Copyright 1986 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.
|Vol. 36, No. 1||January—February 1986|
Editor: Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., 1508 Lake Shore Drive, Orlando, Florida 32803
Editorial Advisory Board: David Benzing, Racine Foster, Sue Gardner, Victoria Padilla, Robert W. Read.
Cover Photographs: Front: Pitcairnia fimbriato-bracteata, a species collected and newly described by Dr. Werner Rauh, characterized by its winding scape. Photograph by Dr. Rauh. Text begins on page 21. Back: A corner of Bromania, Grace Goode's "Fairyland," an exercise in beauty. Photograph by the author. Text begins on page 3.
|3||Bromania Grace Goode|
|6||One Mo' Time (continued) Shirley Grubb|
|8||Morren's Paintings, 7: Aechmea jucunda Lyman B. Smith|
|10||A Weird Bromeliad from the Lost World Lyman B. Smith, Robert W. Read|
|12||A New Giant Vriesea from Bahia Wilhelm Weber|
|14||Bromeliaceae Research: A Progress Report Gregory K. Brown, Amy Jean Gilmartin|
|18||Rare Bromeliads from Brazil, No. 2: Vriesea triligulata Gustavo Martinelli, Elton M. C. Leme|
|21||A New Pitcairnia Species from Peru Werner Rauh|
|25||New Directors, 1986-1988 Linda Harbert|
|26||Bromeliad Flower Arrangement, No. 7: Aechmea caudata and Neoregelia 'Fireball' May A. Moir|
|28||Two New Species of Tillandsia from Mexico Sue Gardner|
|35||Internationally Accredited Bromeliad Society Judges and Student Judges List|
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|Fig. 1: Grace Goode|
In those early attempts I had to use many genera, as I did not have a big collection—aechmeas, billbergias, neoregelias, nidulariums, vrieseas, all in together. What a motley crew they were, but still lovely in those modest beginnings under a calliandra tree. The tree was not large at the time, but now stretches almost from one side of the fence to the other fence, adorned with aechmeas. Because of our very wet monsoon season in the autumn I have found I can grow Ae. fasciata, chantinii, orlandiana, and the like, only in the trees, as they rot at ground level. I dreamed of the day when I could landscape with neoregelias, hundreds of them, flaunting their blushing hearts, in a bed of their own.
Now, the dream has come true and I can reject flowering neoregelias which don't approach the high standard demanded for the main display bed (back cover photograph). I don't get time to feel lonely and there are always members calling, neighbours bringing in their friends, and the occasional busload of people from garden clubs. I am a willing captive of my garden. In sharing it with others, the pleasure is multiplied. "Paradise" as my New Zealand friends call it, and "Fairy-land" the South Australians call it. So that is how Bromania began, an exercise in beauty, a retreat from the world.
When I first fell in love with bromeliads back in the 1960's, there were not many species and numbers were limited. The gassing of imported plants deterred would-be importers and most plants were obtained from seed from the Americas. The hardy "earth stars," that genus closest to my heart were a notable exception to the gassing problem. I have not lost a cryptanthus to gassing yet. The Neoregelias on the local scene were: concentrica, spectabilis, farinosa, marmorata, chlorosticta, ampullacea-types, and numerous carolinae hybrids, so-called, but never carolinae—why, I wondered? This was the material the hybridist had to use and, limited as it was, some lively hybrids were obtained.
In 1975 I attended the Silver Anniversary of the Society in Los Angeles feeling like a zombie for the whole ten days I stayed there because the seventeen-hour trip (my first flight) had left me with jet lag. The Los Angeles members were most generous with their plants, giving me those which were still rare. I brought back to Australia new blood—a hybridist's dream. I lost about six in quarantine, but exhorted the remaining flock to grow quickly so that I could wield the magic wand to enrich the Australian bromeliad population.
In the initial stages, the budding enthusiast pollinates everything which is blooming, mainly because of lack of plants. With thousands of plants in flower, the experienced hybridist studies the desired qualities before dashing out with brush in hand. When sleep evades me, I think of potentialities of plants: size, form, colour, texture of leaves, resistance to heat and cold. But how many failures there are. One crossing came close to the heart's desire. This was Neo. marmorata with chlorosticta. I wanted the size and formation of marmorata and the colour of chlorosticta, and so Neo. 'Charm' was born in 1978 (and there is a photo of it in Victoria Padilla's book The Colorful Bromeliads).
Pleased with this success, I did the cross again and what a miserable lot they were. An elongated form of chlorosticta with few leaves, insipid in colouring, and not showing much influence of marmorata. Ervin Wurthmann is correct, in my opinion, when he says it all depends on which parent is dominant at time of mating. It is a matter of chance; you can get an Einstein or a moron.
I managed to obtain a plant of Neo. cyanea from George Anderson in 1980 when I attended the Orlando Conference. What a wonderful plant to use in hybridizing. George is thrice blessed in my book. I crossed it with chlorosticta and I dare to think it is superior to 'Fireball'. I love the latter, particularly for landscaping, but its leaves are too soft, suffering in our mild winters and burning in our summers. My hybrid, which I have called 'Born of Fire' has short, stiff, pointed leaves, the colour is deep wine red, the size is that of 'Fireball'. It offsets generously and is indifferent to cold or heat. A wonderful landscape subject.
|Fig. 2: Neoregelia 'Amazing Grace', the author's most famous cultivar.|
In hybridising I do not like to wander far from the species. My personal choice is species crossed with hybrids or vice versa. I have no love for hybrids crossed with hybrids, particularly hybrids selfed. They inherit all the weaknesses of their forebears: a big tendency to quill, and sensitivity to the cold. Granted, the grower can get a few super plants of outstanding quality, but I consider it not worth the time or space to grow a hundred or so seedlings to get a super plant. Most of all I prefer to use a variety of a species as the seed plant, as a variety has already varied from the species and has the seeds of change within its genes. In using a parent like this the progeny show amazing diversity in form and colour and many good hybrids can be obtained.
