BSI Journal - Online Archive


Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Copyright 1985 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

Vol. 35, No. 4July—August 1985

Editors: Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., Edward C. Hall.
Editorial Advisory Board: David Benzing, Racine Foster, Sue Gardner, Victoria Padilla, Ellen Jay Peyton, Robert W. Read, John F. Utley.

Cover Photograph
Front: Puya chilensis reaches 4.5 m height when flowering, making it one of the biggest bromeliads of Chile. The flowers vary in color from sulfur yellow to a greenish yellow. The article begins on page 159. Photograph by Dr. W. Rauh.

Back: Aechmea roberto-anselmoi, a new species from Brazil. The article begins on page 171. Photograph by E. M. C. Leme.


CONTENTS
147One Mo' Time in New Orleans Shirley Grubb
148Morren's Paintings, 5: Aechmea aureo-rosea. Lyman B. Smith
149Hohenbergia correia-araujoi, A Report from Brazil and Australia. Edmundo Pereira, José Luiz Moutinho Neto, and June Bennett
152Connellia smithiana, A New Connellia from the Guayana Highland.Julian A. Steyermark and James L. Luteyn
154Two New Pitcairnias from the Leningrad Herbarium. Wilhelm Weber
158William Whitmore Goodale Moir, 1896-1985. T. U. Lineham
159Chile and its Bromeliads. Werner Rauh
167Latin Pronunciation. William T. Stearn
171Notes from Herbarium Bradeanum, No. 2: Aechmea roberto-anselmoi; A New Species from Brazil. Edmundo Pereira and Elton M. C. Leme
174A Symposium: The Biology of Tropical Epiphytes. W. John Kress
175Bromeliad Flower Arrangement, No. 5, with Portea, Aechmea, and Portmea. May A. Moir
176Regional Reflections. Kathy Dorr, Greg Stewart, Peter Paroz
180Directory of Affiliated Societies

The Journal, ISSN 0090-8738, is published bimonthly at Orlando, Florida by the Bromeliad Society, Inc. Articles and photo-graphs are earnestly solicited. Closing date is 60 days before month of issue. Advertising rates are listed in the advertising section. Permission is granted to reprint articles in the Journal, in whole or in part, when credit is given to the author and to the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

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One Mo' Time in New Orleans
Shirley Grubb

I saw in Louisiana a live-oak growing
All alone stood it and the moss hung down from the branches
Without any companion it grew there uttering joyous leaves of dark green.

alt Whitman wrote these famous lines in his poem "Calamus," from his Leaves of Grass many years ago, remembering the emblematic trees long after he had returned to his northern home.

New Orleans is a city of live oaks, tunnels of them planted long ago in our parks and along our avenues. They are the primary host to one of the native bromeliads in our state, Tillandsia usneoides. They are among the many lovely sights that await you when you come to New Orleans for the World Bromeliad Conference in 1986. If you attended the conference in 1977 and have not returned since, you will be surprised to see how many changes have been made along the riverfront, yet how the charm remains in the French Quarter, the Garden District, and other older parts of town.

As interesting as New Orleans is, we want you to come back One Mo' Time to see bromeliads, to hear about bromeliads, to enjoy bromeliad water colors, and to bid on the rare plants that will be offered at the now traditional Mulford B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center benefit auction.

We will have a lot in store for you. The opening event will be a wonderful art show of more than seventy water colors by Morris Henry Hobbs. For this exciting event we must thank Mrs. Mary Wisdom who owns the paintings. Art Boe has identified many of the plants in the paintings, and will help prepare the show at the Presbytère in the French Quarter. The Louisiana State Museum will transport, protect, and display the art, and its associated group, The Friends of the Cabildo, will sponsor the opening party. We are grateful to them. The art show, with Mrs. Hobbs attending, will be open to Conference registrants only. It will be a gala you won't want to miss.

Mrs. Wisdom's garden with its lovely live oaks will be open for the Conference. There you will see palms and cycads with bromeliads collected for more than thirty years and including both rarities and some of the largest tillandsia clumps in our area. We are planning to provide a streetcar ride from the hotel to this garden as the primary transportation.

As the live oak tree is the primary host of bromeliads in Louisiana, so we at the Greater New Orleans Bromeliad Society will be the primary host for the 1986 World Bromeliad Conference. The roots of this great tree spread very far, just as the people who will be working with us are spread out beyond our society and city. Come and enjoy our plants, our people, and our city One Mo' Time from May 21 to May 25, 1986.

New Orleans, Louisiana


Morren's Paintings, 5: Aechmea aureo-rosea
Lyman B. Smith

Photograph by the author of a painting
by C. J. E. Morren.
Fig. 1: Aechmea aureo-rosea.

consider this only a variety of the widespread Aechmea nudicaulis from which it is indistinguishable in dried material. When I collected live material in Rio its colored flowers seemed very distinctive, another argument for the study of live material whenever possible.

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.


Hohenbergia correia-araujoi, A Report from Brazil and Australia
Edmundo Pereira, Jose Luiz Moutinho Neto, and June Bennett

[Hohenbergia correia-araujoi seems to have been made available to growers for the first time at the 1980 World Bromeliad Conference where seven small plants were sold at high prices. Specimens have been entered in many bromeliad shows in 1984 and during the early months of 1985. On each occasion the plants have attracted a great deal of attention because of their size, color, and unusual markings. This is the first time that the plant has been described in the Journal. The Latin description was published in Bradea, volume III, number 12, pages 88-89, 20 October 1980 by Edmundo Pereira and Jose Luiz Moutinho. Elton M. C. Leme made the English translation. June Bennett initiated this article, with her informal description and the picture (fig. 2)]

Photo by June Bennett
Fig. 2: June Bennett of Cairns, Qld., is shown with her Hohenbergia correia-araujoi
remarkable for its size and leaf patterns resembling reptile skin.

Hohenbergia correia-araujoi Pereira & Moutinho n. sp. Subgen. Hohenbergia

Plant flowering about 1.70 m high. Leaves about 15, ligulate, to l.50 m long, rosulate, forming at base a tubular water reservoir. Sheaths ovate-oblong, 20-30 cm long, densely brown-lepidote on both sides, densely spinose near the apex with dark-purple antrorse spines 4 mm long. Leaf blades linear, 6-8 cm wide, dark-green and markedly white lepidote forming irregular crossbands on both sides, subdensely spinose with 2 mm long spines, apex rounded and mucronate. Scape erect or slightly curvate, 80 cm high, 10 mm in diam. in life, densely white-floccose, internodes 6 cm long. Scape bracts narrowly triangulate, markedly acute, membranous, white floccose on the outside, 10-12 cm long, pale, imbricate, longer than the internodes. Inflorescence 42 cm long at least tripinnate, laxly pyramidal-paniculate, densely white-floccose except the petals; primary bracts narrowly triangulate, whitish, entire, apex markedly acute but not spinose, 3-8 cm long, exceeding the peduncle; secondary branches 3-15 cm long, with 2-7 spikes, peduncle l-6 cm long, becoming shorter toward the apex; secondary bracts narrowly triangular, 22 mm long, whitish; spikes sessile, elliptic, to 3 cm long, exceeding the secondary bracts; floral bracts suborbicular, 10 mm in diam., con-cave, green, mucronulate-spinose, equaling or exceeding the sepals. Flowers sessile, 15 mm long; sepals almost free, asymmetric, green, 6 mm long, rounded and mucronulate at apex, the posterior obtusely carinate; petals linear, 9 mm long, yellow, with a rounded apex, bearing two denticulate scales 3 mm above the base. Filaments complanate, 1st ser. 3 mm adnate to the petal, 2nd ser. free; anther linear, 3 mm long, apex mucronulate, obtuse-sagitate at base, half dorsifixed; epigynous tube lacking; ovary 4 mm long; placentae apical; ovules caudate.

Type. Luiz Knud Correia de Araujo no.14, Milagres, Bahia, Brazil; flowered in cultivation 15 March 1980. Holotype HB 71.017.

This new species is related to H. ridleyi (Baker) Mez, but is easily distinguished by irregular bands of white scales on both sides of the blades and by perfectly rounded and mucronate apex of the leaves.

Rio de Janeiro


Hohenbergia correia-araujoi seems to thrive in this coastal region of tropical Australia [Cairns, Qld.] in 50% shade with plenty of air movement. The plant has been in my possession only since July 1982 and during that time has grown from an eight-inch plant with seven leaves to an amazing four feet.

