THE BROMELIAD SOCIETY BULLETIN|
The Bromeliad Society Bulletin is the official publication of the Bromeliad Society, a
non-profit corporation organized in 1950. The Bulletin is issued six times a year. Subscription
to the Bulletin is included in the annual membership dues. There are four classes of
membership: Annual, $4.00; Sustaining, $6.00; Fellowship, $12.00; and Life, $100.00.
All memberships start with January of the current year. For membership information, write
to Mrs. Jeanne Woodbury, 1811 Edgecliff Drive, Los Angeles 26, California. Please submit
all manuscripts for publication to the editor, 647 South Saltair Avenue, Los Angeles 49,
W. B. Charley
Monsieur Charles Chevalier
Mulford B. Foster
Charles H. Lankester
Richard Oeser, M. D.
Dr. Lyman B. Smith
OFFICERS President James N. Giridlian Editorial Secretary Victoria Padilla Vice President Charles A. Wiley Membership Secretary Jeanne Woodbury Treasurer Jack M. Roth Board of Directors
David Barry, Jr.
Nat de Leon
Mulford B. Foster
James N. Giridlian
Morris H. Hobbs
J. G. Milstein
Jack M. Roth
Dr. Russell Seibert
O. E. Van Hyning
Charles A. Wiley
Wilbur G. Wood
Mrs. Adda Abendroth
Bilpin, N.S.W., Australia
A. B. Graf
E. Rutherford, New Jersey
Cartago, Costa Rica
Auckland, New Zealand
Kirchzarten, Brsg, West Germany
P. Raulino Reitz
Crimmitschau, E. Germany
Washington. D. C.
W. B. Charley
Monsieur Charles Chevalier
Mulford B. Foster
Charles H. Lankester
Richard Oeser, M. D.
Dr. Lyman B. Smith
|Affiliated Societies and their Presidents|
|The Bromeliad Guild, Los Angeles, California||Jack M. Roth|
|Louisiana Bromeliad Society, New Orleans, Louisiana||Mrs. Nell Emery|
|Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society, St. Petersburg, Florida||Mrs. B. E. Roberts|
|South Florida Bromeliad Society, Miami, Florida||Ralph W. Davis|
|Bromeliad Society of New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand||William Rogers|
|Bromeliad Society of Greater New York||J. G. Milstein|
|Bromeliad Guild of Tampa Bay, Tampa, Florida||Ervin J. Wurthmann|
|Bromeliad Society of La Ballona Valley, Culver City, California||Warren Cottingham|
|The Bay Area Bromeliad Society, San Franciso, California||Kurt Peters|
(No article appearing in this bulletin may be reproduced without the permission of the editor.)
GUARDING THE BROMELIADS . . . .HIS PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN BY DR. HIROYUKI MURATA, Director of the Onomichi Botanical Garden in Hiroshima-Ken, Japan. It shows a stone image of Jizo, the guardian deity of children, watching over a planting of bromeliads in a corner of Dr. Murata's own garden.
LYMAN B. SMITH
ULIEN MARNIER-LAPOSTOLLE HAS ACQUIRED a tremendous collection of living bromeliads as his recent list shows, and many of them are unknown and await flowering for identification and even description as new species. Such is the present petite and elegant plant that was part of a large shipment from Horich in Costa Rica.
Vriesea marnier-lapostollei is closely allied to V. viridiflora, but is easily distinguished by its beautiful dark green leaves marked with red stripes and its short floral bracts that are only about half as long as the sepals where those of V. viridiflora equal the sepals. Otherwise the two species are remarkably similar in their spreading rosettes, slender curving scapes, simple dense inflorescences and secund flowers. The technical description is as follows:
VRIESEA MARNIER-LAPOSTOLLEI L. B. Smith, sp. nov.A Vriesea viridiflora (Regel) Wittm. ex Mez, cui valde affinis, foliis lineis rubris longitudinalibus ornatis, bracteis florigeris quam sepalis subduplo brevioribus differt.