According to my "stud" book, I have done twelve billbergia crosses, thirty-seven crosses in cryptanthus, seventy-five crosses in neoregelias, six bigeneric, and a few in the aechmeas. My most famous would be Neo. 'Amazing Grace', a variant from the 'Sheer Joy' grex, which has lime colour with red stripes (fig. 2).
The greatest fulfillment I have received from a named cross was Billbergia amoena var. minor crossed with horrida var. tigrina. Six days before my sister died from cancer, I told her I was going to call a plant after her: Billbergia 'Jean Black'. Her wan smile and, "I'd love that, Grace," were the greatest rewards ever for me in the field of hybridising.
My experience in crossing bromeliads makes me believe that two highly coloured parents produce nondescript offspring, lacking the colour of the parents, cancelling each other out, as it were.
I think Neo. olens is a wonderful plant for hybridising, imparting its bright centre to its progeny, but, alas! also dominating with the sparse leaves. Oh! for a 'Fireball' with the bright centre of olens. But who knows? Maybe some hybridist in the future will accomplish this.
Finally my days of hybridising are coming to a close. Most of my plants are grown terrestrially and peering into the innards of neoregelias at ground level is anathema to my back—the years are taking their toll. I sometimes think I must resemble a witch, crouching over my plants, muttering incantations. Oh, well! perhaps there is some magic in it.
Alexandra Headlands, Queensland
[The Australian Bromeliad Society in 1982 honored Grace Goode with life membership for her work in the field of hybridizing.]
e began planning the 1986 World Bromeliad Conference in 1982 right after the Corpus Christi conference and in spite of that planning we are still operating with a large guessing factor when it comes to how many of you will come to the party. We are concerned because we want to be sure that there will be enough of everything: we don't want to run short and disappoint you. So, here I would like to show you the tentative schedule, tell you why we picked the Fairmont (it used to be the Roosevelt) Hotel, and suggest things that you might like to do in addition to taking part in the Conference activities, and urge you to register as soon as possible.
The Fairmont, in terms of our planned activities and the hoped-for attendance, is just the right size and they are interested in meeting our needs. Unlike some of the giant hotels with several conventions going on at the same time, the Fairmont has the location, the facilities, and the prices that we think are the best for us. The hotel is just one-half block from Canal Street and two blocks from the French Quarter. It has completely renovated facilities. The cuisine is among the best in the city, but, as said before, there are all kinds of restaurants, fast and slow, expensive and not so expensive, nearby. When you register for the conference, you will receive a raffle ticket that might pay for your stay of up to three nights. The drawing will be on the night of the banquet.
If you drive, there is a parking garage across the street from the hotel. If you fly, the airport limousine comes directly to the front door.
When you have torn yourself away from the hotel and the convention goings-on, you can walk or take a taxi to the French Quarter, to the Superdome, the Mississippi levee, the Rouse development on the site of the 1984 World's Fair. You can take tours of the city and tours to the antebellum homes along both sides of the river between New Orleans and Baton Rouge. You can even take the St. Charles streetcar to the Garden District with its beautiful old homes. These and other tours may be arranged right at the hotel.
We want you to come. We need to know how many of you plan to be here so that we won't run out of essentials such as the wine at the opening reception. We want to be among friends who love bromeliads and who will talk to us about them. We want to see plants, to buy plants, and to learn about them. We think that you want these things, too.
See you at the 1986 World Bromeliad Conference—New Orleans, where else?
1986 World Bromeliad Conference Tentative Show Schedule
|Wednesday, May 21, 1986|
9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
12:00 noon to 1:00 p.m.
3:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m.
Set up show.
B.S.I. board meeting.
|Thursday, May 22, 1986|
9:00 a.m. to 12:00
12:00 noon to 1:00 p.m.
12:00 noon to 1:00 p.m.
10:00 a.m. to 12:00
2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.
4:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Judges' briefing and judging.
Photo session in the show area for photographers.
Walking tours of the French Quarter.
Walking tours of the French Quarter.
Show and plant sales open to registrants only.
Opening ceremonies in St. Louis Cathedral.
Morris Henry Hobbs art exhibit in the Presbytère.
|Friday, May 23, 1986|
9:00 a.m. to 12:00
10:00 a.m. to 12:00
2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Show open to registrants only; plant sales open.
Show open to the public.
River boat ride.
Show and plant sales close.
Rare plant auction (cash bar).
|Saturday, May 24, 1986|
9:00 a.m. to 12:00
1:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m.
3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
7:00 pm. to 8:00 p.m.
Show open to the public.
Wisdom home tour.
Walking tours of the French Quarter; seminars.
David H. Benzing, Ph.D., featured speaker.
Wisdom home tour.
Walking tours of the French Quarter; seminars.
Show and plant sales close.
Happy hour (cash bar).
Banquet, drawings, entertainment.
|Sunday, May 25, 1986|
9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
9:00 a.m. to 12:00
Show open to the public.
Plant sales open.
Wisdom home tour.
Walking tours of the French Quarter.
|Monday, May 26, 1986|
Local gardens open to conference registrants—to be announced.
Judges' school #2—See handbook for topics to be covered.