As this is written, the plant is carrying seven new growths, three being around 18" tall and four just starting. There is also a 58" flower spike which has been producing blooms over the last four months and has hundreds yet to flower. The flowers are minute and yellow. The raceme is bright coral and so far shows no signs of fading. There are 15 branches on this spike, each carrying between 4 to 11 clusters of flowers.

I could best describe the foliage of this plant as resembling the skin of a reptile. I don't know of any other plant in the bromeliad family that has such unusual foliage.

Being such an outstanding bromeliad I wonder how it remained hidden from the collections for so long. I think I was the first person to introduce this plant into Australia, but I now know of two more plants both in far north Queensland.

Cairns, Queensland


Connellia smithiana, A New Connellia from the Guayana Highland
Julian A. Steyermark1 and James L. Luteyn2

onnellia smithiana, dedicated to Dr. Lyman B. Smith, the renowned specialist of the Bromeliaceae, was discovered by the authors on the high summit of the sandstone mountain, Auyan-tepui, of the Venezuelan Guayana during 1984. With its silvery-glaucous, membranaceous, entire leaves, prostrate inflorescence and showy, rose-colored flowers, it is a striking new addition to the genus (fig. 3). From C. augustae it differs in the longer pedicels, floral bracts shorter than the pedicels, flowers 15-17 mm long instead of 26 mm, prostrate inflorescence, shorter sepals, and silvery-glaucous, membranaceous leaves which have entire margins. In C. augustae the leaf color is noted on specimens providing leaf color as rich green above and below, or olive green above, paler green be-low, or as rich green above and dull paler green below. Moreover, the leaves of C. smithiana are flexible and membranaceous, rather then coriaceous as in C. augustae. The prostrate inflorescence of C. smithiana is quite in contrast to the erect or ascending one of C. augustae, the latter noted as attaining a height of up to 1-1.5 meters in Venezuela material identified by Dr. Smith.

Photographed by Dr. James L. Luteyn.
Fig. 3. Habit of Connellia smithiana showing prostrate inflorescence and silvery-glaucous leaves

Connellia smithiana Steyermark & Luteyn, sp. nov.

Planta herbacea; foliis ubique argenteo-glaucis flexilibus submembranaceis lineari-lanceolatis apice longiattenuatis 30-40 x 1.5-3.2 cm omnino integerrimis glabrisque; inflorescentia prostrata anguste oblongo-ellipsoidea 28-35 cm longa, scapo robusto 11.5-15 cm longo 5 mm lato glabro; scapi bracteis inferioribus mediisque foliaceis lanceolatis apice acutate attenuatis 5-7 cm longis 8-10 mm latis; scapi bracteis supremis multum reductis late ovatis apice abrupte longicuspidatis 10-25 x 6-9 mm; bracteis florigeris lineari-lanceolatis acutis pedicello brevioribus 7-9 x 1-1.5 mm; pedicellis 12-17 mm longis; floribus 15-17 mm longis; sepalis oblongis apice rotundatis 7-8 x 3-5 mm glabris; petalis rosaceis obovatis obtusis 13-14 mm longis circa medium 8 mm latis ad basem 2 mm latis angustatis; staminibus 6-7 basifixis; filamentis 7-8 mm longis basi dilatatis, antheris ovoideo-suborbicularibus basi bilobatis 1.5 mm longis; ovario ovoideo 5.5 x 5 mm glabro; stylis tribus 5 mm longis.

Herbaceous plant with flexible, submembranous, silvery glaucous leaves, linear-lanceolate, long attenuate at the apex, 30-40 cm long, 1.5-3.2 cm wide, completely glabrous and entire on the margins. Inflorescence prostrate, narrowly oblong-ellipsoid, 28-35 cm long; scape robust, 11.5-15 cm long, 5 mm thick, glabrous; lower and middle scape bracts foliaceous, lanceolate, acutely attenuate at the apex, 5-7 cm long, 8-10 mm wide; upper scape bracts much reduced in size, broadly ovate, abruptly long cuspidate at the apex, 10-25 mm long, 6-9 mm wide. Floriferous bracts linear-lanceolate, acute, shorter than the pedicels, 7-9 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide. Pedicels 12-17 mm long. Flowers 15-17 mm long. Sepals oblong, rounded at the apex, 7-8 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, glabrous. Petals rose-colored, obovate, obtuse, 13-14 mm long, 8 mm wide near the middle, at the base narrowed to 2 mm. Stamens 6-7, basifixed; filaments 7-8 mm long, dilated at the base; anthers ovoid-suborbicular, bilobate at the base, 1.5 mm long. Ovary ovoid, 5.5 mm long, 5 mm wide, glabrous; styles 5 mm long.

Type: Venezuela: Estado Bolivar: Auyan-tepui, wet sandstone strata, on summit at south end, along Río Churun just north of Libertador Monument, Lat. 5° N, Long. 62° W, alt. 2100 meters, 18 Feb 1984, James L. Luteyn & Julian A. Steyermark 9610 (holotype, VEN; isotype, NY).

The plants were growing in full sunlight along the margin of the Churun river. The general aspect of the locality is one of an open, more or less level landscape with short, herbaceous vegetation, but with groves of shrubby thickets along the stream margins.


The authors wish to express their great appreciation and thanks to the authorities of EDELCA for helicopter support. JLL wishes to acknowledge NSF for field support.

_______

1 Missouri Botanical Garden, Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166
2 The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458


Two New Pitcairnias from the Leningrad Herbarium
Wilhelm Weber

ast year I had the opportunity to study 99 sheets of unidentified bromeliads deposited in the Herbarium of the Komarow Institute of the Academy of Science in Leningrad (LE). Many of them were collected by S. Juzepczuk and G. Woronow during the Russian Latin-American expedition of 1925-1927. Among these specimens I was able to detect two hitherto unknown pitcairnias presented here with their English descriptions and analytical drawings. The Latin diagnosis will appear in Feddes Repertorium, volume 97.

Pitcairnia juzepczukii W. Weber sp. nov. (fig. 4).

Plant (only fragments seen) flowered probably more than 1 m high. Leaf subpetiolate, very narrowly lanceolate and long acuminate, 85 cm long to 30 mm wide, margins only at the serrulate base, blades entire, below densely appressed lepidote, above nearly glabrous with a very distinct, pale middle nerve. Scape erect, terete, to 8 mm in diameter, dissite lepidote. Scape bracts erect, long foliaceous, to 45 cm long, 23 mm wide, margins entire, much longer than the (ca.) 13 cm-long internodes. Inflorescence lax, tripinnate, racemose. Primary bracts narrowly triangular and long caudate, 21-10 cm long, the basal ones erect, the higher spreading. Lateral branches divergent, to 23 cm long, moderately dense to 23-flowered, nearly straight, disperse lepidote. Flowers divergent, to 55 mm long, with 7-10 mm-long pedicels. Flower bracts lanceovate, acuminate, distinctly nerved, 7-10 mm long, about equal to or somewhat shorter than the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, obtuse acute, 12-14 mm long, to 4.5 mm wide, the posterior ones obtuse carinate, dissite lepidote. Petals linear-lanceolate, to 45 mm long, 5 mm wide, red, on the inner basis with a single broad-lanceolate ligula nearly complete adnate to the petal only with narrow, free edges. Stamens 38 mm long, anthers linear, 7.5 mm long, basifixed. Ovary conical, about ¾ superior. Style 40 mm long, stigma spirally contorted.

Leg. S. Juzepczuk no. 10 310; 22 Jan. 1927, Peru, Junin, Huacapistana (holotype LE).

The unusual characteristic of this species is that the internodes of the lateral branches of the inflorescence are of very different lengths. In some cases, the nodes are so close together as to suggest that two flowers will emerge from one node. In one case I did see one double-connate flower (fig. 4L).

Pitcairnia juzepczukii is related to Pitcairnia cuzcoensis L. B. Smith 1932, but the scape bracts are much longer than the internodes and the petals are uniligulate.

Drawing by the author.
Fig. 4: Pitcairnia juzepczukii, described from fragments
collected sixty years ago by Soviet botanists.