Stemless, flowering 3 dm high with inflorescence erected; leaves about 20 in a spreading rosette, 14 cm long, regularly longitudinally red-striped especially toward base, covered on both sides with pale appressed scales; sheath elliptic, distinct, 6 cm long; blade ligulate, broadly acute and apiculate, 25 mm wide, flat; scape very slender, sigmoid, spreading and then ascending at anthesis, becoming erect in fruit; scape-bracts very tightly enfolding the scape imbricate; inflorescence simple, rather dense, about 6-flowered; floral bracts secund with the flowers, broadly ovate, acute, much exceeded by the sepals, even, ecarinate; flowers short-pedicellate, suberect-secund; sepals elliptic, obtuse, 19mm long, thin-coriaceous. ecarinate, smooth; petals lingulate, obtuse, 30-35 mm long, yellow hyaline, bearing two coarsely dentate scales at base, stamens included, the filaments evenly linear throughout.
Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, collected on the Cordillera Brunquena, Costa Rica, altitude 1100 m, by Horich (no. 41), and cultivated and flowered by J. Marnier-Lapostolle at Jardin Botanique "Les Cédres" in January, 1964.
— Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., U. S. A.
JOHN J. WURDACK
|Colonies of Puya fulgens on Cerro Malcabal|
|An Andean lake from the summit of Cerro Campanario, elevation 13,000 feet.|
LTHOUGH THE MELASTOMATACEAE, that most neglected (horticulturally speaking) large family of flowering plants, has been my lodestone in South America, the abundance of bromeliads in various regions has led to collection of these plants for herbaria. While in Peru for eight months in 1962, with the assistance of a grant from the National Science Foundation, the Bromeliaceae again were forcibly impressed upon me, both by abundance and the specimen preparation difficulties inherent in the family. One of the several-fold purposes of the trip, to Departamento Amazonas in northern Peru, was the collection of the rare endemic species known mostly from Andrew Mathews' (1834-1841) and A. Weberbauer's (1904, 1915) upland collections and G. Tessmann's (1924) lowland exploration. All three of these botanists seem to have collected only a few bromeliads in this region. Most of the field time, from May through August, was spent in the uplands (8,000-13,000 feet) centering on the ancient town of Chachapoyas; the later third of the trip, during September-November, was in the lowland (800-2,500 feet) rain forest along the Marañón River between Pongo de Rentema and Pongo de Manseriche,
Both small (P. wurdackii, P. fulgens) and large (P. glaucovirens, P. mariae, P. ramosa) species of Puya are abundant in the jalca. The summit of Cerro Malcabal (9500 feet elevation) above Molinopampa is dominated in large areas by a mat of P. fulgens, reminiscent of the Navia aloifolia colonies on the summit of Cerro de la Neblina in the Lost Worlds region of southwestern Venezuela. All the flowering Puya species seen in northern Peru except one have green corollas; P. mariae, just past flowering in the middle of May, has cream-colored petals. The developing young flower spikes of the Puya species are a favorite food of the Andean bears abounding in the less-settled mountains. Indeed, because of the ravages of the osos and (to a lesser extent) cattle, only a few of the millions of plants in the jalcas mature flowers and set seed. Peruvian villagers in Diosan believe that there are two spectacled bear "species", with slightly different facial coloration, one a vegetarian and one carnivorous.
Species of Tillandsia, both terrestrial and epiphytic, are myriad in the jalca and upland rainforest. Covering shrubs and cacti in countless thousands in the drier regions both east and west of Chachapoyas are T. kunthiana var. divaricata and T. straminea, both highly ornamental. At Ingenio, in the family compound of the Peruvian Army Engineer battalion constructing the trans-Andean road toward Rioja, T. longifolia luxuriates in foundation and border plantings; normally an epiphyte, this species covers, almost to the breaking point, cherimoya trees in the Utcubamba valley. The counterpart of T. longifolia in both abundance and habit at higher elevations (8,900-10,400 feet) in the moist scrub forest is T. wurdackii. T. biflora, epiphytic in very moist ravines, is a most attractive species vegetatively, the leaves being purple-brown dotted. The giant of Amazonas in this genus is T. carnosa; it is a characteristic steep-slope plant, the inflorescences with a multitude of pendent fleshy spikes hanging from cliff faces along the Utcubamba valley.
