BSI Journal - Online Archive


Journal of the Bromeliad Society
Copyright 1986 by the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

Vol. 36, No. 5September—October 1986

Editor: Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., 1508 Lake Shore Drive, Orlando, Florida 32803
Editorial Advisory Board: David H. Benzing, Racine S. Foster, Sue Gardner, Harry E. Luther, Victoria Padilla, Robert W. Read.

Cover Photographs. Front: Hohenbergia castellanosii L.B. Smith & Read found in Bahia, Brazil in quantities creating great visual impact; back: Portea silveirae Mez with brightly colored inflorescence of great beauty. The article by E. M. C. Leme begins on page 243, photographs by the author.
CONTENTS
243Rio—Bahia—Rio Elton M.C. Leme
250Flower Show in Honor of Luis Ariza Julia Thomas A. Zanoni
251A New Species of Brocchinia from Venezuela G. S. Varadarajan
255Bromeliads IV: Contrasts and Complements Derek Butcher
258Tillandsia krukoffiana var. piepenbringii, A Giant Tillandsia, New to Peru Werner Rauh
264Wilhelm Weber, 1928—1986, Honorary Trustee Hedi and Juergen W. Roesler
266Aechmea marauensis, a New Species Elton M.C. Leme
269Nominations Open for the 1987 Election of Directors George H. Anderson
270Bromeliad Flower Arrangement, No. 12: Bits and Pieces May A. Moir
274Questions & Answers Conducted by Bob Heer and Tom Montgomery
277Directory of Affiliated Societies

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Rio — Bahia — Rio
Elton M.C. Leme

he whole month had been marked by prolonged droughts in contrast with the usual heavy summer rains. We had been planning every detail of the trip for some time and our expectations were growing along with our apprehensions. The thought that heavy rains might upset our plans gave us a feeling of uncertainty, but at last, everything was right and we were ready for our 4,000-kilometer road journey, our trip from Rio de Janeiro to the northern edge of the State of Bahia and return.

First day. It was still dark when Roberto Menescal and Renato Bello, both long-time orchid lovers and now bromeliad converts, arrived exactly on time — a good beginning. The quiet of the early morning was contagious and we moved along steadily. We were sure that our ten days would supply us with invaluable information about the bromeliads of the land to be explored. The plan was to follow the coast with few stops and to reach the city of Cachoeira, in Bahia, about 1,700 kilometers distant. From there we would return and visit selected spots along the way. We left Rio in a fine rain.

By one o'clock, we were near Vitória, Espírito Santo. Near the road we could see the remains of what had been vigorous vegetation. We stopped in awe. We were before lovely clumps of Aechmea fosteriana L.B. Smith which still managed to survive as epiphytes on the upper third of 10-11-meter tall trees. These trees grew on partly marshy soil. Some Vriesea procera (Martius ex Schultes filius) Wittmack, and Tillandsia stricta Solander shared the space with that noble plant. It was exciting to see that nearly 50 years later, in spite of all the devastation of the Atlantic Forest, we would still come across beautiful specimens of A. fosteriana just as M.B. Foster did.

North of the State of Espírito Santo the view changed little by little. We were leaving the mountains behind and the rolling lands were becoming dominated by agricultural activities. At several spots, some of the vegetation was preserved. The cutting of selected wood had thinned the formerly imposing forest. As we got near the Linhares area the first cacao plantations began to appear. For this kind of crop, big, shade trees are needed to shelter the cacao trees which form an undergrowth in the midst of the forest. As a result, many species of epiphytic bromeliads are being preserved, although unintentionally. On the other hand, all kinds of epiphytes of the native subwood, as well as terrestrial bromeliad species, are definitely eliminated. That's why Nidularium, Cryptanthus, and some Vriesea species are hardly ever found in the area.

Fig. 1.
Hohenbergia blanchetii found in a dead tree on the road to Cachoeira in east central Bahia.
Photographs by the Author

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 2.
Hohenbergia stellata with deep pink bracts,
an interesting color variation.

Fig. 3.
In the open spaces between the islands of vegetation near the coast road, there were open spaces crowded with Hohenbergia castellanosii along with many other species.

Fig. 4.
The rare Hohenbergia belemii was found flourishing in sunny areas
with neighboring H. castellanosii.

We made a short stop at one of the cacao forests and in one part where a road was being opened we came across an interesting species of Neoregelia resembling N. zonata L.B. Smith in addition to Acanthostachys strobilacea (Schultes filius) Klotzsch, and Canistrum lindenii (Regel) Mez, among others.

Near the Doce river the road crosses the Biological Reserve of Sooretama where the last areas of well preserved forest and typical fauna can be found in these surroundings. Sooretama in the Brazilian Indian language means "home of the wild animal." It is hard to visualize this region today as having been as richly and densely inhabited by animals as can be seen in the Mato Grosso Pantanal nowadays. Later that day we got to São Mateus, the city where we decided to stay overnight.

Second day. By daylight the next day, we were already in the State of Bahia, the land of Hohenbergia, capital of mysticism and cacao. As we neared the region of Itamaraju we doubled our attention, trying carefully to spot the elegant Aechmea correia-araujoi Pereira & Moutinho among trees shading the cacao. Had it not been for some specimens in full bloom we would have missed finding that bromeliad in the middle of the vegetation bathed in patterns of light and color. The fanciful marking of their leaves gave them a very efficient disguise in this environment. Our specimens were growing as epiphytes in large groups in the upper part of the forest together with Hohenbergia species. On cacao trees in an abandoned plantation we found Vriesea friburgensis Mez, Catopsis sessiliflora (Ruiz & Pavon) Mez, and Tillandsia globosa Wawra.

At about noon, we crossed the mighty Jequitinhonha River. Thick clumps of a small bromeliad, of reddish-brown leaves, drew our attention to the tops of the trees. We started through this cacao forest and after much figuring and several attempts, and with the help of a hook, we managed to pick some specimens we recognized as Neoregelia wilsoniana M.B. Foster. Nearby, another outstanding dweller awaited us. It formed a lovely clump in the shaded part of the wood. It was Lymania alvimii (Smith & Read) Read, growing about eight meters above the ground.

From the Jequitinhonha River on, the native trees in these cacao forests seemed to us to be the most impressive, not only for their bulk, but for the great numbers of epiphytes to be found on their branches and trunks. This vegetation continued north beyond the city of Itabuna. Late that night we lodged in Itabuna, planning to reach the northernmost point of our journey the next day. More precisely, we were going to the Guaibinha Farm, located 120 km from Salvador, the capital of the State.

Third day. A heavy rain greeted us the next morning. It continued for 200 kilometers. Along the road, as we got near our destination, the forest began to get sparse. From time to time, over the remaining trees, we could see blooming specimens of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) LB. Smith and Hohenbergia blanchetii (Baker) E. Morren ex. Mez (fig. 1).

The surroundings became drier and the vegetation markedly poorer owing no doubt to the harmful actions of men on the environment itself rather than to the continuous droughts that have devastated the region. Attractive specimens of Hohenbergia stellata Schultes filius began to appear. These had bracts of a deep pink showing an interesting color variation when compared with the specimens with red bracts that grow farther south in wooded areas (fig. 2). We frequently came across plants of Aechmea lingulata (Linnaeus) Baker of different sizes, shapes, and coloring, including a plant that seemed to us the variety patentissima (Mart. ex Schul. f.) L.B. Smith. I think worth mentioning the appearance of Hohenbergia lanata Pereira & Moutinho, which can be as high as one meter. The inflorescence is erect and subpyramidal; laxly arranged branches show well developed peduncle and cylindrical spikes more or less aggregated at their ends. We observed along the road huge formations of Aechmea aquilega (Salisbury) Grisebach var. chrysocoma (Baker) LB. Smith growing among the herbaceous vegetation as terrestrials.