A. Part of the scape and inflorescence   B. Leaf   C. Detail of a lateral branch   D. Flower   E. Flower bract   F. Anterior sepal  
G. Posterior sepals   H. Petal   J. Stamen   K. Longitudinal section of ovary with style   L. Connate flowers  


Pitcairnia woronowii W. Weber sp. nov. (fig 5).

Plant (only fragments seen: 1 leaf without sheath and 2 inflorescences), flowered more than 1 m high. Leaf distinctly petiolate, 160 cm long including the 17 cm-long fragment of the petiole, the blade long lanceolate, acuminate, to 8 cm wide, with distinct, pale middle nerve, below minute but densely appressed lepidote, above subglabrous, margins entire. Scape woody, nearly glabrous, 10 mm in diameter. Scape bracts not seen. Inflorescence simple, densely polystichous multiflowered, 35 cm long, 70 mm in diameter, axis stout, flexuous, strongly sulcate, dissite, tomentose, lepidote. Flowers divergent, to 55 mm long, about 12 mm pedicellate. Flower bracts narrowly triangulate-ovate, reflexed, glabrous, nerved. Ovary eggshaped, half superior, with receptacle 11 mm long, ovules caudate. Sepals ovate, rounded, ecarinate, nerved, glabrous, to 10 mm long, 5 mm wide. Petals lingulate, rounded, to 45 mm long, 6 mm wide, without ligula, red. Stamens thin, 37 mm long, anthers linear, 4 mm long, basifixed. Style somewhat exserted, stigmata spirally contorted.

Leg. G. Woronow and S. Juzepczuk no. 5802; 9 July 1926, Colombia, Huila, between Andaluzia and Gabinete (holotype LE).

Pitcairnia woronowii is very closely related to Pitcairnia multiflora L. B. Smith 1949, but the sepals are much smaller and their apices are rounded.

Drawing by the author.
Fig. 5: Pitcairnia woronowii, also described from fragments in the Leningrad Herbarium.

A. Leaf   B. Inflorescence   C. Part of the axis with two flowers and reflexed flower bracts   D. Flower   E. Sepals   F. Petal with stamen  
G. Longitudinal section of ovary with stamen and style.  

Waldsteinberg, East Germany


William Whitmore Goodale Moir, 1896-1985

  
Fig. 6: Mr. Moir in 1957.   
W. W. Goodale Moir, honorary trustee of the Bromeliad Society, internationally known orchid fancier and hybridizer, and long-time sugar industry agronomist died February 21st. He was born in Papaikou on the big island, Hawaii. In addition to his work as an agronomist, he achieved recognition through his development of more than 65 orchid hybrids including tri- and quadrigeneric creations. With Mrs. Moir, he cultivated one of Honolulu's most celebrated gardens filled with bromeliads and orchids. His other interests were in environmental effects on plants, and the causes of variegation.

The Moirs began to expand their collection of old bromeliad standbys in 1950 by growing Tillandsia cyanea seeds, a gift from Mulford Foster. There was no choice offered them between seed culture and plant importation because of the general prohibition against importing bromeliads as a measure of protection to the pineapple industry. With this start plus help from David Barry, well known in both the orchid and bromeliad worlds, they grew more and more bromeliad species and hybrids and soon developed their large and varied collection.

Mr. Moir was a regular contributor to the Journal. A recent contributor noted his "recurrent theme: that micro- (as well as macro-) climatic variations are capable of inducing mutations in a given species." His article on variegation created a great deal of discussion in these pages not long ago. Examples of his photography have appeared on these covers and have illustrated many pages of text.

On January 27, 1980, Goodale was elected honorary trustee with the citation: "His beautiful garden has been a source of inspiration to all those who have visited him. He is certainly the one person responsible for the great popularity bromeliads are now experiencing on the Islands."

Mrs. Moir suggests memorial contributions to the Honolulu Academy of Arts. We offer our sympathy to her and her family.

TUL

With thanks to the Honolulu Advertiser for assistance.


Chile and Its Bromeliads
Werner Rauh

hile, situated on the Pacific side of South America, is both the longest and, at the same time, the narrowest country of the southern subcontinent. It extends 4300 kilometers from Arica, on the border of Peru, to Cape Horn. Chile averages only 190 km in width with the widest part being the 450 km near Antofagasta. In the west, the natural border is formed by the Pacific Ocean with the cold Humboldt Current (also called the Peru Current), which runs parallel to the coast from the Antarctic up to central Peru. In the east, the chain of the High Andes forms the border between Bolivia and Argentina; the highest summit is Acangao, about 7,000 meters high.

Between the Pacific coast and the Cordillera de los Andes there is another mountain range, the Cordillera de la Costa with elevations up to 2,000 meters. It also parallels the coast. Between these two cordilleras extends the Valle longitudinal, the "long valley." Southwards the cordilleras become lower and are divided into individual peaks.

Chile has about 130 active volcanos, of which Llullaico, south of Antofagasta, is the highest.

Chilean geographers usually divide their country into three parts: the Big North, Middle Chile, and the Big South. The Big North stretching from the Peruvian border (Prov. Tarapaca) south to Antofagasta is known as the Atacama Desert, one of the driest regions on earth.

In Central Chile, the northern part is semidesert with many arborescent cacti, Trichocereus chilensis, Eulychnia species, small trees of Acacia caven and masses of terrestrial bromeliads such as Puya chilensis and P. venusta.

The Big South is characterized by evergreen forests, especially with the beautiful and decorative Araucaria araucana and the southern beech trees, Nothofagus.

The consequence of the extreme length of Chile is that we can distinguish different climate zones. The northern part is very dry. In the Atacama, rainfall takes place only every 20 years. The cold Humboldt Current, however, prevents both very high and very low temperatures in this area. The dryness is relieved only by the frequent coastal mists, called comanchacas, which permit moderate plant growth of annuals and geophytes in addition to cacti. When a chance rainfall occurs, the desert offers a sea of flowers in all colors, and in 1984 we had the chance to see the Atacama in full bloom.

Precipitation increases from north to south. While we note a yearly rainfall of 360 mm in the north, Conceptión has 1200 mm. Southern Chile is cool, rainy, and stormy.

In all of these regions, characterized with these few words, we were able to collect bromeliads, but in comparison with the adjacent countries of Argentina, Peru, and Bolivia, Chile is very poor in this plant group. There are, nevertheless, two genera endemic to Chile: Fascicularia and Ochagavia. Besides these, Chile has a few representatives of the genera Tillandsia, Puya, and Greigia.

Tillandsia

There are only four species: T. usneoides (L.) L., T. capillaris Ruiz & Pavon, T. landbeckii Philippi, and T. geissei R. A. Philippi.

Tillandsia usneoides is widespread, occurring from Florida to South America. Every bromeliad collector knows this curious, rootless species, hanging down from trees and rocks in long strands. In Florida, T. usneoides is known as "Florida moss," or "old man's beard." The name usneoides means that the plant resembles (from a distance) the lichen Usnea. Both the lichen and the tillandsia live only on the humidity. The plant absorbs the humidity with the help of trichomes which cover the thin axes and leaves. We call these "atmospheric bromeliads." Although T. usneoides produces small yellow or yellow-green flowers, it is seldom propagated by seeds, but mostly by the vegetative process when pieces are torn from larger clumps and are blown away by the wind.

The other species, T. capillaris and T. landbeckii are not very attractive. Both grow in the northern Atacama, either as epiphytes or terrestrials. T. capillaris is a widespread and very variable species which grows on trees, on cacti, or on the ground, often in dense masses (fig. 7). It is a small species with thin stems and a distichous arrangement of the erect or spreading leaves. The inconspicuous inflorescence normally has only one flower; the petals are white, yellow, or brown.

We collected T. capillaris in the region of Vallenar, near the big iron mine "Algarrobo," growing on Acacia caves trees. The form virescens, which differs from the type by the elongated scapes after flowering, grows near Coquimbo, Vicuña and Elqui. As with T. usneoides, the propagation of T. capillaris is mostly vegetative; the plant produces many offshoots which break off very easily and are relocated by the wind.

Photo by the author.
Fig. 7: Tillandsia capillaris, Vallenar, Chile, near the iron mine "Algarrobo"

Photo by the author.
Fig. 8: Tillandsia landbeckii, near Iquique, northern Atacama.

