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The Bromeliad Society Bulletin is the official publication of The Bromeliad Society, a non-profit corporation organized in 1950. The Bulletin is issued six times a year. Subscription to the Bulletin is included in the annual membership dues. There are five classes of membership: Annual, $3.50; Foreign, $4.00; Sustaining, $5.00; Fellowship, $10.00; Life $150.00. For further information, write to the secretary, 647 So. Saltair Avenue, Los Angeles 49, California. Please submit all manuscripts for publication to the editor, 752 - 26th Street, Santa Monica, California.

PresidentDavid Barry, Jr. SecretaryVictoria Padilla
Vice PresidentFrank Overton EditorMaria Wilkes
TreasurerJack Roth Art EditorMorris Henry Hobbs

Honorary Vice-Presidents
Mrs. Sydney Lawrence, President, Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society
David Goebel, President, Louisiana Bromeliad Society
Fritz Kubisch, President, Southern California Bromeliad Society
Nat. J. De Leon, President, South Florida Bromeliad Society

Board of Directors
David Barry, Jr.
Dr. Russell Seibert
Ladislaus Cutak
Mulford B. Foster
Wilbur G. Wood
Wyndham Hayward
James N. Giridlian
E. W. Ensign
O. E. Van Hyning
Henry M. Hobbs
Benjamin O. Rees
Nat. J. De Leon
Julian Nally
Frank Overton
Eric Knoblock
Fritz Kubisch
Victoria Padilla
Jack Roth

Honorary Trustees
Dr. Alberto Castellanos
Fundacion Miguel Lillo
Aguero 2406
Buenos Aires, Argentina

Monsieur Charles Chevalier
(Honorary Dir. Liege Bot. Gard.)
Esneux, Belgium

Mr. Charles Hodgson
Heidelberg 23, Melbourne
Victoria, Australia

Mr. C. H. Lankester
Las Concavas
Cartago, Costa Rica

P. Raulino Reitz, Dir.
Herbario, "Barbosa Rodrigues"
Itajai, St. Catarina, Brasil

Mr. Walter Richter
Postfach 52
East Germany

Dr. Lyman B. Smith
Associate Curator
Smithsonian Institution
Washington. D. C.

Mr. Henry Teuscher, Dir.
Montreal Botanical Garden
Montreal, Canada

Mrs. Muriel Waterman
Milford, Auckland N2
New Zealand

OUR COVER: Billbergia pyramidalis var. striata, a new variety of our winter flowering B. pyramidalis. Our Art Editor, Morris Henry Hobbs, always breathes life into his drawings for he is not only a gifted artist but one of the most sincere lovers of bromeliads that we have ever known. This variety is described on page 59. M.B.F.


After almost ten years of the existence of The Bromeliad Society, the Officers, feel that it is time that due recognition be paid to Mulford B. Foster, without whom, with his wife Racine, there would be no Bromeliad Society. Indeed, there would be very little interest in the Bromeliads in the United States without their persistent and unselfish efforts.

It is with great pleasure, that we present this SPECIAL issue.

David Barry Jr., President.

"All Rights Reserved for republications–excepting by special permission."


Julian Nally

FOSTERELLA L. B. Smith, gen. nov.

The Type Species of the newly created genus.
Fosterella micrantha (Lindl.)
L. B. Smith, comb. nov.

Some of us are fortunate in having an Aechmea Fosteriana, a Canistrum Fosterianum, a Neoregelia Fosteriana, a Vriesea Fosteriana in our collections, attractive evidence of the remarkable discoveries of Mulford B. Foster in the field of Bromeliaceae.

Now this specific name, which appears eighteen times in as many genera, receives the final accolade by becoming a new genus, Fosterella. This well-deserved tribute to the greatest discoverer of new species in the Bromeliaceae comes from Dr. Lyman B. Smith, who published in the May issue of Phytologia the reason for this realignment in the Pitcairniodeae.

