, and as distichantha var. schlumbergeri × weilbachii (vanderodiensis).

The Manuscript is bound to contain errors if only because of its length; yet, if information and substantiation are provided, corrections can be made in updates and subsequent editions. Thus, you, too, can contribute to the general knowledge.

Although this volume has no official BSI standing, and for that reason cannot serve as a checklist for standard bromeliad shows, it could be most helpful to the classification committee when entry tags are being verified, or possibly to supply the formula so that cultivars might be allowed to contend for higher awards.

This work would make an excellent addition to any bromeliad club library. I recommend it also as a required reference for any serious hobbyist. Further, if properly considered, and if the source notations are utilized, this vast resource should have a distinct bearing on the content of the next revision of the International Checklist of Bromeliad Hybrids.

Thomas J. Montgomery
Galena Park, Texas


The Beauty of the Bromeliads, a 34-page book by Tony Lea, a keen grower of bromeliads, has just recently been published in Australia. The book measures 9¾ × 7½ inches, with vibrant color on every page. There are 62 very fine, color photographs by Brian Garnett showing bromeliads not as they are grown in the artificial conditions of a greenhouse, but as they appear in the garden, often in combination with other genera. This kind of picture is excellent for the beginner as he will get an idea of what to expect from his plants. Each picture is accompanied by a text which informally describes the plant in question.

Mr. Lea was aided and abetted in this, his first endeavor in publishing, by Grace Goode, one of the foremost growers in her country, who described the genera.

This is a charming book for all interested in bromeliad literature. It may be obtained by sending $4.95 to: Mr. Tony Lea, 53 William Street, Caloundra, 4551, Queensland, Australia.

Victoria Padilla
Los Angeles, California


Bromeliad Flower Arrangement, No. 2
May A. Moir

n Hawaii, Neoregelia compacta blooms in the spring and when the cups are bright pink I like to use them in arrangements. It is a rampant grower so I do not hesitate to gather a large basketful of plants.

To find a stalk of banana that is pink is not such an easy matter. The common pale-green banana stalk can be used, but it is not nearly as dramatic as the pink type.

Now to take you step by step in making an arrangement of this sort. First, you will need a large pot. The one in the picture (fig. 13) is a deep red ceramic that has been in use at the Academy of Arts for years. One could use most any pot that would hold the weight of the arrangement, preferably one without a drainage hole. Next, one needs a large kenzan (needle holder).

The banana stalk can be cut a couple of days ahead of making the arrangement and then, when ready to put it all together, the outer layer of the banana can be peeled off to /give a clean and colorful look. The top should be freshly cut and soaked with lemon or lime juice to keep the banana from turning brown. For this arrangement I used a section of banana stalk a little over five feet tall. The base has to have a straight cut at right angles to the upright. After pounding the kenzan into the base of the stalk to hold it erect, the stalk is then lifted into the pot and rocks or broken brick placed around the stalk almost to the rim of the pot, always being sure that the stalk is erect.

Photo by Robert Chinn,
Honolulu Academy of Arts.
Fig. 13: Neoregelia compacta and pink banana stump arrangement. Height 5½ feet.

Now you are ready for the fun part. With florist pins (greening pins) the N. compacta plants are pinned to the banana stalk. Try not to put the pins through the cup of the bromel. About two pins to a plant are usually enough to hold it to the banana. After all the plants are in place, fill their cups with water and sprinkle the rocks liberally with water. This arrangement should stay in good condition for two weeks provided it is in the shade and the cups of the neos are kept filled with water (about twice a week is usually enough). Apart from the beauty of this arrangement, the good part is that the plants are not damaged and can be replanted to grow again for next year.

Honolulu, Hawaii


Another Way to Root Bromeliads
Ervin J. Wurthmann

[This is an expansion of an article first published in the Bromeliad Guild of Tampa Bay Newsletter.]

he use of perlite (sponge rock) as a medium to root bromeliads pups is not new, but this information has in all probability not been available to every one. The writer finds it a very satisfactory medium for rooting. The advantages are numerous. Foremost, is ease of handling. After allowing a day or two for the severed area to callous, simply plunge the offset into a pot filled nearly to the rim with wet perlite. When the plant will remain upright, stop plunging. Planting can be multiple (four to six pups) per six-inch pot. Water the pups in.