T. landbeckii (fig. 8) is closely related to T. capillaris. Both belong to the subgenus Diaphoranthema. We collected it in the northern Atacama, near Iquique. From there it extends southwards to Ovalle. It is listed also for southern Peru. The plant is richly branched and forms big, dense cushions kept shaven by the wind.

Fig. 9: Deuterocohnia chrysantha on rocky slopes near Taltal.

Photos by the author.
Fig. 10: Puya chilensis inflorescence covered with big, sulfur yellow flowers.

Fig. 11: P. berteroniana is larger than
P. chilensis and grows on dry, rocky slopes.
Photos by the author.

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 12: The very large P. berteroniana with blue-green petals, violet filaments,
and orange anthers.

The single plant forms stems up to 30 cm long; the loosely distichous leaves are 6-12 cm long. Their spreading blades are linear-terete and densely pruinose-lepidote; the inflorescence is 1- to 2-flowered; the floral bracts are rose, the petals yellow, when dry. This is not an ornamental species.

Photo by the author.
Fig. 13: Tillandsia geissei in cultivation. This is the biggest of the Chilean tillandsias.

The biggest of the Chilean tillandsias is T. geissei Philippi, which is very rare in cultivation. It was discovered by Geisse and described by Philippi, the first naturalist to explore the Atacama Desert. T. geissei is both saxicolous on open, rocky ground, and epiphytic on cacti (Eulychnia) or shrubs (Euphorbia lactiflua) fig. 13, at altitudes from 200 to 600 m. It is distributed in northern Chile from Antofagasta to Taltal. We found T. geissei near Paposa in a small quebrada (valley) with a magnificent vegetation of Eulychnia acida (Cactaceae) and big bushes of Euphorbia lactiflua, the lechero of the natives, not far from the sea, at an altitude where the plant is reached by the camanchacas. T. geissei, flowering up to 60 cm high, short- to long-caulescent, forms many-leaved rosettes up to 40 cm high; the leaves are narrow, triangular, long attenuate, and gray to brownish lepidote; the erect inflorescences are simple, rarely with a second spike; the densely imbricate, ecarinate floral bracts are brilliantly variegated with red, green, and yellow; the petals are of a rose-purple; the stamens are included. We collected T. geissei under the number of 66 235 near Paposa.

Deuterocohnia

One of the hardiest and most xerophytic bromeliads of the desert regions is Deuterocohnia chrysantha (Philippi) Mez, the only representative of this genus in Chile. It is distributed with a few species from northern Peru, over to Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and northern Chile. It grows among very dry rocks (fig. 9), sometimes together with Euphorbia lactiflua and cacti, especially Copiapoa species. Deuterocohnia forms dense masses or cushions; the single rosettes consist of many spreading leaves, provided with pungent marginal spines; the leaves take a brilliant red color from the influence of the sun. The bipinnate inflorescence becomes 50-100 cm high, the branches are strobilate, 2.5-10 cm long and many-flowered. The flowers are yellow- and green-tipped before anthesis. The common name of the plant is "chaguar de jote." We collected the plant (Rauh 66 235) in a very dry valley near Taltal. It is spread over the provinces of Atacama and Antofagasta.

Puya

The most attractive bromeliads of Chile are the Puyas. Here are found five species of which two belong to the subgenus Puyopsis and three to the subgenus Puya. The latter are characterized by long sterile ends of the side branches of the inflorescences.

A character-plant of stony ground near the coast in central Chile from Coquimbo to Valparaiso is Puya chilensis Molina, the "chagual" In some places between Socos and Los Vilos it covers square mile after square mile. With 4.5 m height, when flowering, it is one of the biggest bromeliads of Chile (front cover). P chilensis has long, prostrate, woody, creeping stems covered with the bases of old, dead leaves. The rhizomes end in a big, dense, erect leaf-rosette of 1 m height. The scape of the inflorescence is very stout and covered with numerous, reflexed bracts. The big inflorescence is amply pyramidal, bipinnate with about 100 branches, and often so dense that only the long, sterile parts of the branches with their reduced bracts can be distinguished. In their lower half, these branches are densely covered with big flowers in the upper part only, with reduced bracts. The flowers are suberect at anthesis and their color varies from sulfur yellow (fig. 10) to a greenish yellow. The included anthers are of a bright orange.

Both color varieties are most frequently found growing side by side, for example, in the region of Pichidangui, south of Los Vilos. We observed that the sterile parts of the branches serve as perches for the pollinator birds.

Photo by the author.
Fig. 14: The deep blue flowers with yellow anthers of
Puya alpestris.

Puya chilensis is closely related to P. berteroniana Mez, but it is perhaps a little larger (up to 5 m). It grows on dry, rocky slopes, not only in the coastal region, but also in the valleys on the main cordillera, and climbs up to 2,000 m. We collected P. berteroniana in the Río Teno valley, east of Curico, at an altitude of 1,200 m. It grows there on dry rocks together with P. coerulea (description to follow). P. berteroniana also has thick, prostrate, simple or branched stems covered with the sheaths of the old, dried leaves; they end in a big rosette of arched-recurving leaves; their blades are as long as 1 m, up to 5 cm wide, green or glabrous above (fig. 11), but covered beneath with white, appressed scales (different from P. chilensis in which the leaf blades are concolor). The scape is very thick, up to 6 cm in diameter and covered, when young, with big, brown, lanceolate bracts which are mostly deciduous. The inflorescence is more than 1 m long, amply bipinnate with about 100 branches, slenderly pyramidal, persistently white lanate. The branches are densely flowering on the lower half, sterile in the upper part; with numerous, whitish bracts. Petals elliptic-obtuse, 5 cm long, blue-green, the stamens shorter than the petals with dark violet filaments and orange anthers (fig 12). P. berteroniana is a beautiful, decorative plant, distributed in central Chile from the famous national park, Frai Jorge, in the north to Curico in the south.

P. alpestris is very similar to P. berteroniana differing from it in the narrower leaf blades (only 15-25 mm wide), the fewer branched, smaller inflorescence, the laxly and few-flowering branches, and the deep blue flowers (fig. 14) with yellow anthers. Puya alpestris is rarer than P. berteroniana and known only from dry slopes in south-central Chile near Concepción.

[To be concluded in the next issue]


Latin Pronunciation
William T. Steam

[The following paragraphs are reprinted from Chapter IV, "The Latin Alphabet and Pronunciation," of the author's work, Botanical Latin; History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary.1 The purpose is to encourage readers unfamiliar with Latin to learn more about the elements of its construction and pronunciation so that they will gain confidence in saying (and in writing) the botanical names of bromeliads. The main difference between this reprint and the article by George Kalmbacher, "Pronouncing the Latin Names of Bromeliads," published here in 19692 is that Professor Stearn recognizes two methods of pronunciation, states the rules for pronouncing both, and then leaves the application of the rules to the reader. Mr. Kalmbacher, on the other hand, states one body of rules and then concentrates on the pronunciation of genera and species.

It is inevitable that the influences of mother tongue and regionalisms, will affect pronunciation even when the speaker is deliberately trying to follow either the reformed academic or the traditional English pronunciation system. While most members are undoubtedly English-speaking, not all of them will choose the traditional English pronunciation because they learned classical Latin pronunciation at some other time and their ears prefer the sound. Uniformity of pronunciation is a highly desirable goal, but one not easily reached. The American Horticultural Society has been evolving pronunciation guides for years, but admits still to a lack of consistency.

Perhaps later we shall reprint the Kalmbacher article.]

Botanical Latin is essentially a written language, but the scientific names of plants often occur in speech. How they are pronounced really matters little provided they sound pleasant and are understood by all concerned. This is most likely to be attained by pronouncing them in accordance with the rule of classical Latin pronunciation. There are, however, several systems, since people tend to pronounce Latin words by analogy with words of their own language. Even within the Roman Empire when Latin displaced native languages having different speech rhythms there must have been great regional diversities of pronunciation, as indeed is evident from the different Romance languages, Spanish, Italian, etc., descended from it. . .

In English-speaking countries there exist two main systems, the traditional English pronunciation generally used by gardeners and botanists and the 'reformed' or 'restored' academic pronunciation adopted by classical scholars as presenting 'a reasonably close approximation to the actual sounds of the language as spoken by educated Romans'. This academic pronunciation comes closer to the usual Latin pronunciation of Continental people than does the conventional English pronunciation.