|Vriesea tequendamae from the forest above Molinopampa.|
While most of the Tillandsia species are ornamental, my choice for attractiveness among all Amazonas bromeliads is Vriesea tequendamae, covering low tree limbs in the rainforest between Molinopampa and Diosan. The color combination, red inflorescence with green (but narrowly purple-edged) petals, was one I had not seen previously in the Bromeliaceae, although several other species of Vriesea apparently have similar hues. Surely this species, known also from western Venezuela to Ecuador, would be a worthy addition to any bromeliad garden. Apart from the flowering Bromeliaceae collected, the steep cliffs of the Utcubamba valley from the Marañón River up nearly to Chachapoyas were coated with many other bromeliads, which must flower during the rainy season (December-April).
Pongo de Manseriche, just below the mouth of the Rió Santiago, is the last (lowermost) of the great rapids of the Marañón; eastward from this Pongo, the river is navigable by fair-sized boats. Only the debatable criterion of drainage basin size and/or length permits the Marañón southward from the Ponge de Manseriche to receive credit as the beginning of the Amazon River; the Santiago, draining a small but sodden region, actually has a greater annual volume of flow than the Marañón at their junction. North and south from Manseriche stretches the easternmost Andean outlier along the Marañón, the low (to about 3,000 feet elevation) Cerros Campanquiz; eastward in northern Peru, there is essentially no land relief and an appreciably drier climate. A flora generally different in species from the regular upper Amazonian rainforest (such as around Iquitos) has evolved in this rainy pocket, ranging along the Andean foothills from Colombia to Peru. The plants of this wet forest, almost completely undisturbed by man, are still mostly unknown to botanists. In northeastern Ecuador, access is still barred by the generally inimicable Auca Indians, but elsewhere in Colombia and Peru only the climate and terrain are protective and efficient barriers; the various Jivaro Indian tribes (in Peru, mostly Aguarunas) are now quite peaceable toward the outside world, notwithstanding the lurid travel-book accounts.
While within the lowland rainforest, one quite loses the impression of bromeliaceous abundance. Unless canoeing along the edge of a large river, few bromeliads are seen except when a large tree is felled or a heavy rain tumbles water-overladen plants from their aerial perches. Most of the Bromeliaceae collected around Pongo de Manseriche were either low epiphytes (up to 30 feet above ground) or casualties of the daily rains. Perhaps the Marañón forests as seen from the river itself are deceptive, the collecting there having been in the so-called dry season. During October 1962, rain (mostly heavy showers of several hours duration) fell on all except four days at the mouth of the Santiago River, so the summer dryness is only relative. Along the upper Orinoco River in Venezuela (between Puerto Ayacucho and Esmeralda), the dry-season forests are truly deceptive in the apparent scarcity of orchids and bromeliads to the casual traveler; most (but not all) of the lowland epiphytic species there flower (and hence are conspicuous only during the rainy months of May to September.
|Tillandsia wurdackii from the scrub forest on Puma-urcu|
|Tillandsia walteri on the summit of Cerro Malcabal|
Surely the most flamboyant of the Manseriche bromeliads, and the only terrestrial one in flower, was Pitcairnia clavata, somewhat reminiscent in both habitat and habit of Aechmea rubiginosa along the Rio Yatua in Venezuela. Only one lowland Peruvian bromeliad was a familiar one; however, Neoregelia eleutheropetala along the Casiquiare River in Venezuela had pink inner leaf bases, while along the Marañón the plants showed only completely green leaves. Plants of N. eleutheropetala were collected by Peruvian soldier work details of the Division de la Selva at Pongo de Manseriche and planted in a small garden in front of the battalion mess hall at the mouth of Santiago River.
Seeds of various Peruvian Bromeliaceae were collected and sent back to Washington. Only one lot was highly viable and, unfortunately for the house space in our part of Beltsville suburbia, it had to be a large Puya. My wife has numerous plants of P. mariae competing for valuable space needed for melastomes and she is being encouraged to give away these seedlings. As for the other endemics of Amazonas now known only by herbarium specimens, those plant populations await the arrival of a real enthusiast of living Bromeliaceae. One piece of prophylactic advice for an emotional fancier would be the use of a tranquilizer before entering the Utcubamba valley above Bagua.