Lyman B. Smith
Photograph by the author
of a painting by C. J. E. Morren.
|Fig. 3: Aechmea jucunda, victim of nomenclature rules, now called Aechmea wittmackiana.|
ccording to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, when two or more names have been applied to the same species the earliest one must be used even though it is a poorer description of the species and even though, as in this case, it was described under the wrong genus. So we must now call the species Aechmea wittmackiana instead of jucunda. However, there is usually the consolation that the later name adds to our knowledge of the species.
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Lyman B. Smith and Robert W. Read
his new bromeliad (fig. 4) comes from the remote region along Venezuela's southern border popularly known as the "Lost World" from Conan Doyle's famous novel. It has not yielded any of the live dinosaurs recounted in the book but its plants are strictly out of this world. Although this comes to Pitcairnia bulbosa in the Flora Neotropica key it is quite unlike it even from a great distance.
6a. Pitcairnia rondonicola L. B. Smith & R. W. Read, sp. nov. A P. bulbosa L. B. Smith, cui affinis, bracteis primariis late ovatis, inflorescentiae ramis plurimis brevioribus gracillimis, bracteis florigeris multo brevioribus, pedicellis gracillimis differt.
Plant known only from fragments, over 1 m and probably 2 m high. Leaves ca. 4-5 dm long; sheaths pale yellow, otherwise scarcely distinct; blades narrowly triangular, rigid, probably attenuate and pungent like the scape-bracts, 4 cm wide, pale appressed lepidote beneath. Scape stout, at first sparsely flocculose, soon glabrescent; scape-bracts erect, serrate, pale appressed lepidote beneath, foliaceous at base. Inflorescence laxly bipinnate, 7 dm long, much branched, nearly to the apex, glabrescent; primary bracts broadly ovate with blades narrowly triangular, serrate or not, pale-lepidote beneath, to 6 cm long; branches 2-9 cm long, very slender. Floral bracts ovate, acute, 5 mm long, thin, glabrescent; pedicels to 18 mm long, very slender. Sepals narrowly triangular, 16 mm long, glabrous; petals to 23 mm long, naked, orange (Pipoly et al.); stamens shorter than petals; ovary glabrous 1/3 inferior.
Brazil: Amazonas: Pico Rondon, 0-3 km N of km 211 of Perimetral N Highway, lithophyte in scrub forest on upper S ridge, common only on summit, ca. 1° 32' N; 62° 48' W; 3 Feb 1984, J. Pipoly, G. Samuels & J. G. Oliveira 6623 (NY holotype, MG isotype).
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
|Fig. 4: Pitcairnia rondonicola, a new find from the "Lost World" of the southern border of Venezuela.|
|Fig. 5: This giant Vriesea species with inflorescence 60 cm high, is a recent discovery by Alvim Seidel from the interior of Bahia.|
A Vriesea lancifolia (Baker) L. B. Smith 1941 cui affinis, foliis anguste lingulatis, bracteis scapales longioris quam internodiis, flores crasse stipitatis differt.
Planta florens usque ad 240 cm alta. Folia anguste lingulata, viridia, subdense appresso-lepidota, rosulam ad 1 m diametiens formans. Vaginae ovatae, ad 18 cm longae, 8 cm latae, ad basim ferrugineae. Laminae ad 60 cm longae, 30 mm latae, modice canaliculatae, apices subrotundatis et apiculatis. Scapus erectus, 175 cm longus, teres, ad 15 mm diametiens, subglaber. Bracteae scapales erectae, basales subfoliaceis, superiores longe ovatis et apiculatis, internodiis superans. Inflorescentia simplex, ad 60 cm alta, disticha, subdense, plus-minusve 36-flora, internodiis 15-20 mm longis. Flores ad 45 mm longis, 8-17 mm crasse stipitatis. Bracteae florales ovales, obtusae, 20-25 mm longae, ad 17 mm latae, coriaceae, ecarinatae, indistincte nervatae, pallide flavae apices rubro-marginatis, subdense brunneo-lepidotae, cum flores secundam propositis. Sepala libera, longe-ovata, obtusa, usque ad 30 mm longa, 12 mm lata, coriacea, ecarinata, flava, subdense brunneo-lepidota, bracteis floralis valde superans. Petala cum genitalia ignota (ab photo A. Seidel flava, stamina plus-minusve aequilonga quam petala).
Leg. Alvim Seidel no. 934. Brasilia, Bahia, Piata, 800 msm. Holotypus: WEB 686.
Plant flowered 240 cm high (fig. 5). Leaves narrowly lingulate, green, slightly lepidote, forming a funnelform rosette to 1 m in diameter. Sheaths ovate, to 18 cm long and 8 cm wide, ferruginous at base; blades to 60 cm long, 30 mm wide, moderately canaliculate, tips blunt and apiculate. Scape erect, 175 cm long, to 15 mm in diameter, terete, subglabrous; scape bracts erect, the lower subfoliaceous, the higher long-ovate and apiculate, exceeding the internodes. Inflorescence simple, to 60 cm high, somewhat dense, about 36-flowered, flowers and bracts secund, rachis nearly straight, internodes 15-20 mm long. Flowers to 45 mm long with 8-17 mm long, stout pedicel. Floral bracts obtusely ovate, 20-25 mm long, to 17 mm wide, coriaceous, faintly nerved, ecarinate, pale yellow with red margins extending to the tip, slightly brown lepidote; sepals free, long ovate, obtuse, to 30 mm long, 12 mm wide, coriaceous, ecarinate, yellow, slightly brown lepidote, much exceeding the floral bracts; petals, stamens, and pistil not seen (after photo by A. Seidel petals yellow, spreading, stamens about equal in length to the petals).