The pronunciation of a word is determined by the sounds of the individual letters, the length (quantity) of the vowels and the place of stress (accent). Vowels are described as 'long' and often marked with a ¯ (e.g. cāke, kīte, ēvil, vōte) or 'short' and often marked with a ̆ (e.g. căt, kĭt, ĕgg, pǒt), according to the relative time spent in saying them.

Words containing more than one vowel or diphthong (i.e. two vowels pronounced as one, e.g. ae, au, ei, eu, oe, ui) are divided into syllables. Thus al-bus, ple-nus, mag-nus, etc., are words of two syllables, and the stress, indicated by the sign ' (or by the grave ` to indicate a long vowel in the stressed syllable and the acute ʹ to indicate a short vowel), in words of two syllables falls on the first syllable. Most words consist of several syllables, e.g. al-bi-dus, ple-ni-flo-rus, mag-ni-fo-li-us, ros-ma-ri-ni-for-mis, ophi-o-glos-so-i-des, Con-stan-ti-no-po-li-ta-nus.

In Latin every vowel is pronounced, hence cǒ-tō-ně'-ăs-ter and not cot-on-easter. The same applies to the Latinized Greek ending -ǒ- ī`-dēs (not -oi-des) meaning 'like, having the form of'.

In classical Latin words of several syllables the stress falls on the syllable next to the last one (the penultimate) when this syllable is long (i.e. when it ends in a long vowel or diphthong, e.g. for-mō'-sus, or when two consonants separate the two last vowels, e.g. cru-ěn'-tus), but falls on the last syllable but two (the antepenultimate) when the last but one is short, e.g. flō'-ri-dus, la-ti-fǒ'-li-us, sil-vă'-ti-cus. Diphthongs are treated as long vowels. When, however, two vowels come together in a Latin word without forming a diphthong, the first is short, e.g. car'-ně-us; in a word of Greek origin, this does not apply, hence gi-gan-tē'- us. The -inus ending also varies, being ī; in some Latin words, e.g. al-pī'-nus, but ĭ; in others, e.g. se-ro'-tĭ-nus; in words of Greek origin, e.g. bom-by'-cĭ-nus, hy-a-cin'-thĭ-nus, it is usually ĭ;.

The above rules of accentuation apply both to the traditional English and the reformed academic pronunciation of Latin. The consonants b, d, f, h, l, m, n, p, qu, z are pronounced as in English. The following Table indicates the main differences between the two methods of pronunciation:

REFORMED ACADEMIC TRADITIONAL ENGLISH
ā as in fāther fāte
ă as in ăpart făt
ae as ai in aisle as ea in meat
au as in house as aw in bawl
c always as in cat before a, o, u as in cat
before, e, i, y as in centre
ch (of Greek words) as k or k-h (if possible) as k or ch
ē as in thēy
ě as in pět pět
ei as in rein as in height
g always as in go hard before a, o, u as in gap, go
soft before, e, i, y as in gem, giro
ī as in machīne īce
ĭ as in pĭt pĭt
j (consonant i) as y in yellow j in jam
ng as in finger finger
ō as in nōte nōte
ǒ as in nǒt nǒt
oe as oi in toil as ee in bee
ph as p or p-h if possible like f
r always trilled  
s as in sit, gas sit, gas
t as in table, native table but ti within a word as in nation
ū; as in brūte brūte
ŭ as in fŭll tŭb
ui as in oui (French), we ruin
v (consonant u) as w as in van
ȳ as u in French pur as in cȳpher
ў as in French du as in cўnical

The pronunciation of Church Latin is based on modern Italian pronunciation, c before i and e being accordingly pronounced as the English ch and not as s (the conventional English pronunciation) or k (the reformed pronunciation).

Whichever system is adopted, the word will sound best and be least objectionable to scholars if a distinction is made between long and short vowels as above and the stress put in the right place according to classical Latin procedure. To do this, reference must be made to a standard dictionary such as C. T. Lewis and C. Short, Latin Dictionary, to the works cited below, or to a Flora, such as M. L. Fernald, Gray's Manual of Botany (8th ed., 1950), giving careful attention to accentuation.

These rules cannot satisfactorily be applied to all generic names and specific epithets commemorating persons. About 80 per cent of generic names and 30 per cent of specific epithets come from languages other than Latin and Greek. A simple and consistent method of pronouncing them does not exist, because different peoples use the same letters for different sounds and different letters for the same sounds. . . The ideal method with most names commemorating persons is to pronounce them as nearly as possible like the original name but with a Latin ending. . .

The ending -ii or iae of most epithets commemorating persons also creates difficulty if the rules of Latin accentuation are applied strictly, since the accent will then fall on the syllable before the -ii or ice, which is not its usual place in most personal names, and will thus distort the sound unrecognizably to some ears.

Reprinted with the publisher's permission.

_______

1. A standard work recently reprinted and available from David & Charles, Inc., North Pomfret, VT 05053, $32.00 plus $1.60 for shipping; David & Charles Publishers, Brunel House, Newton Abbot, Devon TQ12 4PU, England, £18.
2. Vol. 19 (1969): 45-47, and following; 20 (1970):37.


Notes from Herbarium Bradeanum, No. 2: Aechmea roberto-anselmoi; A New Species from Brazil
Edmundo Pereira and Elton M. C. Leme

he authors have collected a new species of aechmea from the forest near the northern boundary of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and have concluded that while it is closely related to Aechmea ornata, it differs in several important characters (please see back cover picture). The description follows:

Aechmea roberto-anselmoi Pereira & Leme sp. nov., subgenus Pothuava.

Planta florifera 90-95 cm vel ultra alta; foliis ca. 20 rosulatis basi utriculum infundibuliformem conformantibus. Folic ca. 90 cm longa, ligulata; vaginis subobovatis 20 cm longis, 13 cm latis utrimque viridulis et dense brunneo-lepidotis; limbis ca. 65 cm longis, 8 cm latis, sublinearibus prope apicem angustatis et in spinam validam pungentem 15 mm longam desinentibus, utrimque viridibus et dense albo-lepidotis squamis peradpressis membranam quae in siccatam delapsam conformantibus, interdum albo-vittatis; margine spinis brunneis 2 mm longis, sursum rectis, inter sese 4-5 mm distantibus armata. Scapus 50-60 cm longus, erectus, in vivo 15-20 mm diamet., atropurpureus denseque albo-lepidotus, internodiis ca. 30 mm longis; bracteis scapalibus infimis foliaceis fere tota longitudinem scapum amplectantibus, alteris basi solum vaginantibus rubris margine integra vel nonnisi prope apicem modice minutissima spinosa, autem totis utrimque aequaliter densis albo-lepidotis. Inflorescentia simplissima dense spicata, strobiliformis, anguste ovata, 15 cm longa, 3-5 cm diamet., rache haud tomentosa, apice setoso-comata, foliorum altitudinem non superans; bracteis floriferis cymbiformis, praeter spinas 10 mm longis, 15 mm latis, apice in spinam 17 mm longam rubram petala superantem productis, crasse carinatis, dorso atropurpureo denseque albo-floccoso, ovarium amplectantibus sed haud omnino cingentibus. Flores sessiles 25 mm long; sepalis liberis, subobovalibus, asymmetris, 10-12 mm longis, viridibus praeter apicem purpureum, subcoriaceis, ecarinatis, dorso crebre nervatis denseque albo-lepidotis, utrimque in alam membranaceam latere dextro rotundatam quam pars centralis altiorem pruductis indeque apice emarginatis spinulam ca. 2 mm longam gerentibus; petalis subspathulatis apice obtusis 20 mm longis, primum roseis mox nigrescentibus, basi ligulis binis 6 mm longis fimbriatis ornatis et etiam callis binis longitudinalibus auctis; staminibus quam petala brevioribus; filamentis complanatis ser. I liberis, ser. II inter callos immersis et petalis alte adnatis; antheris 6 mm longis medio dorsifixis; pollinis granulis biporatis; ovario 5 mm longo; tubo epigyno 1 mm longo; placentis apice loculis affixis; ovulis longe caudatis.