When Dr. Smith was able to examine the type specimen of Cottendorfia, Cottendorfia Florida, thanks to the loan of the material from Professor Merxmuller of Botanisches Staatssamlung of Munich, Germany, it was discovered that Lindmania unexpectedly consisted of two genera, one of which was not separable from Cottendorfia. In Dr. Smith's words, "Typical Lindmania, which is a native of the Guyana Highland of southern Venezuela, has the short basal placentae supposedly distinctive of Cottendorfia, and in addition shares with it the new character of versatile anthers. The remainder of Lindmania, which is found from Mexico to Argentina, has placentae extending most of the height of the locule and basified anthers. It constitutes a new genus . . . This new genus is dedicated to Mulford B. Foster, discoverer extraordinary of new species of Bromeliaceae."

Perhaps some will wonder why Lindmania could not be retained as a valid name since it has an honorable history extending back over more that a half century. The reason for dropping it completely is due to the fact that the type species has now been proven by Dr. Smith to be a Cottendorfia, so the generic name has no standing, leaving thirteen Lindmania orphans without a valid name of their own. This deficiency has been gracefully and graciously remedied by Dr. Smith, who gave them a haven under Fosterella.

Of the thirteen species in this new genus, six, a very high percentage, bear the specific name of a man, in most instances a man distinguished in the field of plant exploration.

Probably only two Fosterellas are to be found in collections. The more common (the term is used relatively) is Fosterella penduliflora, which is hardly distinguishable to the casual eye from the other, which is the type species, Fosterella micrantha. This latter species, which Mr. Foster has collected himself, is the only North American representative, having been taken in Oaxaca, Mexico, and also in Salvador. It is a delicately formed plant with many tiny white flowers. Though diminutive and not showy, the plant is an interesting adjunct to any bromeliad collection. It has been observed that the seeds have been known to self-sow themselves in adjoining pots when a plant has bloomed on a greenhouse bench.

A description of Fosterella micrantha, the type, is described as followed by Dr. Smith: Flowering plant 3-7 dm. high: leaves entire constricted above the sheath: blades lanceolate, acuminate, 30 cm. long, 4 cm. wide, thin, glabrous above, densely furaceous-lepidote below; scape slender and erect; scape-bracts lanceolate or lanceovate, thin; inflorescence amply bipinnate, up to 26 cm. long, arachnoid: branches curved-ascending, many times longer than their subtending bracts; floral bracts ovate, acuminate, slightly longer than the pedicels; flowers secund and nutant; sepals triangular-ovate, obtuse, 3-4 mm. long; petals narrowly elliptic, obtuse, 7-9 mm. long; style slender, elongate; stamens distinctly shorter than the petals.

Gotha, Florida

His Contributions to Our Knowledge of The Bromeliaceae

Julian Nally

Photo by Victoria Padilla   
Racine and Mulford B. Foster

Some day, when the last new bromeliad is discovered and the botanists write the final and definitive study of the Bromeliaceae, we can be sure that then, as now, the collector of the greatest number of new species and varieties will be listed as Mulford B. Foster.

It is fitting that an American's name will forever be associated with this almost wholly American group of plants, for, nearly without exception, the collectors of the past were of continental origin. Ponder for a moment on two famous names: André and Glaziou, foremost in the discovery of new species in the nineteenth century, both of them, oddly enough, landscape architects, as is Foster. André's painstaking efforts in the great bromeliad area of Colombia resulted in 96 new species and varieties. Glaziou, with even more time at his disposal and the far greater territory of the heartland of Bromeliaceae, Brazil, amassed a total of 62. Remember these collections were made when the field was nearly virgin. Now, return to the twentieth century and the period extending from 1939 through 1948. Cities and cornfields, towns and agricultural crops occupy the area which a hundred years ago was wild land. Despite the vanishing woodland and the destruction of its epiphytic inhabitants, during this ten year period, of which approximately two and a half years were spent in the field, Foster discovered 188 new species and varieties of bromeliads, very nearly an eighth of all then known. It was in honor of this signal achievement that Dr. Lyman B. Smith designated the new genus he created as Fosterella. This was recently published in PHYTOLOGIA and an excerpt is included in this issue of The Bromeliad Society Bulletin.