At last— Cachoeira. Here we went deep into the last century. With its architecture preserved over the years, every bit of the city looked as though it had never been touched. Sprawling houses, churches, flagstones, the rhythm of life itself and of its inhabitants gave this impression. We got directions and went on ahead to Guaibinha Farm.

Photographs by Author
Fig. 5.
This is Aechmea marauensis, a magnificent new species described by the author on page 266.

Photographs by Author
Fig. 6.
Forests of dead trees, victims of road construction and inadequate drainage. The only color is provided by a blooming Portea silveirae shown being collected.

Vegetation from then on changed into a forested look but without being awe-inspiring. It seemed drier having been disturbed by men for centuries. Once in a while there was a break, coinciding with economic recession or decline of agricultural cycles, when the vegetation was allowed to regenerate. Of the bromeliads observed we point out Hohenbergia blanchetii and H. stellata growing in the dampest parts of the forest, on river banks, or in grottos on hills where cacao trees aged in total neglect.

Even though we made no important findings as far as bromeliads were concerned, the night we spent at the farm was magnificent. Situated at the edge of a high plain, it had a splendid view. The endless mangroves that followed the banks of the winding Paraguacú River made up the landscape. The river at this point gets wider and, tired of its long course from Chapada Diamantina, approaches its mouth at Todos os Santos Bay, where Salvador city is situated. Here we had nothing to do but enjoy Nature's show.

Fourth day. The next day we began our return south and at 11 o'clock were in Ubaitaba. From there we set out toward the coast for the city of Maraú. After crossing the small coastal hills where Hohenbergia disjuncta L.B. Smith predominated and along a road rich in stones and craters, we entered one of the most beautiful restinga we had ever seen. Vast plains extended to meet the ocean, bordered by beaches of warm water, and covered with coconut palms. The restinga vegetation, with trees of 8-10 meters height, formed islands (fig. 3), sometimes surrounded by ample plains of herbaceous vegetation, lakes or canals, or sometimes connected one to the other. These islands of vegetation just couldn't contain a greater quantity of bromeliads.

There were open spaces between the islands and where they approached the thickets the quantities of Hohenbergia castellanosii L.B. Smith & Read created an indescribable impact (cover photograph and fig. 3). The rare H. belemii L.B. Smith & Read (fig. 4), and the ever present Aechmea blanchetiana also appeared in sunny parts, as well as an interesting, and possibly new, species of Aechmea related to A. rubens (L.B. Smith) L.B. Smith. As we went through these islands, the richness of the bromeliad population grew. Shady ground was covered with Cryptanthus and Bromelia species, Aechmea lingulata, A. bromeliifolia, and Billbergia species. As epiphytes, the various species fought for space in the woods. To name some: Aechmea fulgens Brongniart, Catopsis berteroniana (Schultes f.) Mez, Tillandsia bulbosa Hooker, Vriesea procera var. rubra L.B. Smith, V. platynema Gaudichaud (a small interesting form), even the Aechmea marauensis Leme (fig. 5), a magnificent new species which I shall describe separately.

Fifth and sixth days. We reached the village of Maraú dazzled by the spectacle of color and shapes we had just seen. Then on to Itabuna to fix the car, which although new, couldn't withstand the rough Maraú roads. The problem being solved, we set out on the road near the beach, passing Ilhéus, Olivença, Una, and Canavieiras, always moving toward the south. This road was recently built to encourage tourism in the area, but along its length it interferes with the flow of rain water and rivers through most of the plains it crosses. For lack of a proper drainage system a dam was built to impound the water and it has caused flooding throughout the wooded areas. Obviously the forest could not resist this partial drowning and so there are huge cemeteries of sad, grey trunks against the dark brown of the sediments under the water (fig. 6).

Before reaching Olivença we saw vast formations of Aechmea blanchetiana in full bloom, bordering mangroves and isolated samples of Hohenbergia pabstii Smith & Read, growing both on trees and on the ground. As we approached Una, the restinga vegetation took a damp forest look and in this kind of forest we found beautiful specimens of Lymania smithii R.W. Read, Araeococcus parviflorus (Mart. ex Schul.) Lindman, Aechmea mollis L.B. Smith, Nidularium weberi Pereira & Leme.1 Further on, we met Hohenbergia stellata with red bracts and white petals growing as terrestrials in the shady and humid forest. This bromeliad species, when growing epiphytically in the dead tree forests without any shade protection, had a smaller size and yellow primary and floral bracts. As an epiphyte, we also found Vriesea species closely related to V. duvaliana E. Morren, and a V. sp resembling V. drepanocarpa (Baker) Mez, but much bigger and forming very dense rosettes. We also saw an interesting bromeliad which by its winged ovary could be either a Lymania or an Aechmea. It is worth mentioning that we found specimens of Portea silveirae (back cover) Mez with brightly colored inflorescence of great beauty.

Seventh day. Between Una and Canavieras we noticed a huge concentration of many different bromeliad species in a restricted area as if they were in a refuge attracting innumerable forms of life. We were lucky to find one of those areas and counted over 10 different genera of bromeliads growing so closely together as to look like an artificial collection. Besides those referred to above, we found Aechmea lingulata var. froesii L.B. Smith, Cryptanthus species, Streptocalyx curranii L.B. Smith, Guzmania lingulata var. minor (Mez) L.B. Smith & Pittendrigh, Neoregelia longisepala Pereira & Penna, Vriesea recurvata Gaudichaud, and Nidularium innocentii Lemaire, V. sp. resembling V. roberto-seidelii W. Weber.

Such concentrations show the importance of preserving these areas so that a more accurate study can be made of their flora and fauna since the paving of the roads increases the rate of destruction of the forest. The environment also tends to degenerate quickly and the ghost of mass extinction of species is really frightening.

Eighth day. The city of Canavieiras was full of tourists from everywhere, attracted by the wild beauty of the region. At night we enjoyed the delicious dishes typical of Bahia cooking, all based on seafood. It was our farewell to the land of Bahia. We had achieved our objectives. At dawn we left the state but we still had two days for touring with our friend Roberto Kautsky through the ranges of Espirito Santo State. Well, that is another story to be told on some other occasion.
_______

1. Honoring Wilhelm Weber. Bradea 4(32): 231-232, 251; 1986.

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Flower Show in Honor of Luis Ariza Julia
Thomas A. Zanoni

  
Fig. 7: Luis Ariza Julia   
he annual spring flower show "Primavera '86" in Santo Domingo was held in honor of Luis ("Don Lulú") Ariza Julia. The exhibition and competition were held on 13-16 March 1986 at the Jardín Botánico Nacional "Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso" in the Dominican Republic. The volunteers of the botanical garden organized the show.

At the opening ceremony on 13 March, a biographical sketch of Don Lulú was presented by his grandson José del Carmen Loinaz Ariza. The children and grand children of Don Lulú and his wife were present.

A panel exhibited a short scientific sketch of Don Lulú's work and interests in the Bromeliaceae and the Orchidaceae as well as copies of his published articles on these groups. Live plants of Tillandsia ariza-juliae and T. moscosoi decorated the display.

The central display of the exhibition hall was a garden full of bromeliads. Among the many exotic taxa were the hybrids created by Don Lulú at his home in Puerto Plata. A large selection of the native bromeliads was also included in the display. Of particular interest, Tillandsia fendleri and T. paniculata were represented by plants in full inflorescence.

Luis Ariza Julia has been a member of the Bromeliad Society for many years and is an honorary trustee of the society. While well acquainted with all of the plants of Santo Domingo, he is particularly knowledgeable about the native bromeliads and orchids. He has been of assistance to visiting botanists and collectors since the late 1920's when the Swedish botanist Erik L. Ekman collected in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Don Lulú was the principal source for information about bromeliads of the Dominican Republic in the preparation of the Flora Neotropica Volume 14, Bromeliaceae by L.B. Smith and R.J. Downs.

Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo


Bromeliad Cultivars Registered by Luis Ariza Julia

Aechmea
 'Maygood Moir'(marie-reginae × dichlamydea trinitensis)1977
'Margarita L.'(dealbata × fasciata)1980
 
Billbergia
'Hilda Ariza'('Theodore L. Mead' × vittata)
 
Neoregelia
'Kitty Ariza'(tristas × mamorata) × cruenta Ariza Julia1971
'Marilu Freckles'(marmorata × ampullacea)1969
'Rojoverde'(cruenta × chlorosticta)1971
 
Pitcairnia
'Borincana'(angustifolia × xanthocalyx)
'Chiamenez'(chiapensis × jimenezii)
'Hondo Valle'(samuelssonii × Pitcairnes [sic])
'Mexican Blondes'(xanthocalyx × chiapensis)1977
Portemea
'Luis Ariza Julia'(Portea leptantha × Aechmea mulfordii)

Compiled from the B.S.I. International Checklist of Bromeliad Hybrids (1979)
and Supplement (1985).


A New Species of Brocchinia from Venezuela
G. S. Varadarajan

Brocchinia gilmartinii G.S. Varadarajan, sp. nov.

A Brocchinia acuminata L.B. Smith, cui affinis vaginis foliarum angustis, foliarum laminis latioribus, apice foliis involutis, inflorescentia bipinnatim paniculata, lepidota, bracteis primariis superioris brevis quam flores ramium sterilis basibus differt.

Plant flowering to slightly over 2.5 m; shortly caulescent. Leaves about 15, in a basal rosette, sheaths conspicuous, elliptic to lanceolate, dark castaneous, nearly 16 cm wide, gradually merging with blades, subdensely appressed with white-lepidote indument, blades lanceolate, involute, 6-7 cm wide, glabrous to sparsely lepidote. Scape stout, 2 cm in diameter, scape-bracts foliaceous, almost equal to or slightly exceeding internodes by their involute to pungent apices, divergent from the axis. Inflorescence laxly bipinnate, about 1.25 m long, sparsely lepidote, ultimate branches divergent, long, laxly flowered, rachis excavated next to the flowers; primary bracts subfoliaceous, triangular to ovate, upper ones shorter than sterile bases of branches. Floral bracts broadly ovate, attenuate, flowers shortly pedicellate, divergent, yellowish green, up to 8 mm long; sepals broadly ovate, 5mm long, truncated and pubescent at apex, concave at the limb, without a distinct claw; petals narrowly elliptic, without a claw; stamens basally adnate to sepals and petals, anthers globular, dorsifixed; ovary half-superior to near inferior, style linear, stigma lobes truncated at apex, weakly conduplicate-spiral, ovule long-caudate at either end.

Type: Venezuela: Estado Bolívar: about 120 kms S of El Dorado, near La Escalera, along the road to Luepa, 5° 50'N, 61 ° 30'W, 1150-1200 m, Nov. 7, 1983, G. S. Varadarajan & F. Oliva-Esteva 1158 (holotype, VEN; isotype, US, WS).

Brocchinia gilmartinii keys out close to B. acuminata in Smith and Downs (1974). However, this new species is easily contrasted with the latter in several features. Its much narrower leaf-sheaths and wider leaf-blades with involute to pungent apices clearly distinguish it from B. acuminata. The bipinnate inflorescence in B. gilmartinii is different from a laxly paniculate condition in B. acuminata. The inflorescence in the new species is sparsely lepidote and is glabrous in B. acuminata. My field and herbarium studies of B. acuminata demonstrate that the sparsely lepidote nature of inflorescence evident in a few Colombian specimens is perhaps an exception rather than rule. Unlike the latter species, the upper primary bracts in the new species are shorter than the sterile bases of the secondary branches of the inflorescence. Stigma characteristics are different in the two species: a weak conduplicate-spiral type of stigma is present in B. gilmartinii, whereas a modified-spiral type is characteristic of B. acuminata. Stigma modification in the latter is caused by the fact that the proximal lobe alone is involved in a compact spiraling leaving the free distal lobes to join loosely in forming a domelike stigma. This condition is associated in B. acuminata with a certain degree of vertical bending of the three lobes, while B. gilmartinii scarcely shows any degree of conduplications in the stigma lobes.

Washington State University
Fig. 8: Herbarium specimen of Brocchinia gilmartinii, the scape.

Washington State University
Fig. 9: Herbarium specimen of Brocchinia gilmartinii, the leaf.

Brocchinia gilmartinii is also distinct from other possibly related taxa of Brocchinia that are superficially similar to the new species. For example, from B. paniculata Schultes, the new species differs in its much narrower leaf-blades, well defined and much broader leaf-sheaths, short-pedicellate divergent flowers and unclawed petals; from B. micrantha (Baker) Mez and B. tatei LB. Smith in the much narrower leaf-blades and bipinnate inflorescence.

I take pleasure in naming this new Brocchinia for Dr. Amy Jean Gilmartin who introduced me to the Bromeliaceae beginning in 1981. It is a great honor to name this new species for a botanist whose interest and enthusiasm in the Bromeliaceae are well known.

REFERENCE:

Smith, L.B.; Downs, R.J.: Pitcairnioideae (Bromeliaceae) Flora Neotropica. Monograph no. 14, part 1. New York: Hafner Press; 1974.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

I wish to acknowledge with gratitude the help and assistance of Mr. Francisco Oliva-Esteva during the part of my field work in Venezuela in November 1983. My thanks are due to Drs. A.J. Gilmartin, R.W. Read, and L.B. Smith on the description of the new species, to G.K. Brown for his assistance in checking the stigma characters, and to A.F. Chowlewa for verifying the Latin diagnosis. I am grateful to the curators of COL, GH, MO, NY, US and VEN for permitting me access to their specimens. I acknowledge the support from the NSF doctoral dissertation improvement grant (BSR-8306999) for the field work and The Smithsonian short term visitor fellowship for the study at US. I thank my wife Usha for typing the manuscript.

Department of Botany and Marion Ownbey Herbarium
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington 99164


STERILIZATION

One grower from Australia writes: "At one time, I laboriously sterilized the mixes used for seedlings and suffered far more damping off in this medium than with the unsterilized mixture. Because of this, I am of the opinion that beneficial bacteria are killed during sterilization. Fungi spores are in the air at all times and once the mix is reinfected there is nothing to combat there. If the growing area is kept reasonably clean, only clean pots are used, and seedlings are not overwatered, most problems can be avoided. If any algae rears its ugly head, I use one-half strength fungicide."


Bromeliads IV: Contrasts and Complements
Derek Butcher

he Fourth Australian Bromeliad Conference will be held in Adelaide, South Australia, over the Easter weekend, April 17-20, 1987. We have picked this theme mainly because for "Contrast" we have South Australia being the driest state in the driest continent in the world. For "Complements" we have not only the way that bromeliads are adaptable, but the hope that more visitors will make up the complement.

As is usual with Australian conventions, we have our two days of lectures and a banquet, but because we have a world-renowned wine district by the name of Barossa Valley we will have a day there—recuperating. The lecturers in line with the theme will come from far and wide in both habitat and subject. Thanks to Herb Plever we will be showing a small segment on how bromeliads invaded an apartment in New York City.

Australia is a land of contrasts with the east coast the wettest and generally the place that American tourists visit, unless, of course, they fly to Ayers Rock. We, in Adelaide, tend to think of that as the part missing from the Grand Canyon and to get to it you jump into your 4WD and head due north.

We live in a very ancient land where mountains have been worn down to hills, and yet we have only just celebrated our 150th anniversary.

