BSI Journal - Online Archive


A non-profit corporation whose purpose is to promote and maintain public and scientific interest and research in bromeliads throughout the world.

There are 4 classes of membership: Annual $10.00; Sustaining $15.00; Fellowship $25.00; and Life $200.00. All memberships start with January of the current year.

Address all correspondence to:
The Bromeliad Society, Inc.
P. O. Box 3279
Santa Monica, Calif. 90403
PresidentElmer J. Lorenz, Calif.
1st V.P.Leonard Kent, M.D., Calif.
2nd V.P.Tim Lorman, Calif.
Rec. Secy.Jeanne Woodbury, Calif.
Corres. Secy.Kathy Dorr, Calif.
TreasurerJoyce Lorenz, Calif.


1975-1978: Jeanne Woodbury, George Anderson, Charles Wiley, Ervin Wurthmann, Victoria Padilla, Wilbur Wood, Thelma O'Reilly, David H. Benzing.

1976-1979: Robert G. Burstrom, Leonard Kent, Elmer J. Lorenz, Edward McWilliams, Harold W. Wiedman, Tim Lorman, Sue Gardner, Herbert Plever.

1977-1980: William Kirker, Leslie Walker, Eloise Beach, Kathy Dorr, Fritz Kubisch, W. R. Paylen, Amy Jean Gilmartin, Edgar Smith.


Adda Abendroth, Brazil; Luis Ariza Julia, Dominican Republic; Olwen Ferris, Australia; Mulford B. Foster, USA; Marcel Lecoufle, France; Harold Martin, New Zealand; Dr. W. Rauh, Germany; Raulino Reitz, Brazil; Walter Richter, Germany; L. B. Smith, USA; R. G. Wilson, Costa Rica; Robert W. Read.


Published six times a year: January, March, May, July, September, November. Free to members.

Individual copies of the Journal $2.00

MAY—JUNE, 1978

Bromeliads in Big Bend National Park
  Edgar L. Smith99
A Second Tillandsia Species that has Proliferated
  Joseph F. Carrone, Jr.102
Two Neoregelias of Exceptional Merit104
Plant Growth Substances
  Vernon Stoutemyer106
Aquarium Raised Bromeliad Seed
  Cyril D. Bleeker109
From An Australian Garden
  Joy Pritchard112
David Barry, Jr. — A Reminiscence115
The German Bromeliad Society117
Vriesea gladioliflora118
A New Development in Container Plant Growing
  Vernon Stoutemyer119
My Second Collecting Trip
  F. C. Breckenridge III121
Newly Registered Bromeliad Hybrids124
Tillandsia araujei125
An Aechmea Hybrid
  Bernard Stonor126
Regional Reflections129
Affiliates of the Bromeliad Society, Inc.133
Streptocalyx fuerstenbergii144
PICTURE ON THE COVER — Aechmea politii L. B. Smith. Photo by Jeffrey Kent, California.

Editor: Victoria Padilla

No article is to be reprinted without the expressed consent of the editor.

Articles and photographs are earnestly solicited. Length is no factor. Please mail copy and all questions to the Editorial Office, 647 South Saltair Ave., Los Angeles, California 90049.

Bromeliads in Big Bend National Park


Hechtia scariosa in bloom
Big Bend National Park April, 1977

There is more than one species of bromeliad to be found in Big Bend National Park in Texas, but the easiest one to observe, and the one most visitors will probably see, is Hechtia scariosa.

In Bromeliads (Crown Publishers, Inc., 1973), Padilla reports Hechtia texensis as occurring in the Big Bend area of the Rio Grande River. I have not yet been in the region where this species grows. Several years ago, two of our society members from Dallas reported seeing Tillandsia recurvata (Ball Moss) in an area of the Chisos Mountains. This was a very interesting observation as this tillandsia was not generally thought to occur that far west.

Most visitors to this rugged and somewhat remote national park usually head for "The Basin" area in the Chisos Mountains for most of the park's overnight accommodations are located there. It is possible to see a specimen of Hechtia scariosa at the Lodge in The Basin. There is a "cactus" bed outside the entrance to this building and a specimen of this bromeliad was observed in this planter peeking from beneath a rock. However, last April when I visited the park, most of the cacti in this bed were dead and the bromeliad looked sick.