During this century plantsmen and botanists in many countries of South and Central America became interested in their rich flora and the pages of scholarly studies on Bromeliaceae abound in the names such as Cuatrecasas of Colombia, Castellanos of Argentina, Reitz of Brazil and a host of others who are adding immeasurably to our fund of knowledge. They have continued the labors of the giants of the past: Martius, Selloa, Karwinsky, Blanchet, Wittmack, Wercklé, Pittier, Ule, Bonpland, Hoehne, Humbolt, Triana, Lehmann, Langlassé, Rusby and others of equal importance. And aiding their efforts are other present-day collectors: Schultes, Pennell, Killip, A. C. Smith, P. H. Allen, Pimenta Veloso, Kuhlmann, C. E. Smith, Jr., McBride, Steyermark, our own Lyman B. Smith and many more.

How does a man discover so many new plants in a field which had had the intimate attention of indefatigable and brilliant plant collectors for so many years? Partly by study of collecting sites of historical record, partly, as one grows wiser in the art of collecting, through experience, partly from the study of maps and geologic formations, and partly through a sensitivity, an ability to verily translate oneself into the vegetable kingdom and choose locations which themselves seek. All these factors, plus a keen eyesight, a photographic mind and a deep and abiding love for the plants themselves, make a notable collector.

Foster's interest in bromeliads dates back to 1912 when he had his first glimpse of Spanish Moss in Florida. When he took up residence in that state in 1923, the native Tillandsias captured his attention and he soon added his first exotic species to his collection. He met Theodore L. Mead of Oviedo, Florida and Henry Nehrling of Gotha, Florida, meetings which gave further impetus to his enthusiasm. A series of collecting trips into Mexico in the mid-thirties resulted in his first new bromeliad, Hechtia melanocarpa. In 1939, he and Racine Foster, his wife, went to Brazil, and again in 1940, trips which totaled twelve months. A trip to Colombia in 1948 occupied six months. From 1948 on, other and briefer trips were made to Honduras, Costa Rica, Dutch Guiana, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Trinidad, Venezuela, Jamaica, Cuba, Brazil and Mexico.

Brazil possesses the greatest number of bromeliads: Dr Lyman B. Smith's classic, "The Bromeliaceae of Brazil", published in 1955, lists 549 species and varieties. Of this total, Foster discovered, for the first time, 107. That he took many other bromeliads, some of which had not been seen since the type was discovered, together with the more common species and varieties, is evidenced by the fact that in "The Bromeliaceae of Brazil" his name appears more than 700 times as collector or artist. His self-taught skill as botanical artist has been of invaluable aid to botanical science, for drawings made in the field of fresh and unhandled material simplify the work of the systematic botanist.

More than half of the new species described from Brazil between 1935 and 1955 were his. He discovered more Orthophytums in Brazil than any collector: indeed, more than half of all the known Griegias are credited to him. His greatest triumph in the field occurred in the state of Espirito Santo when he found 9 new species in a single day, 7 in the next.

In Colombia, where bromeliads seek the high altitudes of the Andes, his success was no less marked than in Brazil. With André's route as his guide, he retraced the footsteps of this famous plant explorer, with many side trips taken on his own volition. The result was 54 new species and varieties. According to Dr. Lyman B. Smith's study, "The Bromeliaceae of Colombia," published in 1957, there were 372 different bromeliads in that country – (the indicated total of 392 in the Preface is a typographical error). Of these, Foster collected 277.