Hybrids are still being manufactured in Australia, which means that the checklist produced in 1982 has had to be revised. The second edition should be available by the time of the conference. It is interesting to note that among the many Cryptanthus hybrids made by Grace Goode, one is called 'Ayers Rock'.

For details on the Australian Conference please contact:

Secretary, Bromeliad Society of
South Australia, Inc.
25 Crace Road, Fulham
South Australia 5024


Tillandsia krukoffiana var. piepenbringii, A Giant Tillandsia, New to Peru
Werner Rauh

n September 1973, we had the chance to visit the narrow valley of Santa Cruz, east of Chiclayo, in northwest Peru. We found there the rare Tillandsia heteromorpha growing in big cushions on rocks near the riverbed.1 We also discovered the new species T. lymanii and a beautiful form of T. latifolia with pure white leaves and hanging inflorescences, which we described as T. latifolia var. leucophylla.2

At the entrance to this valley and at the fork in the road to Llama leading in the direction of Cumbil, we saw the big Tillandsia teres L.B. Smith in full flower, growing on steep rock walls at an altitude of about 500 m.3 We collected some small plants, took them with us, and cultivated them in the greenhouse of the Heidelberg Botanical Garden. They grew very well and became bigger and bigger. In September 1985, the bromeliad gardenmaster, Klaus Piepenbring, succeeded in bringing the biggest plant into flower with the help of a very simple method4 and now it is in full flower. Contrary to our expectation, it is not T. teres, which we had hoped to collect, but another species which we had not seen in flower in the habitat.

W. Rauh
Fig. 10: Rosette and base of inflorescence,
Tillandsia krukoffiana var. piepenbringii.

W. Rauh
Fig. 11: Tillandsia krukoffiana var. piepenbringii, flowering spike.

We first supposed that we had discovered a new species, but determined with the help of subkey IX of L.B. Smith and R.J. Downs (Flora Neotropica, 14/2, Tillandsioideae) that our plant is related to the Bolivian T. krukoffiana L.B. Smith, found in Las Yungas near La Paz and which is not listed for Peru. The Peruvian plant differs from the type in some remarkable characteristics so that we will describe it as var. piepenbringii in honor of the merits of K. Piepenbring for his excellent cultivation of bromeliads. The diagnosis follows:

Tillandsia krukoffianaL.B. Smith var. piepenbringii Rauh

Differt a typo in characteribus sequentibus: Folia numerosa rosulam usque ad 80 cm altam et 1.5 latam formantia. Vaginae usque ad 15 cm longae et 20 cm (!) latae. Laminae usque ad 1 m longae supra vaginam usque ad 20 cm latae, utrimque, praecique subtus lepidotae, non glabrae. Scapus inflorescentiae 3 cm crassus, usque ad 70 cm longus. Bracteae scapi dense imbricatae, subfoliatae. Inflorescentia amplissima pyramidalis, ad basim tripinnata, ad apicem bipinnata. Rami basales inflorescentiae parte basali plus minusve 30 cm longa; bracteae steriles foliatae, dense imbricatae, valde carinatae. Pars fertilis spicis 5-8 optime nutantibus. Spicae usque ad 10 cm longae, usque ad 10-floribus breviter stipitatae ad basim prophyllo divergenti carinato. Rachis spicae conspicuus. Sepala posteriores subcarinata et usque ad 2 mm connata, usque ad 27 mm longa.

E. Gross
Fig. 12: Tillandsia krukoffiana var. piepenbringii: SEM photographs of trichomes from the lower side
of the blade. Bar represents 400 μm (upper) and 200 μm (lower).

E. Gross
Fig. 13: Tillandsia krukoffiana var. krukoffiana (type Krukoff 10 503): SEM photographs of trichomes
from the lower side of the blade. Bar represents 200μm (upper) and 40 μm (lower).

Holotypus: Rauh 35 343 (26.9.1973), in herb. inst. bot. system, univ. heidelb. (HELD).

Habitat et distributio: saxicolus apud 500 m.s.m. inter Carhuaquero et Llama, NW Peru, Dept. Cajamarca.

Plant stemless, but with a thick, short, rhizomatous base, covered with the old leaf sheaths, flowering up to 2.5 m high. Leaves numerous, forming a big rosette 80 cm in height and 1.5 cm in diameter. Sheaths inconspicuous, up to 15 cm long and 20 cm (!) wide, densely pale leatherbrown lepidote on both sides, white and glabrous at the base. Blades lingulate, acute with a recurved apex, up to 1 m long and 18-20 cm (!) wide above the sheath, gray-green, nearly glabrous above, laxly white lepidote beneath; trichomes brown centered. Older leaves hanging down at the time of anthesis (fig. 10). Scape erect, up to 3 cm thick, wine-coloured and 70 cm long, glabrous. Scape bracts densely imbricate, erect, subfoliaceous (fig. 11). Inflorescence up to 1.5 m long, pyramidal, 1.2 m wide at the base, laxly tripinnate, the upper third bipinnate and curved. Rachis erect, curved in the upper part, thick, slightly angled, glabrous, green to dark wine-coloured. Primary bracts narrow-lanceolate, acute, the basal ones up to 9 cm long, 2.5 cm wide at the base, much shorter than the branches. Branches of the inflorescence loosely spirostichous arranged, spreading to divergent, curved down at the end; the lower ones up to 55 cm long, with a very long (up to 30 cm) bracteate, sterile base. Sterile bracts up to 15, densely imbricate, longer than the internodes, sharply carinate, lanceolate, acute, up to 4 cm long and 2 cm wide, green to reddish-brown, glabrous, laxly lepidote only at the apex. Fertile part of the lower primary branches 25-30 cm long, with 5-8 laxly distichous arranged, but deflexed spikes. Rachis angled, glabrous, reddish-brown. Secondary bracts of the fertile part of the branches lanceolate, acute, up to 4 cm long, 1.2 cm wide, olive-green-reddish, on the upper side laxly lepidote, glabrous beneath, much shorter than the deflexed spikes; these with a short, 0.5 cm long, naked base and a spreading, lanceolate, acute, sharply carinate prophyllum. Fertile part of the deflexed spikes lanceolate-acute, complanate, the basal ones up to 10 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, up to 10-flowered. Rachis of the spikes visible at anthesis, appalanate, green, glabrous. Floral bracts lanceolate, beaked at the tip, up to 28 mm long, 1 cm wide, exceeding the sepals, green to wine-coloured, glabrous beneath, laxly lepidote on the upper side, slightly nerved when fresh, strongly nerved when dry, carinate. Flowers subsessile, up to 4.5 cm long. Sepals lanceolate, 27 mm long, 7-10 mm wide, broad obtuse, but shortly acute, glabrous, on the inner (upper) side laxly lepidote, the posterior subcarinate and connate for 2 mm, even. Petals ligulate, erect, with slightly spreading blades, dark blue-violet, white at the base. Stamens and style included. Filaments straight, white, with dark-violet pollen sacs; style with the white stigmas shorter than the anthers.

Gray Herbarium, Harvard University
Fig. 14: Type material of Tillandsia krukoffiana (Krukoff 10 503),
Bolivia, Dept. La Paz, Basin of Rio Bopi, 7,50-900 m.

Holotype: Rauh 35343 (26.9.1973), in Herb. Inst. System. Bot. Univ. Heidelberg (HEID).

Distribution: Saxicolous on steep rock cliffs together with Tillandsia teres L.B. Smith, 500 m east of Chiclayo, Carhuaquero-Llama, Dept. Cajamarca (NW Peru). Known only from the type locality.