They can be sprayed immediately with a soluble fertilizer at a concentration of one teaspoon of fertilizer per gallon of water. Spray this solution on the pups weekly. Never allow the liquid in the plant cup to dry completely because the higher concentration of the fertilizer could cause leaf burn.

Misting the pups with water will be a matter determined by the available humidity, everyday in a greenhouse, for example. I doubt that you can over-water plants in perlite.

Light requirements are the same as for a growing plant of the same species.

The time needed to root the plants is the product of the species involved and the weather conditions. After about four weeks pull a plant to see how it is doing. If no roots, plunge it back and check at weekly intervals.

As soon as the roots have started, pot the pups after shaking off any perlite that sticks to the plant.

Difficult-to-root bromeliads such as Vriesea fosteriana 'Red Chestnut' have responded well in this medium. When potting up this plant, formulate an airy mix that will accept frequent watering.

Bromeliads can be grown in an all-perlite mix, but must have frequent foliar feeding because the perlite provides no nutrition. Perlite for rooting plants can be considered an almost fail-safe medium.

Seffner, Florida


The Variegated Bromeliad List—New Standardized Cultivar Names
Nat De Leon, BSI Hybrid Registrar

he BSI Board decision to begin registering cultivars opened the door to a nagging problem of long duration: what to do with the invalid names of any variegated bromeliads. The practice of giving varietal names, not supported by Latin descriptions, has gone on for many years just as if the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants had never existed. We may not agree with all of the rules, but as the registering authority for bromeliads we are bound by that code.

It would take years to assemble all of the variegated bromeliads incorrectly named, photograph them, and to give them meaningful descriptions and cultivar names. More important, to do so would lead to widespread confusion because most of those names have been used for a long time and are very well known by growers. The purpose of registration is to help eliminate confusion, not to create it. I asked a number of people including several taxonomists for solutions and no one had a workable answer, hence my recommendation to the Board to make such names legitimate by designating them as cultivars. When the new register is printed, such entries will be marked to show that they were accepted, but never registered.

What the List Includes

The list which follows, then, is intended to present the names of nearly all variegated bromeliads and to show their status according to present-day standards. The basic aim is to eliminate further confusion. I hope, as registrar, that this list will provide the standard names by which variegated bromeliads will be known from now on and that all nurserymen, societies, and growers will cooperate in using this list as the authority whenever these names are used. I encourage you to send me corrections and additions to the list so that its accuracy may be improved.

In the interests of simplicity and uniformity, I have decided to use single quotes only to designate cultivars and to avoid using the abbreviation cv., even though it, too, is correct. I urge all others to follow this convention and to keep in mind that it is incorrect to use both designations at the same time.

The list includes validly Latinized names drawn from two sources: plants listed in Lyman Smith's monograph or those subsequently described properly, and plants which have been in cultivation for many years and which are well described in the literature. The Code clearly states that such names, published before 1 January 1959, are to be accepted and need not be changed. Those names are designated with an asterisk.

I agree with Harry Luther, director of the Bromeliad Identification Center, and other taxonomists that the varietal status of species should be given only for characters that are more important than leaf color (which includes variegation), the color of bracts or flower petals, unless such characters exist as a natural population. Since few of the varieties listed fit this criterion, they should be reduced to the next lower botanical ranking which is forma, abbreviated f. All but one of these are a product of vegetative or seed mutation in horticulture, or they are natural, as perhaps one of thousands. They are, therefore, reduced to forma rank. Guzmania monostachia var. variegata does exist in Florida, however, as a distinct population and its varietal status is maintained.

Still causing problems since I last wrote about it in Grande is the variegate grown as Neoregelia carolinae var. rosea lineata. It has since been registered variously as rosea striata, rubra lineatum, and roseo striatum. There can be no doubt that the species involved is not N. carolinae, and since it is still used in hybridizing, I shall call it N. "Rosea Striata" until its botanical status has been determined.