An interpolation here should indicate that though Foster had, perforce, to work in a field that had presumably been well-combed and which had attracted numerous plant collectors due to the beauty of many bromeliads, his new species and varieties are by no means the "unconsidered trifles" passed over by seekers after the spectacular. Recall just a few of the plants currently in cultivation: Aechmea Fosteriana, Ae. Racinae, Ae. orlandiana, Billbergia leptopoda, Canistrum Fosterianum, Cryptanthus Fosterianus, Neoregelia Fosteriana, Neo. zonata, Portea petropolitana var. extensa, Vriesea Phillipo-Coburgi var. vagans, Vr. Fosteriana, Vr. Racinae. Mourn the others of great beauty which did not survive the stringent restrictions of fumigation by Plant Quarantine of the United State Department of Agriculture. Chief among them, that lovely Colombian, Aechmea zebrina. whose broad contrasting grey bands against the vivid green of the leaves mark it as no poor relation of the similar Aechmea Chantinii. Foster cites the discovery of this plant as his greatest moment in collecting bromeliads.

One thing that has set Foster apart from most collectors, has been his willingness to collect sterile living material and transport it, often at expenditure of exhausting labor and no little expense, to Florida, hopefully to grow on and bloom. Many and heart-rending were the losses he suffered in transporting bromeliads from their native lands, but in the instances where he succeeded, the rewards have been great, not only to science, but to all bromeliad lovers. Many of the outstanding plants he has taken have refused to adjust to change in conditions; high altitude specimens often detest the descent to sea level, plants accustomed to the chill and constant fogs, laden with moisture, succumb to bright, dry days. Some, perhaps, will eventually be brought into cultivation, but many will have to remain interesting citations in a botanical register.

Foster's interest in plants is catholic and wide-embracing, as witness his discoveries through the years in fields other than his chosen one: three new palms, four amaryllis, and single entries in Cooperia, Eucharis, Cactus, Peperomia and Zephyranthes. As a hybridizer, he has carried his work through seven generations of Alstroemeria.

For many years, he and his wife have contributed frequently to scientific journals beside writing articles in a more popular vein. Foster has, in recent years devoted himself more and more to taxonomic problems of the Bromeliaceae and has made important contributions in the naming of new species and varieties.

Indeed, his activities represent a remarkable blending of interest in the horticultural as well as botanical side of Bromeliaceae: not often these two are combined in one man.

He has one of the world's outstanding collections of living bromeliads, perhaps the very greatest. It numbers well over 400 species and varieties. In addition, he has grown more than 100 different hybrids of Cryptanthus, 50 of Neoregelia, and another 70 of Aechmea, Billbergia and other genera, mostly not yet described. Those hybrids he has described, including several important bi-generics, creating also the hybrid genera themselves, are listed at the conclusion of this article.


Discovered and collected in the field by Mulford B. Foster. All plants have been described and published by Dr. Lyman B. Smith except those marked with an asterisk (*); these have been described by M. B. Foster.

distichantha var. distichantha forma albiflora
ramosa var. festiva
servitensis var. exigua
*victoriana var. discolor
amoena var. viridis
*amoena var. rubra
*Euphemia var. purpurea
Euphemia var. nudiflora
Euphemia var. saundersioides
iridifolia var. concolor
*pyramidalis var. striata
Tweediana var. minor
angustifolia var. nivea
*monostachia var. variegata
musaica var. concolor
*catingae var. elongata
bahiana var. viridis
apiculatum var. serrulatum
apiculatum var. apiculatum
bella var. densior
echinata var. sublaevis
flammea var. pallida
squarrosa var. colorata
petropolitana var. extensa
*fasciculata var. densispica forma alba
*flabella var. viridifolia
*ionantha var. VanHyningii
pueblensis var. glabrior
stricta var. disticha
friburgensis var. paludosa
Phillipo-Coburgi var. vagans
platynema var. gracilior
procera var. rubra
*splendens var. striatifolia
P. S. Six more species are known to be new but are not yet published (as of June 1960).