Differs from the type5 in the following characteristics: Leaves numerous, forming a big rosette 80 cm in height and 1.5 m in diameter. Sheaths up to 15 cm long and 20 cm wide. Blades up to 1 m long and 18-20 cm wide above the sheath, lepidote beneath, nearly glabrous on both sides in the type, reflexed at anthesis. Scape very thick, up to 3 cm thick. Inflorescence up to 2 m high, broadly pyramidal, 1.2 m wide at the base, laxly tripinnate, bipinnate in the upper third. Spikes 6 to 10 cm long, up to 7- to 10-flowered. Sepals up to 27 mm long, the posterior subcarinate, for 2 mm connate.

We now distinguish between the two varieties:

var. krukoffiana

According to L.B. Smith, leaves up to 90 cm long, 6-10 cm wide, blades glabrous.6 Scape unknown. Basal branches up to 48 cm long, bearing 1-5 sterile bracts. Spikes 4.5-6.5 cm long, subdensely 5- to 7-flowered, bearing 2 reduced, sterile bracts at the base. Floral bracts imbricate, acute but not beaked, carinate towards apex, longer than the sepals; these 19 mm long, nerved, the posterior carinate and connate for 4 mm. Petals blue, slightly exceeding the stamens.

Krukoff 10503 (holotype GH, isotypes MICH, NY, S), basin of Río Bopi, San Bartolome, near Calisaya, Sur Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia, Jul 1939. Cardenas 4377 (LIL, US), NW-Bolivia, La Paz, Sur Yungas. Terrestrial in open spaces 900-1800 m. Jul. 1949.

var. piepenbringii Rauh

Leaves up to 1 m long, above the sheaths 18-20 cm (!) wide. Scape erect, up to 3 cm thick, 70 cm long. Basal branches up to 55 cm long, with a long sterile base, bearing up to 15 sterile, carinate bracts. Spikes up to 10 cm long, bearing at the base a spreading, sharply keeled prophyllum. Floral bracts with an acute, beaked tip. Rachis of the spikes visible. Sepals lanceolate, up to 27 mm long, the posterior ones subcarinate and connate only for 2 mm. Petals blue, white at the base. Stamens and style included.

Rauh 35 343. Saxicolous on steep rock walls, east of Chiclayo, Carhuaquero - Llama, NW-Peru.

In the type material the leaves are only 70 cm long, 6 cm wide, nearly glabrous on both sides; the sheaths are 15 cm long and 7 cm wide. The spikes are only 6.5-7 cm long, 1.5 cm wide and ± 7-flowered.

Tillandsia krukoffiana var. piepenbringii is new for Peru, and it is astonishing that such a big tillandsia has been overlooked until now. The reason may be that only a few botanists, not even the famous botanist A. Weberbauer, have visited this region. As a result, we were able to find so many interesting bromeliads. It is worth noting that T. krukoffiana (= var. krukoffiana) is not listed for Peru. It grows far down in Bolivia on the eastern slopes of the Andes in the warm and humid southern Yungas as a terrestrial. The var. piepenbringii, on the other hand, grows in the dry and semidesert region of the western slopes of the Andes. The distance between the type and the variety is more than 2,000 km. Further research with more material may be needed to determine if this variety can be advanced to species status.

As with many other saxicolous tillandsias such as T. rauhii, T. teres, T. clavigera and others, the variety is also a monocarpic plant: after flowering it dies without producing offshoots, although these appear in juvenile states before flowering. The flowers are open for several days.

NOTES:

  1. W. Rauh, Bromelienstudien 4(13); 26-34; 1974.
  2. As above, p. 22-26.
  3. _______. Bromelienstudien 1(3) : 33-37; 1973.
  4. Mr. Piepenbring takes some ripe apples, puts them into a plastic bag with holes and hangs it into the rosette for some days. The apples produce ethylene gas (as has been long known) and this stimulates the vegetation point to produce an inflorescence.
  5. Original diagnosis in L.B. Smith, Contributions of the Gray Herbarium 154:36, fig. 9-11, plate 3; 1945.
  6. Our research with the help of the SEM shows that the blades are sparsely lepidote.
  7. I am very indebted to the Director of the Gray Herbarium (Harvard University) for sending the type material.

Institut für Systematische Botanik und
Botanischer Garten der Universität,
Heidelberg, West Germany


Wilhelm Weber, 1928-1986, Honorary Trustee
Hedi and Juergen W. Roesler

romeliad lovers worldwide suffered a severe loss in the death of Wilhelm Weber on 30 July 1986 after a long and courageous struggle with cancer. Wilhelm was born in Leipzig on 13 December 1928. Even as a child, his gift for learning quickly and retaining information was apparent to his family. It served him well throughout his life.

After completing basic school, he worked in the essential oil industry as a laboratory assistant and later as a free-lance perfumer. In 1971, economic changes forced him into a new profession as a gas transmission engineer. With characteristic energy he accepted the stipulation made with the job offer that he study engineering. He was 44 years old at the time and he finally achieved his degree as an engineer in 1979.

His interest in the natural sciences began while he was still a schoolboy. During walks in the countryside, a local taxidermist taught him the common and scientific names of plants and animal discoveries. As an apprentice he was especially interested in learning about the different plants which produce essential oils, and from that time botany became a primary interest. He said in a recent letter, "I cultivated many interesting plants in my home and soon filled every space." He, nevertheless, also collected and bred tropical birds and fish, mice, and amphibians for several more years.

Lilly Weber
Fig. 15: Wilhelm Weber

During the years 1947-1950 he studied painting, drawing, and the history of art. From that education he developed his skill as a botanical illustrator.

In 1955, he visited Walter Richter's nursery for the first time and there was overwhelmed by the many orchids, bromeliads, and other tropical plants. He returned home, he said, with a great basketful of orchids and bromels which he installed all over his house.

The remarkable aspect of Wilhelm Weber's life was his development as a botanist. Without formal education in the science and relying on his own curiosity and determination, he mastered the discipline and became well known and respected as a bromeliad specialist. Alvim Seidel notes that during the four years of their collaboration Wilhelm described and published at least 20 new species including the Aechmea lymanii dedicated to Dr. Lyman B. Smith.

Although able to build a bromeliad greenhouse of 100 square meters on his property at Waldsteinberg, he was dependent on others for new specimens. He also developed his own bromeliad herbarium of nearly 700 sheets and managed to receive herbarium material from botanical institutes in many countries. The names of his many friends and colleagues are known through his reports published in these pages and other journals. His name was recently commemorated by Edmundo Pereira and Elton M.C. Leme when they described and dedicated Nidularium weberi. Wilhelm was elected honorary trustee of the Bromeliad Society, Inc. in 1983 in recognition of his contributions.

During all these years while his time was divided between making a living and studying to become an engineer, and his true interest as a botanist, he was sustained and encouraged by his wife Lilly. It is likely that without her help and understanding he would not have been able to follow his hobby as he did. His fulfillment as a parent came a few days before his death with the birth of his second grandchild.

We hope that it will help to console his family to know that bromeliad friends all over the world will preserve his memory.

Bad Vilbel
West Germany


Aechmea marauensis, a New Species
Elton M.C. Leme

Aechmea marauensis Leme, sp. nov., subgen. Aechmea.

Aechmea aquilega (Salisbury) Grisebach, cui affinis, bracteis floriferis suborbicularibus obtusis et mucronulatis sepalorum aequantibus, floribus minoribus, sepalis perasymmetricis in alam membranaceam rotundatam quam pars centralis altiorem productis, petalis purpureis differt.