   H. scariosa on the Boquillas Canyon Trail.
But don't be discouraged, for there are thousands of specimens of this succulent bromeliad in another area. The Chisos (Ghost) Mountains, which dramatically thrust up about 5,000 feet above the desert floor, are actually a distinct range of mountains. Here the climate is more moderate than on the desert floor. Pine and other trees — including the more rare weeping juniper and Mexican madrone — can be found in the mountains. However, in order to see Hechtia scariosa growing in its native habitat, it is necessary to travel the desert road to Boquillas Canyon of the Rio Grande River which is located on the eastern side of the park. This canyon, more than a thousand feet deep, separates Texas from Mexico.

Along this route, the road passes through a tunnel. Shortly beyond this tunnel is an "overlook" and a small "nature trail". H. scariosa is among the plants identified and labeled on this trail. Farther along, the road traverses an area of limestone hills. In this arid and rugged region is the home of this native Texas hechtia. It is difficult to see plants of H. scariosa from an automobile as, at a distance, they can be mistaken for the agaves which are abundant in that region. However, by walking into the desert, huge clumps of this bromeliad can be observed. But here a few words of caution! First, the road is narrow, as are the shoulders of the road, so care should be taken in parking; second, keep a lookout for snakes; third, remember, nearly all the plants in this area are armed with spines and can cause injury.

Hechtia scariosa is usually found in large untidy clumps. Many clumps are doughnut or horseshoe shaped and can be as large as 4-8 feet in diameter. Small clumps are often ball shaped. This past April, these bromeliads were in full bloom and were easy to locate. However, the dried flowered stalks can sometimes be used as an identifying characteristic if these plants are not blooming. During the winter and spring, the hechtias will have red markings on their leaves, though this coloration seems to fade out in the summer.

Of course, it is illegal to remove H. scariosa, or any other plant, from the Park. But if you wish to examine the plant closely, use caution, for this bromeliad is armed with large hooked spines which can rip and tear skin and clothing. It is interesting to note that some of the hooks face toward the base of the plant while others point toward the leaf tip. This allows the plant to grab its victim going in and coming out.

When blooming, this hechtia sends up a flower stalk about 2-4 feet high which is covered with clusters of tiny slightly off-white flowers. I could not detect any odor to these flowers.

There is at least one specimen of this plant which can be observed along the Boquillas Canyon walking trail. Leaving the parking area, this trail climbs quickly and then rounds a cliff. After this first turn, on the top of the wall (about 8-10 feet high) on the left side is a clump of H. scariosa.

So if you are traveling in the Big Bend area, be sure to take the trip to Boquillas Canyon and see H. scariosa. I have never observed this plant in the more spectacular Santa Elena Canyon area on the western side of the Park. If you can visit the Park in the spring you might be lucky and see the wildflowers and cacti in bloom. Spring begins early along the Rio Grande River with the bluebonnets and other "wildflowers", then proceeds into the desert area and ends up later in the Chisos Mountains. But any time of year this land is beautiful. Its beauty is rugged and primitive — a perfect setting for the rugged but beautiful Hechtia scariosa.

Dallas, Texas

The International Aroid Society has recently been formed for the serious study of the Araceae. It is the first plant society to be concerned with this family, which includes Anthurium, Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, and over 105 genera. Annual dues of $10.00 entitle members to a quarterly bulletin and a monthly newsletter. For information write to the International Aroid Society, P. O. Box 43-1853, South Miami, Florida 33143.

A Second Tillandsia Species that has Proliferated


Tillandsia argentea

Not very long ago, there was an article in the Journal about a variety of Tillandsia circinnata that produces plantlets from auxiliary buds along its flower scape. Since I had not known this phenomenon to occur anywhere within this genus, I looked upon it as unique to this one plant, its proliferations, and possibly, to some of its seedlings. Therefore, I gave no thought that there might be a similar occurrence among the various tillandsias within our collection until, one day, as I approached the far-end wall of one of our greenhouses where about half of our tillandsia collection is hung. There, I spotted a plant of Tillandsia argentea with three proliferations growing from the three uppermost auxiliary buds along the flower scape, but below where the first flower had appeared.

Well, as you would suppose, I did a quick double-take; I was startled by the realization that these were true proliferations — not seedlings that had grown from seeds fallen off other plants perched along the wall or above.

I had not noticed proliferations on these plants in previous years; and why they formed this year, I cannot say! Surely, their emergence had not been encouraged by me in any artificial manner with chemical growth stimulants or the like.