Discovered by Mulford B. Foster in

U. S. A.2
Costa Rica2
Dutch Guiana3
Ecuador6–1 co-type
Aechmea × Bert
Aechmea × Foster's Favorite
Aechmea × royal wine
Dyckia × Lad Cutak
Neoregelia × Morrisoniana
Neoregelia × Morrisoniana hv. George
Neoregelia × Morrisoniana hv. Margaret
Billbergia × Fantasia
Billbergia × Muriel Waterman
Tillandsia × Victoria

Made and described by Mulford B. Foster
× NEOPHYTUM, M. B. Foster
× Neophytum Lymanii. M. B. Foster
× NEOMEA, M. B. Foster
× Neomea Marneiri, M. B. Foster

Gotha, Florida


Mulford B. Foster

Nidularium amazonicum
Wittrockia amazonica

Feeling that I have been partly responsible for the confusion, at least in the United States, which has been caused by the mislabeling of a popular Nidularium which has been sold in this country for the past twenty-five years, it is high time that something was done to correct the situation.

For more than twenty years I have had a plant in my collection, labeled Nidularium amazonicum. It originally came to the U. S. from Europe where it had been so labeled for many years. This Nidularium, which has metallic magenta-green leaves, glossy beneath, with a rather pronounced sunken midrib, has a central inflorescence consisting of rusty red bracts, each containing a cluster of white flowers. This inflorescence is in the center of the rosette of leaves and it's proper name is, Nidularium Innocentii Lem var. Innocentii (named for M. St. Innocent) and NOT Wittrockia amazonica as many persons have recently, wrongly, relabeled it.

Photo by author
Nidularium Innocentii Lem. var. Innocentii

When Dr. Lyman B. Smith published, in 1955, THE BROMELIACEAE of BRAZIL, many of our bromeliad enthusiasts saw, for the first time, the complete list of known Wittrockia species as shown on pages 185-186. Under Wittrockia amazonica (Baker) L. B. Smith, three synonyms are listed. Baker called this plant Karatas amazonica. Linden and Morren called it Nidulariuim amazonicum while Mez named it Canistrum amazonicum.

This plant was cultivated and flowered in the Kew Gardens, London, in 1878 and was listed in their Hand-List as late as 1915. At that time practically all of the species then listed as Karatas are now known as species of either, Nidularium, Neoregelia or Wittrockia. Morren made a drawing of this "Karatas amazonica" and stated on the drawing that it was received from Mr. Wm. Bull in June 1886 and that it came from Binot Rio de Janeiro. Beker states that it was introduced by Linden about 1870.

How long this "Wittrockia amazonica" lived under its different generic names, we do not know, nor do we know when the label of "Nidularium amazonicum" was mistakenly shifted (in some distant greenhouse) over onto the plant of what has been legally, botanically determined Nidularium Innocentii. But we do know that, now, at the present time, a number of Bromeliad Society members have placed another wrong label of "Wittrockia amazonica" on the plant which does not even belong to Wittrockia, neither is it "Nidularium amazonicum", but is in truth, Nidularium Innocentii var. Innocentii.

The photo of the true Nidularium Innocentii var. Innocentii, above, was taken at Alto de Serra in Sao Paulo, Brazil when we were guests on that inspiring reservation in 1939.

It is to be hoped that every one of the Society's members will properly label this beautiful plant with its proper name, NIDULARIUM INNOCENTII var. INNOCENTII and NOT "Wittrockia amazonica", nor "Nidularium amazonicum."

While we are on the subject of Nidularium Innocentii, it will be helpful to list the five varieties of this species after the clarification in Lyman Smith's BROMELIACEAE of BRAZIL on page 167. (The seeming double-talk of the first species name, to indicate that it is the first one discovered; all the others have been found since, and are variations of the first one.)