Plant flowering about 90 cm high (fig. 16). Leaves about 15, suberect, rosulate, forming a funnelform or subtubular rosette; leaf sheaths elliptic, 17-20 cm long, about 12 cm wide, densely spinose near the apex, spines 3-4 mm long, inside and toward the apex purplish, outside and toward the base dark brown, densely brown-lepidote on both sides; leaf blades 40-70 cm long, inconspicuously white-lepidote on both sides, subdense or dense spinose, spines brown 2-4 mm long. Scape erect, about 50 cm long, 8-10 mm in diamet., rigid, red, sparsely white-floccose; scape bracts sublinear, broadly acute and apiculate, entire, sometimes slightly rose, lustrous, toward the apex brown-lepidote on both sides, the lower ones equalling the internode, the upper ones much surpassing them, imbricate, completely covering the scape. Inflorescence compound, tripinnate at base, bipinnate elsewhere, subcylindric 20-40 cm long, about 6 cm in diamet., longer or shorter than the leaves; branch 18-40, 3-8 cm long, polistichous, laxly or subdensely arranged, suberect or spreading, distinctly pedunculate, peduncle subcomplanate, white floccose at base, pink, fascicles few-flowered, arranged in terminal heads, 20-35 mm long, 12-25 mm wide, rachis completely hidden by floral bracts; primary bracts similar to the scape bracts but short spreading or reflexed, deep pink, about 2-3 times longer than the branches; secondary bracts suborbicular, apex obtuse and mucronulate, carinate toward the apex, entire, glabrous, 2 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, deep pink with pale margins, lustrous; floral bracts resembling the secondary ones but slightly smaller and about equaling the sepals. Flowers sessile, 27 mm long, distichous; sepals 11 mm long, 1-2 mm connate at base, strongly asymmetric and the right edge forming a rounded membranaceous wing, mucronate, obovate, glabrous, greenish at base, lilac and obtuse carinate toward apex; petals spatulate, subrounded and mucronulate, 17 mm long, free, lilac, bearing 2 denticulate scales at base and with 2 longitudinal calluses up to 10 mm above the base, blades suberect at anthesis; stamens shorter than the petals; filaments epipetalous about half adnate to the petals, the other one free; anthers linear, 4 mm long, fixed at 1/3 of its length about the base; ovary about 10 mm long, 5 mm in diamet., subtrigonous, greenish; epigynous tube 2-3 mm long; placentae apical, ovules long-caudate.

Author
Fig. 16:
Aechmea marauensis Leme. a new species from Bahia, Brazil.

Author
Fig. 17: Aechmea marauensis Leme.

Type: Elton M. C. Leme no. 815, Roberto Menescal & Renato Bello (holotype HB, isotype RB). Terrestrial or epiphytic near Maraú, State of Bahia, Brazil, January 23, 1986.

Supplementary material examined: T. S. Santos no. 2930, 5 km south of Maraú, Bahia, Brazil, Feb. 27, 1975 (RB); G. Martinelli no. 6066, Uruçuca, road Uruçuca-Serra Grande, 100-200 m in altitude, Bahia, Brazil, July 26, 1979 (RB).

Rio de Janeiro


Nominations Open for the 1987 Election of Directors
George H. Anderson

ominations are now being accepted for the election of directors of the Bromeliad Society, Inc. for the term 1988-1990. The Society is divided into 10 geographical regions and each region elects its own director(s). Ballots for this election will be mailed with the May-June issue of the Journal.

Nominations must be made in writing and be postmarked no later than 15 March 1986. Each nominee must be a member of the Bromeliad Society, Inc. Six nominations will be accepted for each position. The six earliest postmarks will determine the slate for each position. No director may serve more than two consecutive terms.

Regions having positions open in 1988:
Directors-at-large (any region)
Australia
California
Central
Florida
Northeastern
Southern
Western
2 positions
1 position
1 position
1 position
1 position
1 position
1 position
1 position

Who may nominate? Each affiliate president and each director may nominate one candidate for director for his or her region only and one candidate for director-at-large.

Procedure for nominating: 1. Obtain the consent of the nominee. 2. Report the name of the nominee to the Nominations Committee chairman with the name of the region to be represented and a brief biography of the nominee. 3. Request that an acceptance form be sent to the nominee.

Responsibilities of the nominees: By completing, signing, and returning the acceptance form, the nominee agrees to run for the position indicated, to be an active BSI Board member, and to attend all annual Board meetings at his or her own expense (the attendance requirement does not apply to the Australia or Outer Region directors).

Mail nominations to: BSI Nominations Committee Chairman 4409 Apollo Drive Metairie, LA 70003


Bromeliad Flower Arrangement, No. 12: Bits and Pieces
May A. Moir

Robert Chinn, for Honolulu Academy of Arts
Fig. 18
An arrangement of Guzmania lingulata blossoms,
red flax, Arachnis 'Maggie Oi',
and Polypodium podacarpon grandiceps.

his type of arrangement I call "Bits and Pieces." Guzmania lingulata lasts months on the plant so I never cut it until it has lost its color. I gathered the last four blossoms and then toured the garden to see what I could find to go with them. Red flax is always good for height so I cut a few long leaves. I noticed that there were still a few sprays of Arachnis 'Maggie Oi' so they were added. For a middle interest I cut a green flowered euphorbia and lastly a few pieces of curly fern, Polypodium podacarpon grandiceps, to finish the base and cover the kenzan (needle holder). I used an old brown rectangular ceramic container to balance the height and repeat the dark color of the flax leaves.

Honolulu, Hawaii


WITH GREAT SADNESS WE REPORT THAT MISS VICTORIA PADILLA DIED ON 15 SEPTEMBER 1986 after being ill for several weeks.

Miss Padilla was a founding member of the Bromeliad Society, editor of the Journal for twenty-one years, compiler of Bromeliads in Color, author of Bromeliads and The Colorful Bromeliads. The list of her Journal articles covers seven pages of Dr. Reed's thirty-year index. Her articles were also published in other nationally distributed publications. Her first book, published in 1961, was Southern California Gardens, recently identified in a Los Angeles Times editorial as a classic history of the plants and plantsmen of the region.

After retiring as Journal editor, Miss Padilla became an enthusiastic worker for the building fund of the Bentwood Branch Library in Santa Monica, California, while continuing to write for several periodicals. Her most recent work, completed just this spring, was to assist in the bromeliad portion of Gardens of Hawaii, a publication of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu.

In addition to these many activities, Miss Padilla maintained an extensive correspondence, taught school for many years, and cared for her mother and brother. She was a kind and generous friend to this editor.

She will be greatly missed. We hope to publish a more adequate statement soon.

—TUL


Questions & Answers
Conducted by Bob Heer and Tom Montgomery

All readers are invited to send their questions and observations about growing bromeliads as a hobby to the editor. Answers will be sent directly to you and some questions will be published.

Q. Do you ever fertilize bromeliads? If so, which ones should you fertilize, and which not?

A. On page 81 of the book by Dr. David Benzing, The Biology of The Bromeliads, is the following statement, "Almost all cultured plants will grow faster and become larger if given supplemental nutrients over and above those quantities available to them in nature. Bromeliads are no exception." The term fertilizer is usually taken to mean various proportions of the three essential elements for plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. This is represented on fertilizer containers by an abbreviation such as 10-10-10. This same commercial product may or may not contain the so-called trace elements that are also vital to a plant's well-being. The atmosphere is also responsible for other nutrients, such as oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. Nor should the essential water be overlooked. Consequently, we should seek to supply bromeliads with the nutrients they require and to supply those nutrients in the correct quantities. At different stages of their lives, bromeliads require different amounts of the essential elements. The various functions of these, as well as the trace elements, would require more than the space we have available here. As to which genera need what, the answer would comprise a small book. To answer in part, this could be a guide: neoregelias and aechmeas need to have all the plant nutrients, except nitrogen. They will find their own. Terrestrials, such as dyckias, hechtias, puyas, pitcairnias, and cryptanthus respond well to a balanced fertilizer, even somewhat higher in nitrogen. The genera that produce spectacular inflorescences, such as guzmanias, nidulariums, vrieseas and tillandsias, benefit from a balanced fertilizer with emphasis on potassium (potash) as they approach the blooming stage. Remember that the nutrients cannot be absorbed unless they are dissolved in a slightly acid solution. If your water is alkaline, you must acidify it for best results. This is a gross over-simplification of a very complex subject.