What the List Excludes

Not all variegates are included in the list. Those recently introduced and some that are very rare have been excluded because I hope that they will be given cultivar names in accordance with the Code by the time their stock level reaches the point of ready availability. To avoid future confusion, growers are urged to give such plants cultivar names before they are released. Also excluded are cultivars of Neoregelia carolinae (meyendorffii group), the largest single group of variegates. Sometimes the same plant has a different name depending on what part of the country or world you live in. With these, the best course of action seems to be to photograph them and publish the picture and name in the Journal for the sake of comparison. Work on this project has already begun.

Valid Forma or Variety Variegates

Aechmea caudata f. variegata (Ae. forgetiana)
coelestis f. albomarginata
fasciata f. albomarginata*
fasciata f. variegata*
lindenii f. makoyana (Ae. comata var. makoyana)
magdalenae f. quadricolor
ornata f. nationalis
Ananas bracteatus f. tricolor
comosus f. porteanus*
comosus f. variegatus
Bromelia serra f. variegata
Cryptanthus bromelioides f. tricolor
Guzmania monostachia var. variegate
Neoregelia carolinae f. tricolor
Nidularium innocentii f. lineatum
innocentii f. paxianum
innocentii f. striata
Tillandsia utriculata f. variegata
xerographica f. variegata
Vriesea ensiformis f. striata
erythrodactylon f. striata
guttata f. striata
platynema f. striata
platynema f. variegata
splendens f. striatifolia
* = Described before 1 January 1959.

Named Cultivars of Variegates

Aechmea chantinii 'Samurai'
'Foster's Favorite Favorite'
apocalyptica 'Helen Dexter'
lueddemanniana 'Alvarez' (syn. variegata, mediopicta)
lueddemanniana 'Mend'
lueddemanniana 'Rodco'
orlandiana 'Ensign'
'Red Ribbon'
Ananas bracteatus 'Candy Stripe'
comosus 'Golden Rocket'
Billbergia pyramidalis 'Kyoto'
pyramidalis 'Santa Barbara'
pyramidalis 'Julian Nally'
Cryptanthus fosterianus 'Elaine'
'It'
'Pink Starlite'
'Starbrite'
'Ti'
'Coster's Favorite'
Guzmania lingulata 'Superb'
zahnii 'Omar Morobe'
Neophytum Ralph Davis 'Sensation'
Neoregelia carolinae 'Perfecta Tricolor'
'Fosperior Perfection'
Nidularium innocentii 'Ruby Lee'
Orthotanthus 'What'
Vriesea 'Shima rhyu'
Grandfathered Variegates

Aechmea bracteata 'Variegata'
caudata 'Albomarginata'
chantinii 'Variegata'
Bert 'Variegata'
Compacta 'Albomarginata'
Compacta 'Variegata'
fulgens v. discolor Albomarginata'
fulgens v. discolor 'Variegata' Maginali 'Variegata'
miniata v. discolor 'Variegata'
nudicaulis 'Albomarginata'
nudicaulis 'Variegata'
pimenti-velosoi 'Variegata'
recurvata v. benrathii 'Variegata'
tillandsioides 'Variegata'
Ananas comosus 'Albomarginata'
Canistrum lindenii f. exigum 'Albomarginata'
lindenii f. exigum 'Variegata'
Cryptanthus acaulis 'Variegata'
Guzmania lingulata v. minor 'Variegata'
lingulata v. splendens 'Variegata'
'Magnifica Variegata'
'Orangeade Variegata'
Neoregelia ampullacea 'Variegata'
concentrica 'Albomarginata'
marmorata 'Variegata'
'Rosea Striata'
spectabilis 'Variegata'
Nidularium billbergioides 'Variegata'
François Spae 'Variegata'
innocentii 'Albomarginata'
innocentii 'Variegata'
regelioides 'Variegata' (syn. rutilans variegata)
Vriesea saundersii 'Variegata'
splendens 'Variegata'
Double Pleasure 'Splendide Variegata'
Poelmannii 'Variegata'

Miami, Florida


The Bromeliad Society, Inc.

The purpose of this nonprofit corporation is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of Bromeliaceae, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world. You are invited to join.