I intend to watch these plants closely in the coming years in an effort to determine whether this occurrence was merely casual and accidental, or whether it is inherent and reliable. In either event, I find it quite interesting that a second tillandsia species is known to proliferate.

Metairie, Louisiana

The discovery of a new plant growth substance, triacontanol, was announced in 1977 by Dr. Stanley K. Ries of Michigan State University in the journals SCIENCE and HORTICULTURE. This is a higher alcohol found in waxy leaf coatings of plants, in beeswax and in dry ground alfalfa meal. The material has given increases of from 10 to 40 percent in growth when used as a seed soak, a spray on the foliage or a soil drench. The material is apparently active in quite low concentrations and the application of only one pound of dry alfalfa meal has been suggested as an application to 640 square feet of ground. Dr. Ries hopes that this material will permit the more efficient utilization of increasingly expensive and scarce chemical nitrogenous fertilizers.

Two Neoregelias of Exceptional Merit

Photo by E. Wurthmann
Left — Neoregelia pabstii

Neoregelia pabstii, pictured above, is a new species from Brazil that has just recently made an appearance on the American scene. It was named after Guido Pabst, Brazilian botanist and director of Varig Air Lines.

This neoregelia is a relatively small plant, measuring no more than 12 inches in height; its 7 to 12 stiff leaves forming a tubular rosette. The plant in the illustration was in a four-inch pot. It is a slow grower, but puts out a number of offsets. The editor has three color phases of this species: one is plain green (the least attractive); one is almost white with a glistening snowy powder covering the leaves; one is bicolored, having a deep pink on the outer sides of the leaves and a soft green in the inside. It would probably be best to purchase a mature plant so that one could be sure of the coloration of the foliage.

Right — Neoregelia 'Laureli'
Photo by L. Stone

This lovely neoregelia, which won the Best in Show award at the last Central Florida Bromeliad Society Show is a cross made by Leroy Stone of Orlando, Florida, who names it Neoregelia 'Laureli' after his wife Laurel.

Unfortunately, as in the case of many lovely hybrids, the plant cannot be registered, for the parents are unknown. It was Mr. Stone's first hybrid, and he says that at the time he did not know what he was doing. He proceeded to cross-pollinate all the flowers in bloom from one end of his greenhouse to the other. As the seed pods ripened, he squeezed them directly into an aquarium of potting soil. As the little neoregelias began to mature they began to put out colorful leaves, so he decided to watch them more carefully. The plant that is shown is four years old and has not yet bloomed. The remaining seedlings from the pod that 'Laureli' came from are showing different characteristics, but as yet they are not mature enough to determine what they will look like. It is hoped that the next time Mr. Stone tries his hand at hybridizing bromeliads he will keep a record of what he is doing.

Plant Growth Substances


3. The Auxins

Soon after the important experiments of F. W. Went in the late 1920's, the plant hormone responsible for light-induced curvatures of plants was found to be indole-3-acetic acid IAA. This substance is still considered to be the main natural auxin in plants, although some very closely related indole compounds are known to be present. IAA is known to be derived from tryptophan, one of the amino acids which are the building blocks of plant proteins. IAA is synthesized in the apical plant meristems and is translocated downward, producing inhibition of the lateral buds of a stem. This inhibition can be eliminated by removing the apical buds, which then permits the lateral buds to grow out. This explains the premature outgrowth of offshoots noticed in bromeliads when the growing point rots or is injured.

During the past 50 years an incredible amount of research has been done on the auxins. Although methods in biochemistry are now highly sophisticated, some of the processes involved remain quite obscure. A long list of horticultural uses has developed during this period which are too numerous to discuss here. The earlier books on the agricultural uses of plant growth substances were confined largely to the practical uses of the auxins. Probably in dollar value the auxin weed killers, such as 2,4-D and 2, 4, 5-T and others, are the most important chemicals. Pineapples can be brought into flowering and fruiting at will with auxins, but this is somewhat unusual. This fruiting is thought to be due to the stimulation of ethylene production within the plants by auxin.

The most conspicuous effect of auxin on plant cells is that it causes enlargement or elongation. However, auxins can also sometimes stimulate cell multiplication, although the cytokinins are most effective in producing this response. These two hormones work together in this response. Auxins tend to inhibit bud development, but the cytokinins promote it. Auxins are known to promote the synthesis of RNA, one of the nucleic acids involved in the genetic system controlling the development of the characteristic proteins for each plant species. The auxins tend to increase photosynthesis in plants and they tend to delay the development of abscission layers when applied in the proper range of concentrations. They are widely used to prevent premature dropping of such fruits as oranges and apples. The auxins promote root formation in cuttings and are almost universally used by plant propagators.