Plant flowering at least 90-95 cm high. Leaves about 20, rosulate, forming a funnelform water reservoir at base; leaf sheaths subobovate, 20 cm long, 13 cm wide, green and densely brown-lepidote on both sides; leaf blades about 65 cm long, 8 cm wide, sublinear, narrowed near the apex and then terminating in a stout spine 15 mm long, green and densely white-lepidote on both sides with strongly adpressed scales forming a detaching membrane when dried, sometimes white-banded on both sides, serrate with brown spines 2 mm long. Scape 50-60 cm long, erect, 15-20 mm in diamet. in life, dark purple and densely white-lepidote, inter-nodes about 30 mm long; scape bracts the lower ones foliaceous, completely covering the scape, the upper ones not covering the scape, red entire or moderately spinose at apex, densely white-lepidote on both sides. Inflorescence simple, densely spicate, strobiliform, narrowly ovate, 15 cm long, 3-5 cm in diamet., axis not tomentose, bearing at apex a coma of setiform bracts. Floral bracts cymbiform, 10 mm long without the 17 mm long red terminal spine, 15 mm wide, thick-carinate, on the external side dark purple and densely white-floccose, partially enfolding the ovary. Flowers sessile, 25 mm long; sepals free, subobovate, asymmetric, 10-12 mm long, green and purple near the apex, subcoriaceous, ecarinate, the external side densely nervate and densely white-lepidote, with membranaceous edges, the right edge forming a rounded wing, apex emarginate with a 2 mm long spine; petals subspathulate, 20 mm long, apex obtuse, pink, bearing 2 fimbriate scales 6 mm high above the base and with 2 longitudinal callus. Stamens shorter than the petals; filaments of the second series immersed in the callus and highly adnate to the petals; anthers 6 mm long; pollen biporate; ovary 5 mm long. Epigynous tube 1 mm long; placentae apical; ovules long-caudate.

Type. Elton M. C Leme 94 (holotype, HB; isotype, US.), July 1979. Terrestrial in dry forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, locality of Raposo. It flowered in cultivation July 22, 1984.

This new species is closely related to Aechmea ornata Baker, differing from it mainly with its densely white-lepidote scape which is between 50 and 60 cm long, the spinose scape bracts, the shorter, dark purple and densely white-floccose floral bracts, and the free sepals.

Aechmea roberto-anselmoi has until now been observed only as a terrestrial in the forest in the extreme north of the State of Rio de Janeiro near the boundary of the States of Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo. In this region—which is relatively far from the coast—the predominating vegetation consists of forests of the Atlantic type, with trees of great height. This vegetation, however, does not have as much humidity as that near the coastline. We attribute to this fact the reduced presence of bromeliads in this area and the smaller quantity of the epiphytes. Among the species found here are: Aechmea phanerophlebia, A. ramosa var. ramosa, Billbergia euphemiae var. euphemiae, Quesnelia quesneliana, and an interesting form of Vriesea gigantea.

As for the population known as A. ornata Baker, as well as the varieties known as hoehneana L. B. Smith and nationalis Reitz, we have observed that these grow more in the southern part of the country. They have their northern limit in the State of Sao Paulo and their southern limit in the State of Santa Catarina, near the boundary of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. In this area, they grow at random. It has been our experience, that some are found only in one place, as is the case of the var. nationalis. At the same time there are no outstanding ecological preferences evidenced by these varieties and there are no clear areas of domination among each of them in this region. A. ornata and its varieties can be found here growing concurrently in the air, on the ground, and on rocks.

There is no doubt, therefore, that there is a very distinct difference between the southerly area populated by A. ornata and its varieties hoehneana and nationalis, and the northerly area occupied by A. roberto-anselmoi. It is probable that the isolation factor and continuing specialization have influenced this new species to present its present and singular characteristics which distinguish it from A. ornata and its varieties.

In naming this new species, we honor our friend and collaborator, Roberto Anselmo Kautsky, whose efforts have contributed greatly to increasing public interest in the study and preservation of the flora of the State of Espirito Santo.

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


A Symposium: The Biology of Tropical Epiphytes
W. John Kress

n keeping with it goals of research and conservation, the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens in celebration of its tenth anniversary will hold a symposium entitled "The Biology of Tropical Epiphytes" on 19-21 September 1985 in Sarasota, Florida, USA. Invited and contributed papers will address botanical and horticultural topics pertaining to epiphytes, including their ecology, physiology, reproduction, systematics, conservation, micropropagation, and cultural management in glass houses and tropical botanical gardens. A large collection of living specimens of Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Araceae, Gesneriaceae, and Pterophyta, as well as many other tropical vascular plants, is maintained at Selby Gardens. These collections will serve as a focal point for observation and discussion during the symposium. The symposium is open to all biologists and horticulturists interested in epiphytes. Persons interested in attending the symposium, presenting a short paper and/or receiving additional information should contact Dr. W. John Kress, Director of Research, The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, Florida 33577, USA (813-366-5730). Details on the program of speakers, preparation of abstracts of contributed papers and posters, accommodations in Sarasota, and a final registration form will be available by 15 July.


Bromeliad Flower Arrangement, No. 5, with Portea, Aechmea, and Portmea
May A. Moir

let the portea, aechmea and their hybrids make a show in the garden until I feel that they are about to fold and then I cut them to use at the Honolulu Academy of Arts.

To begin this arrangement I used a large kenzan (needle holder) with a stalk of large heliconia about four feet long well pounded into the kenzan. One needs a good center support so as to control the line of the arrangement. The very tall portea was placed on the kenzan and wired to the heliconia stalk in two places. The tallest aechmea next followed with smaller pieces and then the yellow-edged sansevieria was filled in around the bromeliad stems. Many rocks were then added to hold the whole arrangement in place. A small amount of water, about two inches, on the bottom of the container is enough. The sansevieria does not need water.

The arrangement kept well for two weeks. At this state of maturity the bromeliads will keep well for a week without water.

After the arrangement was taken apart, the inflorescences were saved and dried completely. These dried stalks can be spray painted at a later date and brought back to their original color. They can then be used in dry arrangements in the winter when there is little tall, fresh material available.

Honolulu, Hawaii

Photo by Robert Chinn,
Honolulu Academy of Arts.
Fig. 15: Arrangement of Portea leptantha, Aechmea mulfordii, Portmea 'Luis Ariza Julia', and yellow-edged sansevieria.


Regional Reflections

BROMELIADS ONLY NEED FOUR-INCH POTS

ince time beginning, we have been told that bromeliads don't need anything larger than a four-inch pot. I wonder, did anyone ask the bromeliads their opinion? For the past several years (since I started growing on poles and six-inch pots work better for this), I have been asking the viewpoint the plants take concerning this, and find that they don't necessarily agree with this conclusion. Even when listening to the judges in action, it is not uncommon to hear the remark, "that plant is overpotted," but I have yet to hear the remark, "that plant is underpotted." It may be time for all to take notice, particularly in regard to some genera.

Probably the most vital of these are the members of the Pitcairnioideae. It has been my experience that the dyckias, hechtias, puyas, pitcairnias, deuterocohnias and ochagavias prefer lots of "foot" room. Their first preference is to be grown in the ground where they can let the "corset stays" out to the extreme and enjoy themselves. If this is not to be their good fortune, then their next choice is large (according to size, 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 15-gallon) pots, NOT little four-inch pots! The question is often asked why these plants have brown tips and brown leaves and aren't doing as well as expected. The size of the pot could well answer this question in a majority of cases, along with the growing conditions. This doesn't mean they will not grow in the small pots, flower and offshoot, but if you want plants to be happy and show their maximum beauty, they need plenty of root space. Dyckias, even small ones, can completely fill a gallon-size pot with roots.

An example of this—I planted two Dyckia platyphylla of equal size and age—one in a four-inch pot and the other in an eight-inch pot. This was two years ago. The one in the four-inch pot has grown very little and has not produced an offshoot. The one planted in the eight-inch pot has grown beautifully and produced one off-shoot that is equal in size to the original plant, as well as five smaller ones. When this plant was shown last year, the comment from the judges was, "that plant is overpotted." Another example is two Dyckia fosterianas planted in the same manner. The one in the four-inch pot has two offshoots and has stayed quite small in comparison to the plant potted in the large pot. The one in the larger pot has a minimum of six plants and possibly more, entirely filling the pot. When I turned the pot over and took the plant out, the entire pot was filled with roots and obviously it needed repotting in a still larger pot. The four-inch pot was also filled with roots and there was little soil remaining. The ends of some of the leaves of the plant in the four-inch pot were brown and these plants did not have the "lush" look of the plants grown in the larger container.