As a vriesea with simple inflorescence, this new discovery by Alvim Seidel is really a giant species (fig. 6), closely related to Vriesea lancifolia, but much larger; the leaves lingulate, the scape bracts exceeding the internodes, and the flowers long and stoutly stipitated.
Mr. Seidel wrote to me, "I found this species in a wet, inner region of the State of Bahia at an elevation of about 800 m above sea level. These plants were growing in a loose, terrestrial manner with their roots scarcely penetrating the soil. Only one flower opens daily, never two on the same day."
This peculiar species is named in memory of Roberto Seidel, the father of the explorer.
Waldsteinberg, East Germany
|Drawing by Wilhelm Weber|
Fig. 6: Vriesea roberto-seidelii
Gregory K. Brown1 and Amy Jean Gilmartin2
or over a year we have been conducting collaborative research dealing with Bromeliaceae chromosomes, floral morphology, and phylogenetic analysis. Examples of the kinds of research progress to date include 1) 56 chromosome counts from 46 species, 35 of these being new or first time reports; 2) studies in the origins of mesic and xeric species within the Tillandsia subgenus Phytarrhiza and relationships to the subgenera Diaphoranthema and Pseudo-Catopsis; 3) scanning electron microscope analysis of floral morphology, especially stigma architecture, for nearly two-thirds of the species from Tillandsia subgenus Phytarrhiza (fig. 7), as well as for other members of the family (fig. 8). We are not alone in our efforts thanks to a dedicated group of resident botanists in Latin America who supply us with wet-preserved floral buds and flowers for chromosomal and floral morphology studies respectively. In addition, the field participants also prepare dried, unmounted herbarium specimens which are subsequently processed into voucher specimens, and also detailed field collection data. All material is sent to Washington State University. In return, field participants are partially reimbursed for their efforts. From our point of view, the field participant or collector network has worked very well. It has proven to be an extremely cost effective means of generating the raw materials needed for chromosomal and floral studies, and promises to serve as a template system for other temperate region botanists with serious research interests in specific tropical plant groups.
Fig. 7: SEM (40X) showing a side-view of style and stigma with stamens intact from Tillandsia dyeriana.
Fig. 8: SEM (50X) showing a top view of the conduplicate-spiral
Spearheaded by Dr. Gilmartin, a special satellite meeting at the 4th Latin American Botanical Congress (Medellin, Colombia: 29 June-5 July 1986) has been scheduled in order to gather together as many of the field participants in the project as possible to discuss project organization and research results. The agenda addresses procedural aspects of the field participant network, a summary of research progress to date, and future plans. The meeting is also expected to enhance the active research collaboration between the field participants in Latin America and ourselves. Table 1 lists the names and addresses of the field participants.
The live bromeliad collection and the Mulford B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center at Selby Botanical Gardens have also played an important role in providing materials for the research. Selby Gardens probably has the best research-oriented bromeliad collection in the New World (see Bromel. Soc. 1985, 35: 219-221). Most of the specimens are field-collected, have accurate collection data, and reliable identifications. Utilizing this resource has made it possible to obtain large quantities of floral and floral bud material otherwise not available or difficult to obtain.
Since its inception, the research has produced a number of scientific contributions, including:
In additional to the papers already in print or soon to be so, new manuscripts relevant to the research are in various stages of preparation. Both authors have also presented aspects of the research at various scientific meetings and symposia.
The research and collector
network is funded by a National Science Foundation Grant (BSR-8407573) to the
authors which continues through October 1987. Some of the future goals and
research activities include: expansions of the chromosome number and floral
morphology studies, a taxonomic revision of Tillandsia subgenus Phytarrhiza, studies of phylogenetic relations among the three subfamilies
(Bromelioideae, Pitcairnioideae, Tillandsioideae), and collecting field trips
to South America, Mexico, and West Germany. This research is making a
significant contribution toward knowledge in the area of Bromeliaceae biology
1. Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071-3165
2. Department of Botany, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164
Table 1. 1985 Field Participants in Bromeliaceae Research
|Dr. James Ackerman||Departamento de Biología, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 00931.|
|Dr. Stephan Beck||Herbário Nacional de Bolivia, Cajon Postal 20127, La Paz, Bolivia.|
|Ingra.Olga Benavides||Herbário, Universidad de Narino, Apartada Aereo 1175-1176, Pasto, Colombia.|
|Dr. Luis Bernardello||Museo Botánico, Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina.|
|Elizabeth Bravo V.||Herbário QCA, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Apartado 2184, Quito, Ecuador.|
|Sr. David Brunner||Herbário del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (PY), Inventario Biologico Nacional, Servicio Forestal Nacional, Tacuary, 443, Edif. Patria 6 Piso, Asunción, Paraguay.|
|Sr. Hermes Cuadros||Jardin Botánico "Guillermo Pinare", Apartado Aereo 5456, Cartegena, Colombia.|
|Dr. David Diaz-Miranda||Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela.|
|Dra. Linda Albert de Escobar||Herbário, Universidad de Antioquia, Apartado Aereo 1226, Medellin, Colombia.|
|Dr. Gert Hatschbach||Directoria de Parques y Pracas, Museu Botánico Municipal, Cx. Postal 1142, Curitiba 80000, Paraná, Brasil.|
|Dr. Stephen Koch||Centro de Botánica, Colegio de Postgraduados, 56230 Chapingo, Mexico.|
|Dr. Gustavo Martinelli||Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal, Jardin Botánico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.|
|Dr. Lazaro Novara||Decanato, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Buenos Aires 177, 4400 Salta, Argentina.|
|Dr. Fernando Ortiz Crespo||University of the Sacred Heart, Natural Sciences, Box 12383 Loiza Station, Santurce, Puerto Rico 00914.|
|Patricia Magana Rueda||Herbário Nacional (MEXU), Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-367, Deleg. Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D. F., Mexico.|
|Dra. Rosa Subils||Museo Botánico, Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina.|
|Dr. Isidora Sanchez Vega||Los Fresnos 191, Urb. El Ingenio, Apartado 55, Cajamarca, Peru.|
|Dr. Tom Wendt||Centro de Botánica, Colegio de Postgraduados, 56230 Chipingo, Mexico.|
Gustavo Martinelli and Elton M. C Leme
|E. M. C. Leme|
9: Mountains near Macaé, northeast of Rio de Janeiro, are the hard-to-reach habitat|
of the recently rediscovered Vriesea triligulata
he Serra do Mar is a range of mountains that runs along the Atlantic coast from the State of Rio Grande do Sul to the northern part of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Its length is broken into several smaller mountains that take different local names like Bocaina, Orgãos, and Macaé. The typical vegetation of these mountainsides is the damp Atlantic forest, and its exuberance has always appealed to biologists, naturalists, and to the lovers of nature in general (fig. 9).