For a time, auxins were considered to be the hormones controlling growth. This view is no longer held. Also the early studies on phytohormones were greatly confused by the tendency to attribute a separate response to each of the five presently recognized main groups of naturally occurring plant hormones. We now know that they all have very complex interactions with each other. Some may be antagonistic and some may be synergistic in their action. The balance within the plant may determine the response. In addition, some plant constituents such as certain lipids and certain phenolic compounds can augment auxin action or delay its inactivation.

A number of synthetic compounds closely related to IAA, but not known to exist naturally in plants, such as naphthalene acetic acid or indole butyric acid, are considerably more active in producing auxin responses than IAA. The explanation is that plants have enzyme systems which inactivate IAA and thus keep it at normal levels. Plants have never evolved the enzyme systems to degrade the other synthetic compounds. Accordingly, they are very toxic when applied in too high dosages.

The auxins mentioned above are often used as the free acids, but if easy solubility in water is desired, their potassium or sodium salts may be substituted. The amides and the esters of these growth substances have also been used in commercial preparations. Compounds with low volatility have been preferred for field spraying with herbicidal auxins, since severe damage has sometimes resulted from drift. Strict regulations control this particular use. The forest tree defoliants used so widely in the Viet Nam war were synthetic auxins.

Most seed stores, retail nurseries and garden centers sell talc powder preparations of auxins to aid in the rooting of cuttings. Theoretically, these should aid in the rapid establishment of bromeliad offshoots. However, they are little used since most sorts establish quickly in a good potting mixture.

Auxins are essential in the media used for tissue culture of bromeliads, which is becoming increasingly important commercially. In the sequences currently used, a medium with low auxin and high cytokinin is used to proliferate buds or plantlets in the culture medium. The cytokinin is omitted and the auxin level is increased in the media used to prepare the plantlets for transplanting and establishment in potting soil mixtures.

Some compounds are known to plant physiologists which are called anti-auxins since they inactivate them in some way in plants. They permit the outgrowth at lateral buds which are inhibited by the auxin produced in the terminal buds. Probably in bromeliads they would cause the early outgrowth of offshoots from preformed buds but would probably not promote bud proliferation. If auxins in powders or lanolin pastes increase rooting of some epiphytic bromeliads, their use would most likely enable the plants get established on the trees or other such medium more quickly and firmly. We definitely believe the use of auxins is worth a try.

University of California at Los Angeles

Richard W. Langer, Grow It Indoors, 365 pp. Saturday Review Press/E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc. 1975. $9.95.

This is a well printed book with numerous line drawings by Susan McNeill. The recent surge of interest in plants for interiors has been accompanied by the appearance of numerous books on this subject. This is a good book for the beginner with a broad range of interest rather than for the person with an intense interest in some particular specialty. A chapter is devoted to each type of usable plant group with some unusual ones such as cycads, bamboos, miniature roses, carnivorous plants and night blooming and fragrant plants. Up to a dozen most easily available and reliable species are selected, and fairly detailed cultural notes are given for these plants. In the chapter for bromeliads, 11 species of Aechmea, Araeococcus, Billbergia, Cryptanthus, Neoregelia, Nidularium and Vriesea are treated. We would rate this book well above average in the quality of the information which is presented. There is a list of recommended reference books, also some of the most important plant societies and a list of suppliers of plants and equipment.

Murphy, Wendy S. and the Editors of Time-Life Books. 1978. Gardening under Lights. 160 pp.

This attractive volume is one of the latest additions to the Times-Life Encyclopedia of Gardening. There has been a strong and rapidly developing interest in this subject since the introduction of fluorescent lamps in 1938, particularly in urban areas. The recent resurgence of interest in house plants will also increase the demand for books on this subject.

This is a very practical book which emphasizes simple, well proven equipment and horticultural materials and procedures. There have appeared recently some new types of lamps which the more adventurous may wish to try out. Unfortunately, information on most of these is not included in this volume. Those who wish reports on the very newest equipment may wish to join the Indoor Light Gardening Society.

Bromeliads are listed among the plants best adapted to growing under lamps. Horticultural information and illustrations in color are presented for 192 popular plants. This information is also summarized in tabular form for quick reference. A good index is provided.