Plants with dark, magenta-green leaves: var. Innocentii
Plants with all green leaf blades: var. Wittmackianum
Plants with green leaf blades marked with longitudinal white lines: var. striatum
Plants with green leaf blades marked with numerous white lines: var. lineatum
Plants with green blades having a single large median white stripe: var. Paxianum

Rt. 3. Box 658. Orlando, Florida


Mulford B. Foster

All of the six known species of the genus Wittrockia have been quite rare in horticulture. The first and most beautiful species to come to the United States was W. superba. The writer brought this species back, alive, in 1939 from the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and the plant flowered in the Bromelario, in Orlando, in 1942.

It was well named for it was a superb sight, – this Neoregelia-Nidularium-like plant with the appearance as though the spiny yellow-green leaves were made of lacquer. With such unusually prominent spines edging the leaves and with sharply pointed, polished, blood-red finger nail leaf tips, we wondered what it could be. Although resembling both the Neoregelia and Nidularium genera in some respects, it could not very well be either.

When Lyman Smith told us that it was Wittrockia superba we were indeed surprised and pleased as we had never seen a member of that genus which was as beautiful. The only other one we had seen was W. minuta, and as the name implies, is of little significance.

We have not been successful in raising it from seed, and since it is a slow-growing plant, propagation from offshoots has been a slow process; so today it may be found in but very few collections.

Photo by author
The most outstanding member of the genus.

In 1952 P. Raulino Reitz discovered and named a new species in this genus in
honor of Dr. Lyman B. Smith, Wittrockia smithii, and since then Dr. Smith has published two more new species, one, W. azurea, from herbarium material found in the Institute de Botanica of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and the other, W. campos-portoi found cultivated in the Jardim Botanico at Rio de Janerio.

All of the species except W. superba have rather thin leaves and few leaf spines and have little of the glamour of W. superba with its many white flowers nestled in the center, well guarded by spiny red bracts.

How does a layman recognize the Wittrockia? On a purely superficial appearance basis the Wittrockia appears to be in between a Neoregelia and a Nidularium, but notice that:

1. the Neoregelia flowers are in one head surrounded by large scape bracts.

2. the Nidularium head is broken up into close fitting branches, each colorful bract holding several flowers, all within one head.

The Wittrockia, however, does not have the large branch bracts although there are bracts separating and enclosing the sections of the compact head; the petals of Wittrockia are partially fused.

This Wittrockia superba is a cold-resistant, light-loving species which has withstood temperatures down to 24° F. in our planting under the live-oak trees without any apparent damage.

Rt. 3, Box 658, Orlando, Florida


Mulford B. Foster

Billbergia pyramidalis var. striata M. B. Foster var. nov.

A var. pyramidalis foliis albo virideque longitudinaliter striatis differt. M. B. Foster No. 3042 (Type in U. S. Nat'l Herbarium).

This new variety of Bill. pyramidalis appeared in a batch of seedling plants raised by the author at Orlando, Fla. in 1950. The parent plant of these seedlings was collected in August 1939, but did not flower until December of 1948.

The typical form of Bill. Pyramidalis, the commonest garden Billbergia in Florida, has a glabrous yellow-green leaf and usually blooms in July-August and September, but the form which was collected in 1939 has tomentose blue-green leaves and flowers in midwinter. It was a very desirable clone; now that we have this new variety with variegated, striated leaves, it lifts B. pyramidalis to a much higher "social" position!

This new variety is an attractive plant, whether in bloom or not, and is a very welcome addition to any collection of bromeliads.

Rt. 3, Box 658, Orlando, Florida

Photo by author
Orthophytum vagans M. B. Poster, sp. nov.


Mulford B. Foster

When R. G. Wilson found this new species in a garden near Rio in 1955, he little thought that it could be an Orthophytum. And, when he showed it to the writer for the first time in 1957, this rambling bromeliad immediately brought to mind the odd Cryptanthus glaziovii which it resembled very much in habit and form. This new Orthophytum species has an elongated branching caudex which rambles around and over the rocks displaying a character quite different from any other known species in the genus. When the plant flowered in 1959 it was appropriate to name it vagans or wandering. Because of this habit it should make a marvelous ground cover in a tropical garden, or an unique basket plant for the bromeliad enthusiast.