In view of the combination of several favorable biological factors, the family Bromeliaceae is one of the most represented in such ecosystems. The great diversity of species and varieties of bromeliads found in the mountainous coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro allowed the pioneer researchers to discover countless plants previously unknown to science. One of them is the Vriesea triligulata Mez, 1894, collected in 1887 by Glaziou in an elevated part of the Serra dos Orgãos not precisely determined.
As the result of excursions begun in 1982, in the mountainous region of Macaé, we have rediscovered among other species the very beautiful and rare V. triligulata (fig. 10). It is a medium-size plant which flowers up to 85 cm high. Its ligulate, suberect, green leaves form a narrow funnelform water reservoir at base. The scape is erect, stout, covered with erect, broadly elliptic, acute, and red bracts. The inflorescence is compound, about 25 cm long; it has about 5 spreading or suberect branches, 4-6 flowered, 5-9 cm long, elliptic or lanceolate in shape and compressed. The floral bracts are divergent, broadly ovate and acute, about 28 mm long, equaling and covering the sepals, obtusely carinate, and red. The short pedicellated flowers are divergent. The 24-mm long sepals are elliptic and obtuse. The yellow petals are ligulate, 40 mm long, shorter than the stamens, bearing 2 acute scales at the base of each one.
|E. M. C. Leme|
|Fig. 10: Vriesea triligulata, a medium-size, rare plant which flowers up to 85 cm high, found by the authors growing both as an epiphyte and on the ground.|
Part of the collected material was deposited in the Herbarium of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden under number 210.383, collection made by C. Farney no. 58, July 30, 1982 and number 210.303, collected by G. Martinelli no. 8737 and C. Farney in Sept. 16, 1982.
The V. triligulata was so named by Mez after noticing only one ligula at the bottom of each petal instead of two, as usually happens. The famous botanist described this species as follows: "...petalis ligulatis, ligula singula latissima triangulari auctis," meaning that each petal was provided with only one ligula, very wide and triangular. Dr. L. B. Smith was unable to verify this strange detail and, consequently, states in his monograph that the morphological characteristic noted by Mez is doubtful.
Thorough studies of the newly gathered samples verified that the existence of two ligulae at the base of each petal is the usual number and not just one as Mez had reported. That Mez once had in hand a specimen bearing the abnormality is not surprising. The lack of material for comparison contributes to the fact that the discrepancy was not taken into consideration by that eminent specialist.
In its habitat, the V. triligulata was found as an epiphyte and sometimes growing on the ground in the interior of the Atlantic forest at an altitude above 1,000 meters. Its occurrence in the collecting area is relatively common. Probably this species should be more widespread geographically. We have concluded that the destruction of its former habitat has confined the species to a small area, but it is better preserved because it is hard to reach in places like the overhangs of Serra dos Orgãos-Marcaé where it survives today.
Growing specimens in areas at sea level like the city of Rio de Janeiro has proved a problem making still more uncertain the survival of such a lovely and vulnerable representative of the Atlantic-mountain flora of Brazil.
Rio de Janeiro
itcairnia fimbriato-bracteata Rauh sp. nov. 1 is a most curious new species from northeastern Peru. It is characterized by the floral bracts which soon degenerate leaving only the nerves wrapped around the entire inflorescence creating the appearance of a bird's nest (cover photograph).