This book is illustrated entirely in color. The emphasis is not only on growing good plants, but also on using them in an attractive interior setting. The color photography is outstanding, making this an eye-filling book and reflecting the steadily increasing sophistication in the use of decorative plants.


Aquarium-Raised Bromeliad Seed


Seed can be raised quickly by incubation in a standard rectangular aquarium arranged as in the following drawings:

The bottom of the aquarium is filled with approximately five inches of sterilized water (1). Four upturned, water filled, drinking glasses (2) are placed on the bottom to support the grill (3) above the water. Seed dishes (4) are placed on the grill as well as chunks of treefern or luffa sponge (5) on which I raise tillandsia seed. A thermostatically controlled aquarium heater (6) is attached by its thermostat end to the bottom of the grill using two looped strips of plastic mesh (7) which hold the heater two and a half inches below the surface of the water. I use mesh strips to support the heater because free water circulation around the thermostat is essential. I use chopped sphagnum moss that has previously been sterilized to destroy insect eggs and algae, for the growing medium of all bromeliad seeds, except those of tillandsias.

To retain the warmth and humidity during cold weather, I have mounted an oversized glass sheet (8) on a sloping wooden frame (9) which fits onto the top of the aquarium. The glass sheet itself pivots by its two lowest corners on the lowest inner edge of the wooden frame which has several small nails protruding (10) upwards to retain the glass sheet in the pivot position.

During hot weather, the glass lid is left open by wedging an object of the desired dimension between the highest edge of the wooden frame and the glass sheet. The aquarium heater, being thermostatically controlled, should turn off beyond 70 degrees Fahrenheit, which seems quite an acceptable temperature for bromeliad seedlings. There will also be a cooling effect as the water evaporates from the aquarium, and this is controlled by adjustment of the lid opening. When the weather is not too cool, I leave the glass lid slightly open, as this aids both transpiration and respiration of the seedlings by keeping the humidity below 100 percent and allowing some air circulation.

The reason for the slope of the glass lid is merely to divert the water of condensation to the side of the aquarium during cool weather; otherwise the condensation would drop directly onto the seedlings, thereby drowning them.

The aquarium is best placed where there is plenty of indirect sun light. If the seedlings grow at an angle towards a window, place a white sheet of whatever may be handy behind the aquarium on the side opposite the main light source; this will give more balanced lighting.

The aquarium system results in faster germination of seed and growth of seedlings; however, it can have the same effects on algae. If algae find their way onto the growing medium, they will very quickly cover it, and if the seedlings are smaller than half an inch, they may be smothered. Algae contamination can be avoided by sterilization of the growing medium and of the water used for spraying, as well as cleanliness whilst handling the seed dishes. If algae do strike while the seedlings are too small, I allow the growing medium to stay on the drier side; this favors the growth of the seedlings more than that of the algae, although the growth rate of the seedlings will be decreased to some degree.

Blacktown, N. S. W., Australia

From An Australian Garden


The summer and autumn of 1977 here at Sorrento, Victoria, with its warm to very warm days and little or no rain, continued well into winter, and hand watering of the garden and glass house went on and on. The plants loved this treatment and grew accordingly. At last came the rain, quite forgetting when to stop. The bromeliads, now well established in the garden, cared little that it was now cold, wet, and windy, and continued on their merry way.

Sun-loving bromeliads grow around a fish pond.

In the sun this dyckia turns a brilliant red.

Growing bromeliads in the garden has become a joyous experience. The climate here at Sorrento is mild and frost free, which no doubt helps a good deal, but I feel that if you really want to do something which seems impossible, there is usually a way to get it done. Mini climates can be provided in most gardens, so study your garden, your weather, and the needs of your bromeliads before you rush to start planting them outdoors. Most plants, particularly bromeliads, are happiest with some kind of shelter or means of protection from the harsher elements. That provided by shrubs and trees already in the garden is often sufficient. Filtered sun is beneficial at all times; only a few of the bromeliads are tolerant of full summer sun here at Sorrento.

Experience has taught us that the biggest mistake one can make is to plant bromeliads in heavy soil in badly drained areas of the garden. This can be overcome by making a "forest glade" within your garden. A walk through the brush, along the coastline, even a rummage in the wood heap usually provides sufficient pieces of wood to form the ground floor of your glade. Arrange the pieces of wood to form pockets. Now, off you go again; this time to gather leaves, mulch, old straw, wood charcoal, in fact anything of that nature that you can lay your hand to, tuck it tightly into the pockets, and you have a comfortable, well-drained, warm home for your bromeliads, and indeed many other plants that enjoy the same conditions.