The following list of Amazonas Bromeliaceae represents determinations by L. B. Smith for the 1962 collections. The descriptions and technical illustrations of newly found species have been published in the paper, Notes on the Bromeliaceae XX, Phytologia 9: 242-261, 1963.
- Upland Species
Guzmania xipholepis L. B. Smith
Pitcairnia melanopoda L. B. Smith
Puya fulgens L. B. Smith
Puya glaucovirens Mez
Puya mariae L. B. Smith
Puya ramosa L. B. Smith
Puya wurdackii L. B. Smith
Tillandsia adpressa Andre var. tonduziana (Mez) L. B. Smith
Tillandsia biflora R. & P.
Tillandsia carnosa L. B. Smith
Tillandsia cornplanata Benth
Tillandsia cuspidata L. B. Smith
Tillandsia diffusa L. B. Smith
Tillandsia ionochroma Andre ex Mez
Tillandsia kunthiana Gaud. var. divaricata (Benth.) L. B. Smith
Tillandsia laminata L. B. Smith
Tillandsia Iongifolia Baker
Tillandsia macbrideana L. B. Smith
Tillandsia seemannii (Baker) Mez
Tillandsia straminea H. B. K.
Tillandsia tetrantha R. & P.
Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L.
Tillandsia walteri Mez
Tillandsia wurdackii L. B. Smith
Vriesea harmsiana (L. B. Smith) L. B. Smith
Vriesea tequendamea (Andre) L. B. Smith
Aechmea angustifolia P. & E.
Aechmea anomala L. B. Smith var.
Guzmania bipartita L. B. Smith
Neoregelia eleutheropetala (Ule) L. B. Smith
Neoregelia pendula L. B. Smith
Neoregelia pendula L. B. Smith var. brevifolia L. B. Smith
Neoregelia peruviana L. B. Smith
Neoregelia rosea L. B. Smith
Neoregelia wurdackii L. B. Smith
Pitcairnia clavata L. B. Smith
Streptocalyx longifolius (Rudge) Baker
Tillandsia spiculosa Griseb.
— Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
JOSEPH CARRONE, JR.VERYONE KNOWS that seeds of Aechmeas and many other bromeliads as well lose vigor, germinate slower, etc., when dried for storage. As in the case with many complicated hybrids, only comparatively fresh seeds will germinate. This has been the case with us and others as well.
Hybrids two or more generations removed from the species must be planted almost immediately upon harvesting for them to grow. In short, hybrid vigor does not extend beyond the F1 generation. Subsequent hybridization is thwarted by a degree of sterility at the chromosonal level with the result that viable seeds are not produced. Those few that do form seem very temperamental, especially at the start. To subject such seeds to a drying period, if a delay in sowing them is necessary, is sure to mean failure. Perhaps this article will make possible - maybe only one time - the success in germinating some fine thing that would otherwise not result because of poor storage methods before the seeds are sown. Who knows how far such a method of storage of seed will go. We can't now tell!
Many of our bromeliads grow outside under Maxlite plastic panels with a heavy wire fabric forming a back drop on which we hang Platycerium ferns and hundreds of bromeliads on cork and tree fern plaques and other suitable materials. This area, as you can visualize, is open and to some extent unprotected from ravenous birds, squirrels and the like that may feast on some eagerly awaited seed capsule. For this reason when a number of such capsules were noticed turning bluish, I gathered them and cleaned the seeds of all pulp as outlined in a previous article of mine in the Bulletin.
Because I had no time to sow the seeds immediately, as I much prefer to do, I placed them in a small vial with a quantity of clear tap water, capped the bottle, and put it on my desk until later.
When two days had gone by and still I had not found time to sow the seeds, rather than subject them to drying for storage, I decided to rinse them well once again, replace a like quality of water in the vial with them, and let them go a while longer. At this point, however, I became concerned about the probability of their beginning to grow while still in the water; the temperature was well up into the eighties and with moisture and warmth germination was likely. This would have brought about the loss of many seeds. Well, do you know what I did? Yes, I placed the vial of seeds and water in the refrigerator. I know that they would not be frozen; they were not placed too near the freezer compartment. Here the lower temperature would surely retard germination until I wanted them to grow.