Q. Some of my tillandsias are dying. Is some wood not compatible for mounting?

A. Two types of wood come to mind, lumber treated with a wood preservative and coastal driftwood. Wood treated with a preservative or painted with a toxic paint cannot be salvaged. Coastal driftwood can be soaked in fresh water to remove the salts. Use a container large enough to submerge the wood completely, weight it down, cover with water, changing the water and rinsing the wood every three days for two weeks. Any seasoned hard wood should be all right, although some soft wood, such as pine or eucalyptus, could be suspect.

Q. What can I use for a potting mix when I can't buy tree fern or bark?

A. Epiphytic bromeliads, that is those that grow above the ground on another plant for support, can be grown in almost anything that is nontoxic and allows the root area to drain quickly. The greatest need of the epiphytes is a stable base. With proper care they will do nicely in such nonnutritive substances as broken safety glass, pea gravel, crushed granite (although this does have some nutritive value), lava rock and haydite. One very successful medium that many people use from choice is coarse perlite topped with about an inch of gravel to help prevent it from being washed out of the pot. This material, when properly fed and watered, produces amazing root development.

Q. Can bromeliads be grown in just perlite?

A. Perlite makes a very good medium for growing bromeliads as stated above. The main problem with any growing medium is to determine the moisture and nutrient requirements. Perlite is nontoxic although it does release some fluoride ions and should not be used with fluoride-sensitive plants. Obtain the larger, pellet-type, sometimes known as agricultural perlite, and then sift it through one-eighth inch hardware cloth while using a face mask or respirator. The fine dust is believed to be carcinogenic, thus it is usually dampened before use, but is impossible to sift when wet. Sifting removes the fine particles and some of the dust. Reserve the fine particles to add to some other type mix and use the larger particles as the medium for growing in pure perlite. It will be necessary to occlude the drainage holes with screen or gravel. Then, using the dampened perlite, pot as usual, filling up to the dirt line, (that is the ring about three-quarters to one inch from the top of the pot), do not pack. Top with pea gravel or some material to prevent washing. This is an artificial way of growing and you have complete control over what nutrients the plant receives through the roots as well as moisture. Bromeliad roots seem to thrive in well watered perlite, producing a mass of fine white roots throughout the pot. As this material absorbs a great amount of water, it remains moist for some time, yet the particles hold their size very well. It does not permit voids to form, yet allows air to penetrate the root ball.

Q. How often should you water?

A. Frequency of watering should never be based on a time factor. When you should water is based on dryness of the mix or potting medium for potted plants. Mounted or suspended plants are another matter; as the exposed roots are less susceptible to rot, the main consideration is that the foliage and roots do dry out between waterings. Thus, in hot, dry conditions, daily or even more frequent watering can be tolerated but not necessarily required or desired. Your own growing objectives have to be considered. Are you trying for a small, compact plant or a larger, lush growth? In potted specimens it is not wise to rewater until the mix is relatively well dried out. The exception being those terrestrials that are being grown with continuous water and fertilizer. Factors that affect the rate of drying in any selected pot will include the composition of the mix, temperature, humidity, circulation, sun exposure, the size of the root development within the pot, and even the manner in which the drainage holes are arranged and their size. Many of these factors vary greatly when the placement of the pot, in even a small greenhouse, is considered. Every growing area consists of many microclimates, regardless if it be in-doors or out. All of this results in widely varying drying time. Recognition of varying needs by individual species, even within the same genera, and the variegated plant which may differ from its plain brother, is a must. Perhaps it would be safe to say that it's better, or at least safer, to err on the dry side rather than the wet. An additional water-related problem that must not be overlooked is the possibility of stagnation in tank type bromeliads and the disaster that is almost sure to follow. If all variables are carefully considered, the problem is probably unsolvable. Therefore, a good rule of thumb is to water once a week, more or less.

Q. What is a cultivar?

A. [supplied by Dr. R.W. Read] Regardless of origin a plant is a cultivar if distinguishable (worthy of recognition) from other members of its species or grex, wild or not.


Directory of Affiliated Societies

This directory, compiled from the membership secretary's records, lists the names and addresses of the current presidents or BSI representatives. Changes or corrections to this directory forwarded to the membership secretary will be published as soon as possible.

AUSTRALIA

NEW SOUTH WALES
Bromeliad Society of Australia
Ruby Ride, 22 Hitter Avenue
Bass Hill 2197

Bromeliad Society of New South Wales
John Bisset, 48 Wareemba Street
Abbotsford 2046

Hunter District Bromeliad Society
3 Kensington Road
Bolwarra 2320

QUEENSLAND
Bromeliad Society of Queensland
Len Trevor, 305 Wardell Street
Ashgrove, Brisbane

Gold Coast Succulent & Bromeliad Society
Neale Fleming
53 Westminster Blvd.
Paradise High Estate, Elandra 4221

Ipswich Bromeliad Society
George L. Webley
8 Delacey Street
North Ipswich 4305

SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Bromeliad Society of South Australia
Mrs. M.E. Bamford
60 Halsey Road
Fulham 5024

VICTORIA
Bromeliad Society of Victoria
Leonard K. Riddle
7 Laurie Ave. Nth Sunshine
Melbourne 3020

WEST AUSTRALIA
Bromeliad Society of West Australia
11 Brindle Street
Coolbellup 6163

Perth and District Bromeliad Society
D.C. Woods, 20 Rhonda Avenue
Willetton 6155

GERMANY

Deutsche Bromeliengesellschaft e. V.
Siesmayerstrasse 61
6000 Frankfurt am Main 1, West Germany

NEW ZEALAND

Bromeliad Society of New Zealand
Andy Andrew, 70 Verran Road
Birkdale, Auckland 10

REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

Bromeliad Society of South Africa
Jeremy Bird, 21 Leeway Road
Malvern, Natal

UNITED STATES

ALABAMA
Bromeliad Society of Mobile
C.E. Burrell, 320 Hillside Drive
Chickasaw 36611

CALIFORNIA
Bromeliad Society of San Francisco
Harold Charns, 9th and Lincoln Way
San Francisco 94112

Inland Bromeliad Society of Southern California
Dr. Joseph Geierman, 912 W. Marshall Blvd.
San Bernardino 92405

La Ballona Bromeliad Society
Wellington Paul, 12300 Darlington Avenue
Los Angeles 90049

Orange County Bromeliad Society
Larry Farley, 18138 Cari Lane
Yorba Linda 92686

Saddleback Bromeliad Society
Jim Walters, 1410 Sylvan Drive
Anaheim 92804

Sacramento Bromeliad Society
Dan Cook, 3940 Y Street
Sacramento 95817

San Diego Bromeliad Society
Jack Percival, 2711 Willow Street
San Diego 92016

South Bay Bromeliad Associates
Alan Levy, 10713 Ashby Avenue
Los Angeles 90064

FLORIDA
Bromeliad Society of Central Florida
Robert Neubaur, 601 S. Phelps Avenue
Winter Park 32789

Bromeliad Society of South Florida
Nat DeLeon, 9300 Old Cutler Road
Miami 33156

Bromeliad Guild of Tampa Bay
Jean Schnable, 5106 E. 127th Avenue
Tampa 33617

Broward County Bromeliad Society
Maureen Frazel, 12500 Lake Road
Ft. Lauderdale 33325

Caloosahatchee Bromeliad Society
Julian Hudson, Box 1527
Fort Myers 33902

Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society
Leo Olinger, P.O. Box 878
Clearwater 33517