I have several Deuterocohnias that I had tried to grow in four-inch pots and although they stayed alive, they certainly were not happy. About a year ago, I transferred these plants to three-gallon pots and the difference in their growing and appearance is amazing and pleasing.

I had a Greigia sphacelata for at least eight or nine years in a four-inch pot and it reached a certain size and remained there. It seemingly was unhappy wherever I tried to grow it. All I could say for it was it remained alive! Two years ago, I planted this plant in a ten-gallon container and you should see it today!!! It is lush, green, happy and healthy with three-foot long leaves and sporting a large offshoot. I am hoping that it will now come into flower. It is four times the size it had gotten in the four-inch pot.

My neoregelias, nidulariums, aechmeas, billbergias, cryptanthus, vrieseas, canistrums, quesnelias, etc., have responded very much in like manner. The plants seem to grow better, happier, and "full" size plants. The cryptanthus, in particular, produce a larger, better grown plant when grown in the larger pots. It really only makes "horse-sense" as these plants are actually terrestrials in many instances, and in their native habitats grow in the ground where their size six or eight "feet" are not crammed into size four "shoes"! Can you imagine how you would feel if this happened to you? When my "feet" hurt, I wouldn't feel like doing my best either!

I am not necessarily advocating that you immediately repot every plant you have in large pots, but I am suggesting that you try a few and find out the results for yourself.

I really wonder who originated the idea that bromeliads only need four inch pots. Experimentation can teach us a great deal—sometimes we just happen to fall into an idea just as I did when I started using the poles and went to using six-inch pots.

Kathy Dorr in Bulletin of the Long Beach-Lakewood
Bromeliad Study Group, Vol. 8, no. 11.


THE PUZZLE OF TILLANDSIA USNEOIDES

have often admired huge clumps of Tillandsia usneoides in photos of South America and somewhat smaller versions of this in some of our own collections.

The plant itself seems to multiply extremely quickly if given the right conditions and care, and this is where I was mystified.

If one carefully looks at a T. usneoides, it only throws one offset off each plant, and if this were the sole means of its multiplication, then I couldn't possibly see how clumps could get so big so quickly.

The answer to this question is really quite simple. The plant has an almost unbelievable capacity to flower, set seed and germinate in a short period of time. I have found that from the time of flowering to maturing of seed pods is, at some times, as short as two months.

Some seed was put down from the last lot of flowering plants and I would hazard a guess that these plants are very close to maturity. That was only six months ago so I would venture to say that the time from flowering to mature seedlings would be only 12 months, which is an abnormally short time considering most other tillandsias take six to seven years.

What must happen is that the thick clumps of T. usneoides hold the seed as the pods break open, and fulfill the role of a natural growing medium for the seedlings.

Combined with the one offset per plant, the seedlings tend to form a very large clump in a very short period of time.

Greg Stewart


OLD IDEAS WORTH RECONSIDERING

re you worried about having perspiration contaminate seed as you handle them? Wash and dry your hands and then try the old nurseryman's trick of dusting the hands with talcum powder!

Have you tried a wick pot? Marvelous for vriesea and like plants which benefit from a continuous supply of moisture. Select a pot with bottom slits at least 12 mm up the sides. Drill a hole in the middle of the bottom and pull through a short length of nylon (it won't rot) rope. Crock to just above the drainage holes with pea sized charcoal, then pot the plant in an open mix bringing the ends of the rope to the upper part of the pot. Place in a tray of water so that the drainage slots are not covered. The wick provides continuous moisture (and fertilizer if required) and the charcoal crocking and open slots ensure aeration.

Have you tried a gravel tray? Just put a 15 mm layer of fine gravel (match head size or a little bigger) in a tray and fill with water until the gravel is just covered. Place the plant in the middle and the water, as it evaporates, create that extra humidity around the leaves. For best results, the tray should extend beyond the span of the plant.

Peter Paroz
Both Greg Stewart and Paroz in Bromeliaceae, The Bromeliad Society of
Queensland, Vol. 18, no. 5, Nov. Dec., 1984.


A GENERAL PURPOSE POTTING MIX was demonstrated recently at our workshop for beginners. Ellen Peyton mixed up a large batch of basic mix using one gallon of perlite, one gallon of Canadian peat, two gallons of redwood bark chips, one gallon of water to which had been added one tablespoon of Peters soluble plant food (16-16-16-, 18-18-18, or 20-20-20 can be used) and one handful (about ¼ cup) of Superphosphate (0-18-0 or 0-20-0). Ellen advises everyone to wear a mask to avoid breathing the perlite dust. Pine bark or tree fern fiber (more expensive) can be used instead of redwood bark. The Superphosphate promotes the growth of a strong root system. Peters fertilizer, added to the water, gives the plants a good start. No more fertilizer is added for potting up neoregelias to make sure that they color up nicely. Other genera such as aechmeas receive additional fertilizer during their growth period. For potting vrieseas, Ellen adds more perlite, redwood bark (or equivalent) to the basic mix for greater aeration.

From Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society February 1985 Newsletter.


Directory of Affiliated Societies

This directory, compiled from the membership secretary's records, lists the names and addresses of the current presidents or BSI representatives. Changes or corrections to this directory forwarded to the membership secretary will be published as soon as possible.

AUSTRALIA

NEW SOUTH WALES
Bromeliad Society of Australia.
Wayne Jeffrey, 18 Kaneruka Pl.,
Baulkham Hills, 2153.

Bromeliad Society of New South Wales.
John Bisset, 40 Clarke St., Narraveen, 2101.

QUEENSLAND
Bromeliad Society of Queensland.
Len Trevor, 305 Wardell St .,
Ashgrove, Brisbane.

Central Coast Bromeliad Society.
Lt. Col. G.G.J. Clarke, 110 Swadling St.,
Long Jetty, 2261.

Ipswich Bromeliad Society.
G. Webley, 8 Delacey St., North Ipswich, 4305.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Bromeliad Society of South Australia.
Mrs. M. E. Bamford, 60 Halsey Rd.,
Fulham, 5024.

VICTORIA
Bromeliad Society of Victoria.
3 Anne Crescent, Brighton North, 3186.

WEST AUSTRALIA
Bromeliad Society of West Australia.
11 Brindle St., Coolbellup, 6163.

Perth and District Bromeliad Society.
Ryan Roepen, 7 Tilby St., Cloverdale, 6105.

GERMANY

Deutsche Bromeliengesellschaft e. V
Geschäfstelle
Siesmayerstrasse 61
6000 Frankfurt am Main
West Germany

NEW ZEALAND

Bromeliad Society of New Zealand
Andy Andrew, 70 Verran Rd., Birkdale, Auckland 10

REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

Bromeliad Society of South Africa
30 Gray Park Rd., Durban, 4091

UNITED STATES

ALABAMA
Bromeliad Society of Mobile
Dale Folsom, Box 163, U.S. Coast Guard,
Mobile, 36608.

CALIFORNIA
Bromeliad Society of San Francisco
Harold Charns, 9th and Lincoln Way,
San Francisco, 94112.

Inland Bromeliad Society of Southern California
Joseph Geierman, 912 W. Marshall Blvd.,
San Bernardino, 92405.

La Ballona Bromeliad Society
Wellington Paul, 12300 Darlington Ave.,
Los Angeles, 90049.

Orange County Bromeliad Society
Larry Farley, 18138 Cari Lane,
Yorba Linda, 92686.

Sacramento Bromeliad Society
Box 13031, Sacramento, 95813.

Saddleback Bromeliad Society
Jim Walters, 1410 Sylvan Dr.,
Anaheim, 92804.

San Diego Bromeliad Society
Jack Percival, 5205 Kearny Villa Way #210,
San Diego, 92123.

South Bay Bromeliad Associates
Frank Hayen, 203 W. Walnut Ave.,
El Segundo, 90245.

FLORIDA
Bromeliad Society of Central Florida
Robert Neubaur, 601 S. Phelps Ave.,
Winter Park, 32789.

Bromeliad Society of South Florida
Dean Fairchild, 13191 SW 82 Ave.,
Miami, 33516.

Bromeliad Guild of Tampa Bay
Jean Schnable, 5106 127th Ave.,
Tampa, 33617.

Broward County Bromeliad Society
Polly Pascal, 4413 SW 38 Ten.,
Ft. Lauderdale, 33312.