Bromeliads can take a lot of cold, but to add wet feet and drafty conditions surely spells doom to them. By raising the plants above the ground you overcome this problem. To illustrate my point, plunge your hands into those pockets of leaves, then into the cold, wet earth, and you will soon see why the plants enjoy this way of life.

Billbergias tied firmly to the trees above your glade produce their best foliage color and offset and flower freely with little care from busy gardeners.

During the year we have added a fish pool, around which we have planted various dyckias and Aechmea recurvata hybrids — a change from the usual pool side plants. A neoregelia bed, prepared in the manner described for the glade, was planted with the old mother plants, still looking rather beautiful. All have offset freely, with beautiful color in the foliage. We have taken one offset from each plant which will grow on undisturbed, hopefully to provide a carpet of neo's for the future. We have, too, a row of Aechmea caudata plants; these, too, have offset freely and should provide a beautiful splash of color when the flower spikes appear.

We try to do a section of the garden at a time, introducing bromeliads to our garden to compliment our own native bushland, hoping in time our little piece of Sorrento will compare favorably with pictures of the beautiful bromeliad gardens we have seen. In the meantime, it gives us endless pleasure and pleasant relaxation.

Sorrento, Victoria, Australia

David Barry Jr. — 1898-1978

With the passing of David Barry, Jr. on February first, the Bromeliad Society lost one of its oldest members and staunchest supporters. One wonders whether the Society would have become the worldwide organization it is today if it had not been for his vision and his efforts to see that the Society rank among the most noteworthy of plant societies.

It was David Barry who conceived the idea of an international bromeliad society when the founding organization was only a small local group of amateurs. It was he who persuaded Mulford Foster of Florida, a life-long friend, to take part in an international group and to come to the opening meeting of the newly formed society in Glendale, California.

At that meeting Mr. Foster was elected as the first president of the Society, and Mr. Barry served as vice president. He assumed the presidency in 1959, a position he held until 1963, when he was succeeded by James N. Giridlian. Upon Mr. Giridlian's death in 1965, he again acted as president, but refused renomination in 1969, although still serving as a board member. In 1972 he was chosen unanimously by the Board of Directors to serve as an Honorary Trustee - an honor reserved only for those whose contributions to the study of and interest in bromeliads has been outstanding.

Although not a native Californian, David Barry lived all but two years of his life in southern California. He attended Stanford University in Palo Alto, where he majored in natural sciences. Upon his graduation he entered his father's highly successful real estate business, but he never lost his absorbing interest in nature, and for many years his attention was focused on aviculture.

A trip to the Caribbean and Central America awakened him to the great world of the tropics, and he became obsessed with the idea of bringing as much of its lush greenery to this garden and to those of his friends as it was possible.

So began his introduction and culture of tropical plants, especially palms (his first and most endearing love), cycads, aroids, bromeliads, and orchids — an activity which he maintained until the end of his life. Before World War II he was active in an "international seed exchange service" which sent, received, and redistributed palm seeds between governmental departments of agriculture and botanic gardens throughout the world. Few palms had been introduced into southern California up to this time, and it was due largely to Mr. Barry's endeavors that a renaissance in the growing of palms in southern California took place. The most notable of his palm introductions was the hardy caryota or fish tail palm from the highlands of China.

In 1941 he went to Cuba in search of new palms and on his way home he visited Florida where he met Mulford Foster. This meeting was an auspicious occasion for both gentlemen, as they had much in common, and David Barry returned to southern California with a renewed interest in bromeliads, which he had started collecting in the early 1930's. At that time bromeliads were almost unknown in California, there being only a handful of nurserymen who stocked these plants — and these being mostly billbergias.

Soon Mr. Barry's collection became the largest in the West, his species numbering well into the hundreds. These he housed in several greenhouses in his back yard. In 1948 he erected a large lath structure and several greenhouses in the rear of his office building in Brentwood, a suburb of Los Angeles, and upon retirement from the realty business opened his California Jungle Gardens.