Pitcairnia fimbriato-bracteata is stemless and forms big bushes up to 2 m high. The single rosettes have only a few dimorphic leaves. The outer ones with a reduced blade, are brown and soon dying. Sheaths of the normal leaves inconspicuous, lanceolate, up to 1.5 cm high and 2 cm wide. Blades long-lanceolate, up to 80 cm long and 7 cm wide, thin, green above, and glabrous, densely pale brown lepidote, beneath in the upper third inconspicuously serrulate with a 130-cm long (!), 0.5-cm wide, canaliculate, pale brown, tomentose petiole. Inflorescence much shorter than the leaves. Scape up to 80 cm long, 1 cm thick, round, glabrous, bright cinnabar-red, erect at the base, then curving downwards, and the simple inflorescence again erect, therefore resembling a tobacco pipe. Scape bracts much shorter than the internodes, long triangular, acute, soon drying blackish (fig. 11). Inflorescence simple, many flowering, short-cylindric-acute, up to 15 cm long and 5 cm thick, densely wrapped in a cloth of the dead and fibrous floral bracts. Inflorescence axis erect, straight, 0.7 cm thick, glabrous, cinnabar-red. Living floral bracts much exceeding the sepals, long-lanceolate-acute, up to 6 cm long, 1.4 cm wide and carinate at the base, carmine-red when young, laxly lepidote, before anthesis drying black and becoming fibrous. Flowers subsessile, strongly zygomorphic (fig. 12). Sepals strongly curved, the posterior ones carinate, lanceolate-acute, up to 3.5 cm long, 1 cm wide, even, not nerved, carmine-red, glabrous, brown lepidote only at the tips and the base. Petals up to 6 cm long, 1 cm wide, ligulate, short acute, bright carmine-red, at the base a fleshy, 1-cm long, not dentated ligule. Stamens and style with spiralized stigmas curved like the petals and exserted. Filaments thick, often flexuous at the base. Anthers lineal, 1.5 cm long, yellow. Ovary 3-angled, but not winged, 0.7 cm long, 0.6 cm thick, with verrucose epidermis, ¾ inferior.
Holotype: Rauh and von Bismarck 40 108 (17 July 1976), in Herbarium of the Institute of Systematic Botany of the University of Heidelberg (HEID).
Habitat and distribution: Terrestrial in a degenerated rainforest, 700 m altitude, between Nazareth and Imacita, Amazonas Dept., northeastern Peru.
The species name, P. fimbriato-bracteata, refers to the fibrous floral bracts. It is currently known only from the type locality. With respect to the shape of the ovules, the new species belongs to the subgenus Pepinia and has probably some relationship to P. quesnelioides L. B. Smith, which is known only from southern Colombia (Puerto Limón, 900 m, Foster 2257). It differs from P. quesnelioides by the presence of a long (up to 130 cm), canaliculate, pale brown petiole, by the long, lanceolate blade, by the even, not strongly nerved, glabrous, curved, and 3.5-cm long sepals, and by the verrucose ovary which is not winged and which does not ascend abruptly.
The development of the inflorescence is worthy of note. The scape first grows erect, then it curves sharply downwards toward the ground, and with the formation of the inflorescence, the axis becomes erect again so that a tobacco pipe shape results.
The floral bracts are alive
only at the tip of the inflorescence. They are densely imbricate and bright
red, but before anthesis of the flowers they die, becoming black and
degenerate; only their nerves persist, enveloping the whole inflorescence like
a web of fibers. We have observed such behavior of the floral bracts also in P.
quesnelioides and P. bakeri, but the latter belongs to the subgenus Pitcairnia.
1. The Latin diagnosis will appear in "Bromelienstudien", 17, Tropische und subtropische Pflanzenwelt, Bd. 54, 1985.
Heidelberg, West Germany
|Fig. 11: The bright red scape of the Pitcairnia fimbriato-bracteata grows up to 80 cm long, curving first down, then up in the shape of a tobacco pipe.|
|Fig. 12: A section of the Pitcairnia fimbriato-bracteata inflorescence showing the symmetry of the flowers.|
[BSI Director Ervin Wurthmann suggests that we reprint the following information extracted from the 15 March 1985 Newsletter of the Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida and originally printed in the Virginia Nurserymen's Association Newsletter, April 1984. The basic article describes sporotrichosis as a potentially serious fungus disease sometimes contracted by those working with trees packed in sphagnum moss. The editor's note accompanying the article summarizes the information as follows:]
ndividuals in Florida's nursery industry handle thousands of cubic yards of sphagnum peat each year. The material referred to in this article is sphagnum moss, a very light tan colored product with moss-like strands plus some fines. I have never heard of an individual contracting sporotrichosis from handling sphagnum peat, the medium-to-dark brown material used in many potting media. As the preceding article describes, this is not the case with sphagnum moss.
"During the ten years I have been in Florida, I have heard of two Florida nursery-related cases of sporotrichosis, although there probably have been several others. One of these cases involved Dr. William B. Ennis, Jr. who is director of the Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida. Several years ago Dr. Ennis was doing some needed gardening, more specifically, preparing a hanging basket the good old way using a wire frame and lining it with wet sphagnum moss prior to adding a peat mix and the plants. In the process he punctured the skin on one hand and provided a site for the pathogen to enter. The resulting infection became very serious as it spread up his arm.
"Since this disease is not an everyday occurrence, most doctors are not able to diagnose it properly. This was certainly the case with Dr. Ennis who had visited a number of medical types during a period of several weeks as his infection spread. Finally, one specialist recognized the disorder and started a medication program. It took Dr. Ennis several months to eradicate the systemic fungus. This is indeed a serious disorder. If suspected on a nursery worker, or anyone else for that matter, have the infection diagnosed properly and a medication program prescribed. The fungus could kill a person if the infection were permitted to spread unchecked."
here were many more ballots cast than in earlier years, an obvious indication of increased interest on the part of the members. The directors are elected to speak for the individual members of the several regions, and the directors-at-large to speak for any member anywhere. Each election is your chance to get the representation you want.
The annual call for nominations was published in the November-December issue of the Journal with the explanation that each affiliate president or each director may nominate one qualified member for his region only and one at-large. We hope that the selection of the candidates will be made in consultation with all members of each affiliate.
The newly elected directors and their addresses are:
B. Dean Fairchild
13191 SW 82 Ave.
Miami, FL 33156
P.O. Box 12981
Gainesville, FL 32604
William E. Frazel
12500 Lake Road
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33325
Wayne B. Guthrie
Houston, TX 77066
Driftwood. Steve Correale says that he has been using driftwood from salt water without waiting for the salt to leach and has experienced no plant damage.