Ever since the discovery of my first new species in the genus Orthophytum when O. navioides was found in Bahia, Brazil, these intriguing members of the bromeliad family have never ceased to show some new character in nearly every new species that is found.

The plant forms of most of the species in each different genus of Bromeliaceae have a more or less general type, as per example in the genera Billbergia, Vriesea, Dyckia, Cryptanthus, etc. One is reasonably certain by looking at the plant to say to which genus it belongs. Aechmea, however, shows a much greater variance of form within the genus. Now, we are also finding a wide divergence in the forms of the different species of Orthophytum even though it is a rather small genus.

The new discovery brings the number of known species in Orthophytum to thirteen which is quite an increase when we consider that from 1854 until 1939 there were only two species recognized in the genus.

ORTHOPHYTUM VAGANS M. B. Foster, sp. nov.

Mulford B. Foster

A O. saxicola (Ule) L. B. Smith, cui affinis, caule elongato ramoso differt.

Plant trailing with elongated branching caudex. Reproducing vegetatively by branching and rerooting from maturing sections of caudex. Forming large mats on, and overhanging, rocky areas.

Leaf blades green, narrowly triangular, deeply channeled, heavily spinulose, acuminate; 6-8 cm long, 5-10 mm wide, semiglabrous above, tomentose below. Leaves 6-10 mm apart, sheaths nearly encircling caudex, and recurving, issuing in all directions.

Plant an open elongated spiral of leaves on a branching caudex which proceeds from eight inches to three feet when leaves abruptly become flower bracts that show no change in structure but become highly colored from orange to red and are close together forming a colorful head, each bract becoming shorter until the upper ones, which are 1½ to 2 cm long at anthesis. Terminal flowering heads 8-15 flowered. Flowers erect, sepals narrowly triangular, densely white-lanate, 12-15 mm long; petals linear, obtuse, light apple green, 21 mm long, bearing two lacerate scales 2 mm above base; stamens in two series, first series fused to petal near base rising 10 mm above scales; second series free 18 mm long; pistil nearly equal to petal; ovary subglobose.

TYPE in the U. S. National Herbarium. Collected in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, by unknown collector and given to R. G. Wilson (No. 578) from garden near Rio in 1955. Plant flowered in Miami, Florida, October 1959.

Rt. 3. Box 568, Orlando, Fla.

Drawing of Orthophytum Vagans


Racine Foster

It has been said that little has been written about bromeliads, but that can be easily disputed when one looks over the "Bibliography of the Bromeliaceae" which Gladys C. Nolan gave the readers of our Bromeliad Bulletin six years ago in the March-April 1954 issue (Vol. IV, No. 2). Some of these titles could be called "modern" and are available if one writes enough letters. A few titles, such as Baker's "Handbook of the Bromeliaceae" (published 1889) and Lyman Smith's early "Studies in the Bromeliaceae" are scarce to be sure, but often a persistent search can be rewarded.

However, there are other books and papers on the Bromeliaceae which are so scarce that it took fifteen years of steady and expensive correspondence to acquire most of them; there are also some other very old titles which still elude even persistent inquiry, or upon finding them, invade, too heavily, a limited purse. Mrs. Nolan acknowledged the existence of a number of these authors, but since the books were long out of print and not easily obtainable in second-hand book shops, she did not list them.

In continuation of the splendid bibliography which Mrs. Nolan started, herewith, are additional titles, some new (and available) many old, (and not available) submitted to give a scope of how much serious writing has been done in Bromeliaceae; to let the readers of The Bromeliad Bulletin be aware of the extent of writing on this family and to become familiar with the names of the authors and their work.