Imperial Polk Bromeliad Society
Whit Merrin, Rt. 6 Box 264
Plant City 33566

Jacksonville Bromeliad Society
Al Muzzell, Box 14442
Gainesville 32604

Sarasota Bromeliad Society
Hazel Quilhot, 6519 34th St.
W Bradenton 33507

Seminole Bromeliad Society
Nancy Hall, 1111 Glen Gary Circle
Maitland 32751

West Pasco Bromeliad Society
Herbert Inlander, 12502 Stagecoach Lane
Bayonet Point 33567

GEORGIA
Atlanta Bromeliad Society
Phillip Potts, Rt. 1 Box 360
Pine Mountain 31822

The Cryptanthus Society
Phillip Potts, Rt. 1, Box 360
Pine Mountain 31822

HAWAII
Hawaii Bromeliad Society
Hatsume Maertz, 1289 Kaweloka Street
Pearl City 96782

ILLINOIS
Greater Chicago Bromeliad Society
Robert E. Anderson, 5045 Dobson Street
Skokie 60077

LOUISIANA
Acadiana Bromeliad Society
Mary Courville, Rt. 2 Box 373
Carencro 70520

Baton Rouge Bromeliad Society
Michael Young, 4364 Sycamore Drive
Baton Rouge 70805

Greater New Orleans Bromeliad Society
Jack B. Grubb, 10008 Hyde Place
River Ridge 70123

Morris Henry Hobbs Bromeliad Association
Henry Picard, 1209 Melody Drive
Metairie 70002

River Bend Bromeliad Society
Peggy Rowe, 505 Huntlee Drive
New Orleans 70053

River Ridge Bromeliad Society
John Meyer, 506 Stratford Drive
Harahan 70123

Shreveport Bromeliad Society
Mamie Beltz, 3927 Michigan Circle
Shreveport 71109

MASSACHUSETTS
New England Bromeliad Society
Paul Carlberg, 202 Providence Street
Worcester 01607

MICHIGAN
Southeastern Michigan Bromeliad Society
Paul Wingert, 29651 Curtis
Livonia 48152

MISSISSIPPI
Mississippi Bromeliad Society
Allan G. Edgar, 5460 Saratoga Drive
Jackson 39211

NEW YORK
New York Bromeliad Society
Sig Sussman, 8377 Woodhaven Blvd.
Woodhaven 11421

OHIO
Southern Ohio Bromeliad Society
Lori Brumbaugh, 5118 Section Avenue
Cincinnati 45212

OKLAHOMA
Northeast Oklahoma Bromeliad Society
Ruby Ettinger, 2518 E 51 Street
Tulsa 74105

Sooner State Bromeliad Study Group
Bob Kirk, Rt. 1 Box 387
Mounds 74047

OREGON
Oregon Bromeliad Society
Tom Cox, 3816 NE 172nd
Vancouver, WA 98662

TEXAS
Bromeliad Society of Austin
A.J. Novak, 5927 Highland Hills Drive
Austin 78731

Bromeliad Society of Houston
Bonny Ruhland, 2400 Bayou Drive
League City 77573

Corpus Christi Bromeliad Society
Nancy Brown, 1105 Laguna Shores Road
Corpus Christi 78418

Greater Dallas/Fort Worth Bromeliad Society
Jim Post, 1804 Smith Lane
Arlington 76013

Golden Triangle Bromeliad Society
Warren Loose, 2355 Rusk
Beaumont 77702

Southwest Bromeliad Guild
Rod French, 1206 Foster Drive
Weatherford 76086

Tarrant County Bromeliad Society
Donna Poe, 3825 Wharton Drive
Fort Worth 76133

Tejas Bromeliad Study Group
Bill Flynn, 11038 Fernald
Dallas, TX 75218


The Bromeliad Society, Inc.

The purpose of this nonprofit corporation is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest in the research, development, preservation, and distribution of Bromeliaceae, both natural and hybrid, throughout the world. You are invited to join.

OFFICERS
President – Edgar L. Smith, 4415 Vandelia St., Dallas, TX 75219.
Vice President – Harold W. Wiedman, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calif., State University-Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 95819.
Corresponding Secretary – Danita Rafalovich-Smith, 3956 Minerva Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90066.
Editor – Thomas U. Lineham, Jr., 1508 Lake Shore Drive, Orlando, FL 32803.
Membership Secretary – Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105.
Recording Secretary – Jack B. Grubb, 10008 Hyde Place, River Ridge, LA 70123.
Treasurer – David Gardner, 33 Camden Pl. , Corpus Christi, TX 78412.

DIRECTORS
1984-1986: George Anderson, At-large, Chet Blackburn, California, Jack Grubb, Louisiana, Paul T. Isley III, California, Carol M. Johnson, Florida, Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., Texas, Hedi Guelz Roesler, Outer, H. W. Wiedman, At-large.
1985-1987: Bobbie H. Beard, Southern, Linda Harbert, Central, Stan Oleson, California, Peter Paroz, Australia, Herbert Plever, Northeastern, Gerald A. Raack, At-large, Robert E. Soppe, Western, Ervin J. Wurthmann, Florida.
1986-1988: B. Dean Fairchild, At-large, William E. Frazel, At-large, Wayne B. Guthrie, Texas, Ronald Schoenau, Florida.

HONORARY TRUSTEES
Luis Ariza Julia, Dominican Republic; Olwen Ferris, Australia; Marcel Lecoufle, France; Harold Martin, New Zealand; Werner Rauh, Germany; Raulino Reitz, Brazil; Walter Richter, Germany; Lyman B. Smith, U.S.; Robert G. Wilson, Costa Rica; Robert W. Read, U.S.; Roberto Burle Marx, Brazil; Victoria Padilla, U.S.; Wilhelm Weber, Germany Racine Foster, U.S.; Elmer J. Lorenz, ; Roberto Kautsky, Brazil..

DIRECTORY OF SERVICES AND COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN
Affiliate shows: Charlien Rose, 4933 Weeping Willow, Houston, TX 77092.
Affiliated societies: Stan Oleson, 1030 Alma, San Pedro, CA 90731.
Awarded cultivars: Tom J. Montgomery, Jr., 206 Eastway, Galena Park, TX 77547.
Bylaws: Gerald A. Raack, 472 Greenhollow Dr., Pataskala, OH 43062.
Conservation: Mark A. Dimmitt, The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Rt. 9, Box 900, Tucson, AZ 85743.
Finance & Audit: Gregory A. Reid, 27281 Las Ramblas, Suite 200, Mission Viejo, CA 92691.
Judges certification: William E. Frazel 12500 Lake Rd., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33325.
Membership and subscriptions to the Journal: Linda Harbert, 2488 E. 49th, Tulsa, OK 74105. See title page, for membership dues. BSI Membership Promotion: Bob D. Whitman, 2355 Rusk, Beaumont, TX 77702.
Mulford B. Foster Identification Center: Send specimens and contributions to Harry E. Luther, at the Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 South Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 33577.
Nominations: George H. Anderson, 4409 Apollo Drive, Metairie, LA 70003.
Publications: Annie Navetta, 3236 S.E. Clinton, Portland, OR 97202.
Research grant: David H. Benzing, Dept. of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074.
Seed fund: Harvey Beltz, 3927 Michigan Circle, Shreveport, LA 71109.
Slide library: Mary E. Musleh, Rt. 2, Box 2452, Melrose, FL 32666.
World Conference: Gerald A. Raack, 472 Greenhollow Dr., Pataskala, OH 43062.


Author
Portea silveirae Mez with brightly colored inflorescence, found growing
in a drowned forest in the state of Bahia. The description of the author's trip begins on page 243.


Calendar of Shows

Nov. 8-9Caloosahatchee Bromeliad Society Sale. Lee County Garden Council and Activity Center, US 41, Fort Myers, FL. Saturday, 10 a.m. to 8 p.m.; Sunday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Peggy Bailey (813) 694-1803.


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