No one has ever been more zealous than David Barry was in bringing new bromeliads into California or in furthering the interests of the Society. For many years his nursery, always filled to overflowing with treasures gathered from all parts of the globe, was the rendezvous for plant lovers, who never came to southern California without visiting this establishment. He became world renowned for his work with palms, and these exotics formed the background for the many bromeliads and orchids he grew outdoors. In his greenhouses were many choice hybrids from Europe — especially vrieseas — and many rare species of guzmanias and tillandsias which had been collected for him in Central America, Peru, and Ecuador. Unfortunately, ill health began to take its toll, and last year his entire stock was sold to a nursery in the northern part of the state.

David Barry used to say jokingly that because of his wide distribution of plants and seeds, there was a little part of him all over the world. This is certainly true of the many beautiful gardens he helped to adorn with his many plant introductions and of the countless bromeliad collections which contain the plants that were purchased in his nursery.


The German Bromeliad Society

In 1970 several bromeliad enthusiasts in Germany decided it was about time to form a German Bromeliad Society. As the nucleus of the group was in Frankfurt/Main, it was natural that the Palmengarten of that city would assist in the activities of the fledging society. Members were permitted to publish articles on bromeliads in the journal of the Palmengarten, and this journal was sent to the members. Also the Palmengarten organized three bromeliad shows — all of which being very successful and attracting much attention. At the start there were about 90 members; today there are over 180. There are also members in Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, and the Netherlands. In 1974 the Society started issuing its own bulletin, which appears four times a year. The last issue, measuring 8 by 12 inches, contains 21 pages, has a colored cover and a colored photograph inside and contains ten articles, most of which are of general interest. At the moment the Society is divided into two groups, one in Bonn, the other in Frankfurt/Main. Once a year there is a general meeting held in another part of Germany.

Hermann Prinsler

(Those who read German would find much of interest in this Journal. For information write to Deutsche Bromeliengesellschaft E.V., Siesmayerstrasse 61, 6000 Frankfurt/Main 1, Germany.

Coming Events

The Southern California Bromeliad Council will sponsor a BROMELIAD BONANZA June 3 and 4 at Veteran's Memorial Auditorium, Culver City. The event will feature competitive judging, non-competitive displays, commercial exhibits and sales, and a plant sales area for private collectors.

Northeastern Oklahoma Bromeliad Society will hold a Spring Show at Tulsa Garden Center, 2435 S. Peoria Street, June 3 and 4 from 12 to 5 p.m.

The Oregon Bromeliad Society will conduct a plant show and sale to be held June 10 and 11, Washington Square Mall, 9585 SW Washington Square Road, Portland. Anyone interested in more information should contact Dick Van Ingen, 50003 SE Glen Echo Rd., Milwaukie, Oregon.

The Sacramento Bromeliad Society will present a bromeliad show on June 17 and 18 at the Shepard Garden and Art Center.

Vriesea gladioliflora Wendland



This is a conspicuous epiphyte in the dense, humid forests, coastal thickets, and mangrove swamps of Guatemala, Costa Rica, to Colombia. A large plant with green, leathery leaves, it is often gathered by novice collectors, who believe that they have indeed bagged a prize. It is a hardy plant, surviving fumigation when other bromeliads are killed and will grow and flower outdoors in southern California. However, when it blooms it is a keen disappointment, for the spike is colorless with green bracts and greenish white petals that resemble those of a gladiolus. In the words of Robert Wilson of San Vito de Java in Costa Rica, the plant is not worth collecting even though it is a bromeliad.

A New Development in Container Plant Growing


A striking development in the floricultural industry today is the steady trend from cut flowers to pot plants. The public is discovering that the latter represent better and more lasting dollar values. The sales of pot plants are no longer oriented to major holiday seasons. Green plants have become a fad and are an important item in plant boutiques, supermarket chains and similar outlets. Probably in time people will become bored by the monotony of color and will demand plants having clean, long lasting bright colors of foliage and flowers. We believe that bromeliads will ride to new heights of popularity on this trend.

Several technical developments have contributed to the rise in popularity of the pot plant. The new plastic containers are less easily broken than clay pots. They reduce water loss and do not accumulate salts. They are light to handle. Field soils have been largely replaced by various sterile inert mixtures. Slow release fertilizers have simplified the feeding.