ANDRÉ, Edouard:
"Bromeliaceae Andreana", Paris, 1889; 118 pages, 40 plates; concerning his explorations of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela.
BEER, J. G.:
"Die Familie der Bromeliaceen", Vienna, 1857, 271 pages.
"Las Bromeliaceae de Cuba", 1940; from Memorias da La Sociedad Cubana De Historia Natural", pp. 329-374, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1940.
(1). "Bromeliaceae Argentinae Novae Vel Criticae", 1925-1945. In: De Lilloa, Revista de Botanica del Instituto, Miguel Lillo.
(2). "Los Generos de las Bromeliaceas de la Flora Argentine", 1938
(3). "Genera et Species Plantarum Argentinarum", Tomus III, Farinosae which includes BROMELIACEAE, 1945; (from the Instituti Lillo, Univ. Nat. Tucumanensis). pp. 107 to 378; 100 plates (both color & line); 54 photos; 11 maps; a large 14x20 inches, heavy book costing about $50.00.
CHEVALIER, Ch. In "Societe Nat. d'Hort de France," articles:
July 1930–"Monographie des Bromeliacees"
Dec. 1931–"Les Bromeliacees Nidularinees"
July 1932–"Les Bromeliacees a Ovaire Infére"
In "Revue Horticole":
Nov. 16-1939–"New Hybrid Bromeliads"
May 16-1941–"Billbergia, Sous-Genre Jonghea"
Oct. 16-1941–"Billbergia, Sous-Genre Jonghea"
In "Revue Hort. Suisse,"
Feb. & Sept. 1950
DUVAL, Leon:
"Les Bromeliaceae" Paris. 1896; 150 page book
(1) "Bromeliaceae Novae" I to V, aus, "Notizblatt des Bot. Gart." u Mus. Berlin-Dahlem Bd. XI Nr. 101–Dec. 1930.
(2), "Bromeliaceae" in "Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien", Band 15a, Leipzig, 1930; pp 65 to 159.
"Bromeliaceae"–Herbarii Regnelliani Stockholm, Sweden, 1891.
METZ, Carl:
"Bromeliaceae" in C. F. P. von Martius, "Flora Brasiliensist", Munich, 1891-94; Vol. 3 Part 3, pp. 173-634, pls. 51-114. A folio with full page plates of many species (9½ x 15in.)
"Bromeliaceae" in A. De Candolle, "Monographiae Phanerogamarum", Vol. 9; Paris, 1896; 951 pages.
"Bromeliaceae" (a monograph) in the series:
"Das Pflanzenreich", Vol. 100; Leipzig, 1935; 667 pages, many illustrations; excellent reprint can be obtained from: (costs about $35.00)
Stechert-Hafner, Inc., 31 East 10th St., New York 3, N.Y.
Wheldon & Wesley, Lytton Lodge, Codicote, Nr. Hitchin, Herts, England.

(The Foster issue cannot be complete without a contribution by Racine Foster. Since this important article is of a continuing nature and we cannot, as yet expand the Bulletin, it was decided to use part of it in this special issue–to be continued in Vol. X, No. 5. The Editor)


The February 1960, Vol. 7, No. 3, PHYTOLOGIA, contains Lyman Smith's paper on Tropical American bromeliads part of his series, "Notes on Bromeliaceae XIII". He describes seven new species, four new combinations and three varieties.

In addition a most important clarification of the Guzmania lingulata problem is found on page 105.

Guzmania lingulata now becomes the head species of a variety group as follows:

A. Guz. lingulata var. lingulata
B. Guz. lingulata var. splendens
C. Guz. lingulata var. cardinalis
D. Guz. lingulata var. minor
E. Guz, lingulata var. flammea
thus throwing into synonymy:
Guz. or Caraguata splendens
Guz. or Caraguata cardinalis
Guz. or Caraguata minor
and Guzmania minor var. flammea.

(This publication can be obtained for $1.00 from: Dr. Harold N. Moldenke, 15 Glenbrook Ave., Yonkers 5, N.Y.)

Rt. 3, Box 658. Orlando. Florida

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