Rehydration. A dehydrated plant can be revived by submerging it in a pail of sugar water for several hours or even overnight. Mix one cup to a pailful of water. Do not use a galvanized container for long periods because of possibly harmful effects. This treatment works also with orchids and ferns.
How to stretch tree fern. To your regular mix of one part peat moss, one part perlite, and one part crushed tree fern, add one part redwood chips and turkey grit (granite chips) mixed. The redwood breaks down more slowly than other wood chips and the bromeliads will like the acid rock.
Bromeliad Society of South Florida,
February and November 1984 issues.
May A. Moir
Fig. 13: An arrangement of Aechmea caudata|
and Neoregelia 'Fireball.'
he construction of this arrangement is very simple. As I have said before, one needs a good kenzan (needle holder) large enough for all of the material you plan to use. One heliconia stem or a very slender banana stalk must be well secured to the kenzan. Cut the heliconia stalk to almost the height of the tallest ti leaf. Pin back a row of leaves to the stalk wherever needed. The aechmea usually will stand without being pinned. The 'Fireball' does not have to go into the kenzan, but just be tucked into the edge of the container.
Your editor has asked me to comment on the design of the flower arrangement. To begin with there is a strong diagonal line running through the center formed by the Aechmea caudata inflorescences and it divides the two groups of ti leaves. The Neoregelia 'Fireball' plants are the anchor of strong dark color at the base of the arrangement. There is an interesting contrast of textures between the large, smooth ti leaves and the intricate bunches of the Aechmea caudata. I have used a close range of color from yellow through apricot, orange, rose, and maroon red; even the brass container blends with the plant material.
|Drawing by the author.|
|Fig. 14: This drawing of the arrangement shown in figure 13 emphasizes the element of line and the contrast of dark and light colors. Comparison of the drawing with the color picture and study of the brief text provide an introduction to the three elements of design in bromeliad flower arrangement.|
ull scientific descriptions of these two species were published in Selbyana Vol. 7, pages 361-379 in August of 1984. The first species, T. aguascalientensis C. S. Gardner, is new to horticulture as well as to science. The second species T pseudobaileyi C. S. Gardner has been in cultivation for many years under the name of T baileyi Rose, another species with which it has been confused.
Tillandsia aguascalientensis (fig. 15 and 16) is a medium-sized, grey Tillandsia from the State of Aguascalientes in central Mexico where it is saxicolous on rock walls and boulders at an elevation of about 2,000 to 2,200 meters. This species appears to be closely related to T dugesii J. G. Baker. The plant is about 40 cm in height including the inflorescence. The narrowly triangular leaves are leathery and cinereous-lepidote above and below. The scape is stout and erect. The erect, pinnate inflorescence bears numerous strict, 5- to 10-flowered branches that are subtended by glabrous cherry-red primary bracts with lepidote, recurved (upper) or pendant (lower) blades. The conduplicate, keeled floral bracts are glossy, cherry-red with lepidote margins and apices. Flowers are lavender, 51-63 mm long (fig. 17).
Tillandsia pseudobaileyi (fig. 18, page 31) is an epiphyte of open, seasonally dry forests, growing horizontally or descending at elevations of 300 to 1000 meters. Distribution of T. pseudobaileyi is southern Mexico to Nicaragua (fig. 21, page 32). This species has been confused with T. baileyi which has a similar habit but which occurs in southern Texas and coastal Tamaulipas, Mexico. T. pseudobaileyi can easily be distinguished from T. baileyi by several characteristics. It has a larger, more bulbose body and harder, nearly glabrous leaves. T. baileyi foliage is grey-lepidote. Trichomes of T. pseudobaileyi are smaller (averaging 0.25 mm) than those of T. baileyi (0.35 mm) and their morphology is different (fig. 19 & 20, page 32).
Flowering or fruiting specimens are distinguishable by inflorescence characters. T. baileyi has a simple spike, and lepidote, pale rose floral bracts. In contrast, T. pseudobaileyi typically produces a compound inflorescence of up to five branches. Floral bracts are appressed-lepidote, flushed blood-red in strong light. Flowering season also differs, T. pseudobaileyi flowers January to March and T. baileyi April to May.
Corpus Christi, Texas
|Drawing by the author.|
|Fig. 15: Tillandsia aguascalientensis C. S. Gardner|
Fig. 16: Tillandsia aguascalientensis shown growing on rock walls
in central Mexico.
Fig. 17: A closeup of the glossy,
|Drawing by the author.|
|Fig. 18: Tillandsia pseudobaileyi.|
|Fig. 19 & 20: SEM photographs of trichomes from abaxial leaf blade of T. baileyi and T. pseudobaileyi respectively. Bar represents 100 microns.|
|Fig. 21: Distribution of T pseudobaileyi - closed circles, and T. baileyi - open circles.|
I'VE GOT A PROBLEM
romeliads are a hobby with me and I am trying to grow as great a variety as I can. I've been removing pups and potting or repotting what seems to me to be my best example of each particular species. I'm finding that I simply do not have room for the large number of duplicate pups that I'm acquiring.
Several ideas have occurred to me. Throwing them into the dump is unacceptable. Another possibility intrigues me. Why not a round-robin pup exchange? We could improve our clones by promoting cross-fertilization between different clones of the same species. We could also increase the variety of our collections. Perhaps we could get mates for some of our dioceious plants. For instance, I have a female Hechtia glomerata, a male Hechtia glabra, and a male Androlepis skinneri. I would like to get mates for these.