OFFICERS
President – Nat De Leon, 9300 Old Cutler Rd., Miami, FL 33156.
Vice President – Edgar Smith, 4415 Vandelia St., Dallas, TX 75219.
Corresponding Secretary – Danita Rafalovich, 3956 Minerva Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90066.
Membership Secretary – Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105.
Recording Secretary – Connie Johnson, 13075 SW 60th Ave., Miami, FL 33156.
Treasurer – David Gardner, 33 Camden PI., Corpus Christi, TX 78412.

DIRECTORS
1983-1985: David Benzing, At-large, Connie Johnson, Florida, Ron Lucibell, Outer, Valerie L. Steckler, At-large.
1984-1986: George Anderson, At-large, Chet Blackburn, California, Jack Grubb, Louisiana, Paul T. Isley III, California, Carol M. Johnson, Florida, Hedi Guelz Roesler, Outer, Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., Texas, H. W. Wiedman, At-large.
1985-1987: Bobbie H. Beard, Southern, Nat De Leon, At-large, Linda Harbert, Central, Stan Oleson, California, Herbert Plever, Northeastern, Gerald A. Raack, At-large, Robert E. Soppe, Western, Ervin J. Wurthmann, Florida.

HONORARY TRUSTEES
Luis Ariza Julia, Dominican Republic; Olwen Ferris, Australia; Marcel Lecoufle, France; Harold Martin, New Zealand; Werner Rauh, Germany; Raulino Reitz, Brazil; Walter Richter, Germany; Lyman B. Smith, U.S.; Robert G. Wilson, Costa Rica; Robert W. Read, U.S.; W. W. G. Moir, U.S.; Roberto Burle Marx, Brazil; Victoria Padilla, U.S.; Wilhelm Weber, Germany.

DIRECTORY OF SERVICES AND COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN
Advertising: See Editorial Office.
Affiliate shows: Charlien Rose, 4933 Weeping Willow, Houston, TX 77092.
Affiliated societies newsletter and liaison: Mary Jane Lincoln, 1201 Waltham St., Metairie, LA 70001.
Awarded cultivars: Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., 206 Eastway, Galena Park, TX 77547
Conservation: Sue Gardner, 33 Camden Pl., Corpus Christi, TX 78412.
Editorial office: 1508 Lake Shore Drive, Orlando, FL 32803. Advertising rates upon request. Address claims for current volume issues to the editor; for back issues other than current volume, address H. W. Wiedman, Dept. of Biological Science, Calif. State University-Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 93819.
Finance and audit: Myron Keys, 7640 SW 60th Ave., Miami, FL 33143.
Hybrid registration: Nat DeLeon, 9300 Old Cutler Rd., Miami, FL 33156.
Judges certification, handbook changes, and schools: Valerie L. Steckler, 40 Oak Valley Court, Austin, TX 78736.
Membership and subscriptions to the Journal: Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105. See title page, for membership dues. BSI Membership Promotion: Bob D. Whitman, 2355 Rusk, Beaumont, TX 77702.
Mulford B. Foster Identification Center: Send specimens and contributions to Harry E. Luther, at the Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 33577.
Nominations: Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105.
Publications: Annie Navetta, 3236 S.E. Clinton, Portland, OR 97202.
Seed Bank: Diane E. Pippin, P. O. Box 2352, Riverside, CA 92516.
Slide library: Mary E. Musleh, Rt. 2, Box 2452, Melrose, FL 32666.
World Conference: Edgar Smith, 4415 Vandelia St., Dallas, TX 75219.


Photo by Geoffrey Johnson
Bill Soerries, nearly 3,000 miles from home, with his prize: Tillandsia wagneriana, on the Rio Mayo near Moyabamba, Peru. The article appears on pages 8 and 9.


Calendar of Shows

April 5 - 8Bromeliads III, the Third Australian Bromeliad Conference, Brisbane, Queensland. Coordinator, Bromeliad Society of Queensland, P.O. Box 565, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane 4006, Qld. Australia
April 13-14Bromeliad Society of Broward County 1st Annual Show, "All-American Bromeliad Show." Dieke Auditorium, Plantation, FL. Entries only, 7-11 A.M., Friday, 12 April. Maureen and Bill Frazel (305) 474-1349
April 18-20Tarrant County Bromeliad Society 9th Annual Show. 4800 S. Hulen, Fort Worth, Texas. Flo Adams (817) 467-7500


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