Nearly a month went by and I had forgotten all about the seeds until Susan, my wife, reminded me that they were still in the refrigerator. Well, like a bolt of lightning, I recovered the vial with its precious contents and noted that through all this time there was no apparent change in the seeds. I sowed them. In less than a week the plaques were covered with Aechmea seedlings just as though they had sprung from freshly collected seeds — germination was quite satisfactory!
Perhaps I was just lucky, but this goes to show that storage of Aechmea seeds is possible in the fresh (not dried) state.
— New Orleans, Louisiana.
|Madam Ganna Walska before a planting of her bromeliads.|
NE OF THE NEWEST and most enthusiastic members of the Society is Madam Ganna Walska, former prima donna. After her retirement from the concert hall and operatic stage, she settled in Montecito, a beautiful residential section lying just outside Santa Barbara, California. Here she proceeded to create a garden that today is one of the outstanding in this country.
Landscaped in the grand manner, this thirty-eight-acre estate is truly a "lotusland," for it is so delightful and beautiful that one never wants to leave it. Famous for its collection of palms and succulents, its outdoor theatre and its lovely setting among the gentle hills, it will soon be known as a spot which boasts of one of the largest collection of bromeliads is California. These are all grown outdoors, happily perched on the native oaks or planted in the ground under these venerable trees.
Last May Madam Walska entertained the members of the Society residing in Southern California. Over one hundred members and friends took advantage of her kind invitation and came by chartered bus and private car to visit her fabulous garden. Madam Walska, always the gracious hostess, met the group at the gates of her estate and personally escorted the members throughout the gardens. It was indeed a memorable occasion!
|Part of a native oak covered with bromeliads.|
|Tea-time At Lotusland consisted of champagne and caviar.|
NEOREGELIA SARMENTOSA VAR. CHLOROSTICTANDUCED BY MISS PADILLA'S DESCRIPTION of the Neoregelias cultivated in the United States in a previous issue and by Mr. Charley's article published in the same issue (Vol. IX, No. 3), I wish to submit some observations made on some of the Neoregelias native to the Organ Mountains in Brazil.
As a hint to growers, let me mention that our town is situated at an altitude of 3,170 feet and that our temperature in the dry winter season (May-September) seldom drops to zero for an hour or so in the early morning. We have much rain in summer (December-January). I keep my plants in the garden the year round.
The plant I will discuss is Neoregelia sarmentosa var. chlorosticta (Baker) L. B. Smith. The outstanding qualities that recommend this bromel for experimentation are, I think, its small size (in cultivation) and conspicuous coloring of leaves. It is a fast grower and needs no care in ordinary weather condition.
Adult leaves are pale green to yellowish, sometimes a little mottled, and have a well marked-red to dark violet design on their lower half including the sheath. The design is that of a more or less regular small-meshed net, through which show roundish spaces of the pale ground color.
This plant takes on one of five different shapes, depending on where it is located.
- As a climber on tree trunks in the forest, its slender
shoots have narrow tapering leaves up to 50 cm. long, dark green above and
greyish underneath. The pale purple design, limited to the inner face of the
sheaths, is not visible at first glance.
- Side shoots described under No. 1, when transplanted into
the garden, in half shade and in the ground, grow into funnel-shaped rosettes
about 20 cm. high and 25 cm. across. The comparatively broad leaves show a drab
grey-green-yellowish color, sometimes with a few blotches. The design can be
discerned on the inner faces of the leaf sheaths.
- A young shoot fastened to a branch about 20 cm. above ground
in a shady place grows into a plant looking much like Neoregelia carolinae:
stiff green leaves, slender and pointed, banded crosswise with minute whitish
scales on the underside. The bristle at the tip is green and points straight
outward. The design advances on to the blade a little.
- A somewhat higher location, about 50 cm. above the ground
seems to have the effect of reducing the size and enhancing the color. The
general outline of the rosette tends to the funnel shape, bulging slightly in
the lower half. The blades, more or less truncate, with a reddish tip and
bristle, point outward in a straight line. The face is lighter; the crossbands
on the back give way to very fine longitudinal lines. The design covers a
greater portion of the blade.