Some of the pups I've taken so far are 10 male Androlepis skinneri, a half-dozen Portea leptantha, a number of Quesnelia arvensis, and that is just the start. At least a half dozen Aechmea fosterianas are just waiting for a good home. I have seven 'Ensigns' and really need only one.
I see this as a small-time operation conducted by a small group such as those who take part in round-robins. The members would have to be pretty careful about nomenclature or people might get upset and quit. I can see this exchange as a swap meet, or as a way to make a little money—matters to be worked out. I look forward to hearing from all interested growers, commercial and amateur.
As an addendum, I have about 80 or more Aechmea macvaughii seedlings about ready for new homes (see Journal 34; 104 (1984). Drop me a card saying that you want some and give me your reaction to the pup exchange proposal.
Charles E. Dills
1371 Avalon, San Luis Obisbo, CA 93401, (805) 544-1731
AECHMEA ORLANDIANA 'ENSIGN'
Dr. Morris Dexter says that his success in growing Aechmea orlandiana 'Ensign' is the result of growing it in large pots with lots of light, fertilizer, and water.
Reprinted from the Bromeliad Society of Broward County (FL)
Commentary, June 1984.
EVER-IMPROVING CULTIVARS OF AECHMEA FASCIATA
any years ago I purchased a plant with the label Aechmea fasciata (BROMELIAD) from, of all places, a city department store. Later I was introduced to members of the Bromeliad Society of South Australia, and from that meeting both my interest and collection grew. I now have hundreds of plants of which about one-half are Tillandsia species.
Toward the end of each summer, however, I still look forward to having one or two descendents of my initial Ae. fasciata come into bloom, especially since I have noticed that, generation by generation, there has been a consistent improvement to the point that it has now developed into a plant unequalled in any live specimen or photograph of the species that I have seen. I take no credit and I am just as mystified as others. With no special care or treatment, the plants merely flower at will and then produce offsets with each generation surpassing the preceding. The leaves have become broader and much more heavily banded, and the spines have become more conspicuous. The most inexplicable, spectacular improvement has been in the intricacy and size of the inflorescence compared with the size of the plant itself.
In July 1985, right in the middle of a cold winter, a spike appeared in one plant which was standing amongst all sorts of species in a plastic-enclosed shadehouse. I assumed that the inflorescence would abort or else be dwarfed. Instead, it produced the best inflorescence yet: 9.5 inches in diameter, 6 inches high, and very dense. Can someone explain these unusual forms of behaviour?
Warradale, South Australia
and Student Judges in Good Standing
October 31, 1985
Farris, Barbara J.
Isley, Paul T. III
Paylen, William R.
2711 Willow Street
San Diego, CA 92106
Bundy, Dee Dee
3 Hazel St.
Allen, Craig M.
Chirnside, Vicky Lee
Fairchild, B. Dean
Frazel, Maureen S.
Frazel, William E.
335 High Meadow Drive
Marietta, GA 30067
Johnson, Carol M.
Lineham, Thomas U.
Loerke, Virginia A.
McMillan, Stan D.
P.O. Box 1054
Apopka, FL 32704
Pearl, Marjorie A.
Peyton, Ellen Jay
Quilhot, Hazel H.
P.O. Box 12981
Gainesville, FL 32604
Steinmetz, Nancy L.
Thompson, James III
Wood, J. Brian
Mullins, Dr. Stephen
Baham, Robbi A.
Beadle, Don A.
P.O. Box 557
Corpus Christi, TX 78403
Beeler, Rita S.
Domingues, John Lee
406 Witcher Lane
Houston, TX 77076
Lincoln, Mary Jane
Loose, Warren R.
Arlington, TX 76010
Mayfield, Jim F.
Montgomery, Dr. Tom
McGreevy, Tolene D.
Nunn, Jo Ann
4933 Weeping Willow
Houston, TX 77092
Slick, Robert C.
Trahan, Lou E.
Route 1 Box 239
Morris, OK 74445
Whitman, Bob D.
Calamari, Dr. Timothy A. Jr.
DiGiovanni, Allen R.
850 Conrad Street
New Orleans, LA 70124
Jones, Sara Lee
Miller, Dr. Robert L.
Ross, Fred B.
The purpose of this nonprofit corporation is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of Bromeliaceae, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world. You are invited to join.
Grace Goode's Bromania, with neoregelias flaunting their blushing hearts and threatened with extinction if they fail to approach the high standard required. Text begins on page 3.
|April 5-6||Bromeliad Society of Broward County 2nd Annual Show and Sale. Flamingo Gardens, Davie, FL. Entries only 9-5, Friday 4 April. Bill Frazel and Donn Pearce (305) 474-1349.|
|April 5-6||Bromeliad Society of San Francisco Spring Show and Sale. The Hall of Flowers, 9th Ave. and Lincoln, San Francisco, CA. 9:00 A.M.-5:00 P.M. Phil Cappetta (415) 549-9476.|
|April 5-6||Greater Dallas-Fort Worth Bromeliad Society 15th Annual Show and Sale. Dallas Civic Garden Center, Fair Park, Dallas, TX. Ellen Hough (817) 457-2590.|
|April 18-20||Florida State Bromeliad Show. Sponsored by the Bromeliad Guild of Tampa Bay. University Square Mall, 2200 Fowler Ave., Tampa. Judged show, commercial and member plant sales. Roland and Jean Schnabel (813) 988-7046.|
Notices of shows planned for May-June must be received by the editor before 15 March.