Caloosahatchee Bromeliad Society
Peggy Bailey, Rt. 1, Box 491P,
Ft. Myers, 33905.

Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society
Eloina Rivers, P.O. Box 4856,
Clearwater, 33518.

Imperial Polk Bromeliad Society
Whit Merrin, Rt. 6, Box 264,
Plant City, 33566.

Jacksonville Bromeliad Society
Mary Musleh, Rt. 2, Box 2452,
Melrose, 32666.

Sarasota Bromeliad Society
Hazel Quilhot, 6519 34th St. W.,
Sarasota, 33582.

Seminole Bromeliad Society
Edward C. Hall, 1111 Glen Garry Circle,
Maitland, 32751.

West Pasco Bromeliad Society
Charles C. Burgess, 560 Bay St.,
Port Richey, 33568.

GEORGIA
Atlanta Bromeliad Society
Bill Soerries, 2883 Florence Dr.,
Columbus, 31907.

HAWAII
Hawaii Bromeliad Society
P.O. Box 135,
Waimanalo, 96795.

ILLINOIS
Greater Chicago Bromeliad Society
Helen Hirsch, 5830 Stony Island Ave.,
Chicago, 60637.

INDIANA
Indianapolis Bromeliad Society
Elissa Hafsten, 155 W. 73 St.,
Indianapolis, 46260.

LOUISIANA
Acadiana Bromeliad Society
Margo Racca, 301 Oak Glen Dr.,
Lafayette, 70503.

Baton Rouge Bromeliad Society
Michael Young, 4364 Sycamore Dr.,
Baton Rouge, 70805.

Greater New Orleans Bromeliad Society
Jack Grubb, 10008 Hyde Place,
River Ridge, 70123.

Morris Henry Hobbs Bromeliad Society
Patrick Laughlin, P.O. Box 26661,
New Orleans, 70186.

River Bend Bromeliad Society
Peggy Rowe, 505 Huntlee Dr.,
New Orleans, 70053.

River Ridge Bromeliad Society
John Meyer, 506 Stratford Dr.,
Harahan, 70123.

Shreveport Bromeliad Society
Lady Carolyn Milan, 711 Delaware,
Shreveport, 71106.

Southwest Bromeliad Guild
Eddie Ailstock, 4513 Birdwell Ln.,
Bossier City, 71111.

MASSACHUSETTS
New England Bromeliad Society
George Bain, 199 Maple St.,
Needham, 02192.

MICHIGAN
Southeastern Michigan Bromeliad Society
Paul Wingert, 29651 Curtin,
Livonia, 48152.

MINNESOTA
Minnesota Bromeliad Society
Ed McCoy, 3405 Pillsbury Ave.,
Minneapolis, 55408.

MISSISSIPPI
Mississippi Bromeliad Society
Allen Edgar, 5460 Saratoga Dr.,
Jackson, 39211.

NEW YORK
New York Bromeliad Society
Sig Sussman, 83-77 Woodhaven Blvd.,
Woodhaven, 11421.

OHIO
Southern Ohio Bromeliad Society
Jerry Raack, 472 Greenhollow Dr.,
Pataskala, 43062.

OKLAHOMA
Northeast Oklahoma Bromeliad Society
Ruby Ettinger, 2518 E 51 St.,
Tulsa, 74105.

Sooner State Bromeliad Study Group
Jimmy Marques, 27102 E. Latimer,
Catoosa, 74105.

OREGON
Oregon Bromeliad Society
5003 S.E. Glen Echo,
Milwaukie, 97222.

TEXAS
Bromeliad Society of Austin
Arthur Bushey, 1201 Tinnin Ford Road,
Austin, 78741.

Bromeliad Society of Houston
Jim Mayfield, 1616 Vassar,
Houston, 77006.

Corpus Christi Bromeliad Society
Billie Childs, 1106 Alexandria,
Corpus Christi, 78412.

Greater Dallas/Ft. Worth Bromeliad Society
Flo Adams, 3106 Clear Lake Ct.,
Arlington, 76017.

Golden Triangle Bromeliad Society
Warren Loose, 2355 Rusk,
Beaumont, 77702.

Tarrant County Bromeliad Society
Ivan Cowden, 7113 Hightower,
Ft. Worth, 76112.


The Bromeliad Society, Inc.

The purpose of this nonprofit corporation is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of Bromeliaceae, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world. You are invited to join.

OFFICERS
President – Edgar L. Smith, 4415 Vandelia St., Dallas, TX 75219.
Vice President – Harold W. Wiedman, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calif., State University-Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 95819.
Corresponding Secretary – Danita Rafalovich, 3956 Minerva Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90066.
Membership Secretary – Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105.
Recording Secretary – Connie Johnson, 13075 SW 60th Ave., Miami, FL 33156.
Treasurer – David Gardner, 33 Camden Pl. , Corpus Christi, TX 78412.

DIRECTORS
1983-1985: David Benzing, At-large, Connie Johnson, Florida, Ron Lucibell, Outer, Valerie L. Steckler, At-large.
1984-1986: George Anderson, At-large, Chet Blackburn, California, Jack Grubb, Louisiana, Paul T. Isley III, California, Carol M. Johnson, Florida, Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., Texas, Hedi Guelz Roesler, Outer, H. W. Wiedman, At-large.
1985-1987: Bobbie H. Beard, Southern, Nat De Leon, At-large, Linda Harbert, Central, Stan Oleson, California, Herbert Plever, Northeastern, Gerald A. Raack, At-large, Robert E. Soppe, Western, Ervin J. Wurthmann, Florida.

HONORARY TRUSTEES
Luis Ariza Julia, Dominican Republic; Olwen Ferris, Australia; Marcel Lecoufle, France; Harold Martin, New Zealand; Werner Rauh, Germany; Raulino Reitz, Brazil; Walter Richter, Germany; Lyman B. Smith, U.S.; Robert G. Wilson, Costa Rica; Robert W. Read, U.S.; Roberto Burle Marx, Brazil; Victoria Padilla, U.S.; Wilhelm Weber, Germany.

DIRECTORY OF SERVICES AND COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN
Advertising: See Editorial Office.
Affiliate shows: Charlien Rose, 4933 Weeping Willow, Houston, TX 77092.
Affiliated societies newsletter and liaison: Stan Oleson, 1030 Alma, San Pedro, CA 90731.
Awarded cultivars: Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., 206 Eastway, Galena Park, TX 77547.
Conservation: Sue Gardner, 33 Camden Pl., Corpus Christi, TX 78412.
Editorial office: 1508 Lake Shore Drive, Orlando, FL 32803. Address claims for current and 1984 issues to the editor; for back issues other than 1984 and 1985, address H. W. Wiedman, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calif. State University-Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 95819. Advertising rates upon request.
Hybrid registration: Nat De Leon, P.O. Box 560524, Miami, FL 33256-0524.
Judges certification: William E. Frazel 12500 Lake Rd., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33325.
Membership and subscriptions to the Journal: Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105. See title page, for membership dues. BSI Membership Promotion: Bob D. Whitman, 2355 Rusk, Beaumont, TX 77702.
Mulford B. Foster Identification Center: Send specimens and contributions to Harry E. Luther, at the Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 33577.
Publications: Annie Navetta, 3236 S.E. Clinton, Portland, OR 97202.
Seed Bank: Diane E. Pippin, P. O. Box 2352, Riverside, CA 92516.
Slide library: Mary E. Musleh, Rt. 2, Box 2452, Melrose, FL 32666.
World Conference: Gerald A. Raack, 472 Greenhollow Dr., Pataskala, OH 43062.


Photo by E. M. C. Leme.

A new and relatively large species, Aechmea roberto-anselmoi, named in honor of Roberto Anselmo Kautsky, plant explorer and author. The article begins on page 171.


Calendar of Shows

October 12-13Southwest Bromeliad Guild 14th Annual Show. Granada Royale Hometel, 4337 South Padre Island Dr., Corpus Christi, TX. Sat. 1:00-10:00 P.M., Sun. 10:00 A.M.-4:00 P.M. Judged Show, plant sale. Don A. Beadle (512) 992-5096.
October 18-20Bromeliad Society of Central Florida in association with the Leu Botanical Gardens Lawn and Garden Show, Orlando. Judged show and plant sale. Edward and Nancy Hall (305) 647-2039.


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