- One shoot fastened to a horizontal branch one m. above the
ground did not surpass 17 cm. in height and took on the shape of a Greek vase.
The blades were crosswise concave and curved slightly outward above the bulge.
They ended in two crosswise waves of the bristle facing the center of the
rosette. The bristles were obscurely red and so were half moons at their base.
Minute white lines ran down the back of the leaves. Intensely wine-red netting
came up half way on the blades. From a distance the color of the leaves was a
rosy grey. Seen again the late afternoon sun the effect was that of a lighted
It is a pleasant looking little group. The pale green-yellowish leaves show a clear design inside and out coming half way up the blades. Depending on the light that falls on it, it is wine red, purple, or dark violet. A blackish veil involves the lower base of each shoot. Petals are white and have a lavender area at their tips. The wine-red of the sepals and the netting design defies definition. —To be continued with observations on other species.
— Adda Abendroth, Carmela Dutra, 181, Terespólis, RJ, Brazil.
The conspicuous, black spines give the effect of a stitching to the edge of the leaf. The inflorescence is beautiful but of disappointingly short duration. The bracts, much like those of a Billbergia and about as long-lasting, are a sparkling rose-red and the inflorescence is a blue-black cone. The combination is unusual and eye-catching; but where space is limited many other bromeliads are just as beautiful in flower and form and have blooms that are less fugacious.
— William Drysdale, Riverside, California.
There are a number of miscellaneous copies of the Bulletin which may be obtained at the special rate of $7.50 for 12 different issues. If you wish a specific issue, the cost is $1.25 a copy. Complete volumes are becoming scarce, so if you desire to round out your set of volumes, it would be well to get in your request as soon as possible.
This is the time of the year when we again must call your attention to the fact that all subscriptions expire with this issue. Please get your renewals in to Mrs. Jeanne Woodbury, 1811 Edgecliffe Drive, Los Angeles 90026, California, as soon as possible to alleviate the work which piles up at the beginning of the year. All annual memberships are $4.00; Sustaining, $6.00; Fellowship, $12.00; and Life, $100.00. At this time there is no difference in the return to the member with regard to the type of membership he desires to subscribe to. This Society could not exist on just annual memberships alone — our expenses far exceed the amount of revenue we obtain from annual dues. Hence, the difference in the amount of the classes of membership is really a donation to the Society — a donation which we all greatly appreciate.
Please make all checks payable to The Bromeliad Society.
Mrs. Mabel Goerth, 3207 Debbie Drive, Orlando, Florida, has charge of the seed fund. If you have any excess seeds, please send them on to her as a donation or for exchange. She has many requests for seeds, so be generous with those you do not want. The seeds will be greatly appreciated by those who do not have access to plants and must add to their collections by growing their plants from seed. If you write to Mrs. Goerth for information, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed envelope.
Please write of your experiences, your observations, or of your garden and favorite plants. The editor is sorely in need of articles, especially those which have to do with the cultivation of the various species. Also, if you have any kodachromes of bromeliads which you think are exceptionally fine, please send them in (on loan) — we need interesting subjects for our covers.
Our thanks go to those who contributed to the Bulletin this past year. We are especially indebted to Mr. Jack Holmes for his fine colored photos which he donated in the May-June issue.
× Neophytum Lymanii
W. R. CATEHIS INTERGENERIC HYBRID between Neoregelia bahiana var. viridis and Orthophytum navioides was originally made by Mulford Foster and named in honor of Dr. Lyman B. Smith. Mr. Foster announced the cross in the Sept.-Oct. 1958 Bromeliad Society Bulletin.
The plant has long narrow thorny green leaves with sharp tips (its only drawback). At maturity it spreads to about 18 inches in diameter, but is only 4 to 5 inches in height. The central portion of the leaves turns a brilliant red, as can be seen in the picture, and this color lasts for several months.
This particular plant was grown in a greenhouse and in a mix of 2 parts peat, 1 part sponge rock, and 1 part sand. (This mix we have now adopted for all our bromeliads with considerable success.) It flowered about two years after purchase as a small pup from Mulford Foster.
This plant has so far produced five pups, and we plan to try some of these outside in shade areas where Neoregelias are thriving
— Malibu, California.