We are pleased to call attention to a recent new product which reduces considerably the frequency of watering of container plants and extends their shelf life in retail outlets. This product could also be used in new ways in the growing of epiphytic plants outside of pots. It is already in commercial use in the production of a wide range of foliage, flowering and bedding plants. This is a granular organic polymer, Viterra Hydrogel (VH), manufactured by the Union Carbide Corporation, which is reported to hold 20 to 25 times its weight in water, 95 per cent of which is available to the plant. The material is mixed thoroughly in the growing medium, and, when wetted, expands as a gel into the pores and holds large amounts of water. The manufacturer recommends ½ to Ύ pound of VH per 0.03 cubic meters of well drained and aerated growing medium. This product is effective for at least two years in the mix. Favorable reports have been appearing in florist magazines, but recently Still (1976) has published a very careful experimental study. He used 'Sunny Mandalay' chrysanthemums grown in a hardwood-bark-amended medium. He reported that there was a 30 percent increase in shelf life with the addition of 454 or 397 grams of VH per 0.3 cubic meters of the growing medium. One encouraging finding of this study was that moderate reductions of the VH did not seriously reduce the effectiveness of the treatment. At the highest rates, the dry weight production of the plants was reduced slightly, but there were not unfavorable symptoms.

No particular changes in watering methods were required. However, repeated waterings may be needed at times because of the large water holding capacity of the material. The manufacturer states that a growing medium with VH may at times appear dry but still have enough water to maintain the plants normally.

Some observations made by the writer on cymbidium orchids in tubs seem to indicate that more than 30 per cent increase of spacing of watering can be expected. However, in this case the plants were in fairly sizable (10 inch) tubs and the location was directly on the ocean where humidity was high. The plants were not yet well established and older plants with heavy root systems would doubtless have demanded more frequent watering.

At present, most of the material is being produced for the wholesale plant growers, although a 5.4 ounce package is being produced for the retail market. These have very complete directions for use. At the time of writing, these were not available at a number of local retail nursery outlets. The Union Carbide Corporation does have a national product distribution system and when enough demand is expressed, Viterra Hydrogel should be widely available seed stores and garden supply centers.


Still, Steven M. 1976. Growth of 'Sunny Mandalay' chrysanthemums in hardwood-bark-amended media as affected by insolubilized Poly ethylene oxide). HortScience 11(5):483-484.

Biology Department, UCLA, Los Angeles, California

My Second Collecting Trip


Tillandsia concolor

In early October of 1977, I returned for a ten-day exploration of the tillandsias in Mexico, my first visit to that country. I was simply in a state of astonishment throughout my journey, as I watched the constantly changing landscape, with its consequent change of tillandsia habitation, roll by the truck window. Quite a botanical deluge!

My itinerary covered the east Gulf Coast of Mexico, from Brownsville/Matamoros, southeast to Villahermosa. From there I traveled through the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca; then turned north to Orizaba/Fortin and Jalapa.

I was pleased to see that there were still plenty of tillandsias in Mexico, despite the ignorant and promiscuous collecting that has been done by purely money-motivated people. And, I was fortunate to be able to travel through a very large area of the country and observe a great variety of tillandsia species.

Tillandsia oaxacana — 1. the juvenile form. 2. the adult form.

I do regret that there is at present, no 'field guide' to tillandsias in English by which I could distinguish what species I was collecting and studying. I can, therefore, add little to the extant reports of other Society members on the range and habitat of certain less well-known species. I was glad merely to see first hand many of the more common species growing in their native environmental niche. However, I would like to point out a few observations that I think may not be duplicated in other articles on tillandsias in Mexico.

The first deal with T. magnusiana. It is, I think general knowledge that this species inhabits the high, windy mountains of Chiapas. I also located it growing with T. plumosa due north of the city of Oaxaca, on the road that enters the Tehuacan desert. Second, I noticed that with regard to T. oaxacana (as per name observed near Oaxaca), the juvenile form is deceptive and does not resemble the adult form. I have enclosed two pictures with this article showing the variation in form. Third, I discovered one small clump of a tillandsia which may be a natural hybrid. In color and general form it resembles quite closely T. butzii. However, the leaves are much shorter and less recurving, and the 'bulb' of the plant is fatter than the type and closely resembles the T. seleriana which grows profusely in the area where this possible hybrid was collected (i.e. in Chiapas, near Tapilula).

On the 'political' front, I might mention this piece of experience. Numerous tillandsia aficionados here in Texas have come back from Mexico with many scary tales of rough treatment at the hands of the various Mexican authorities while they were collecting. They have said that it is not wise to go there in search of plants, and near impossible to return across the border with them due to harassment and excessive "Mordida." I did not find this to be the case.

I got a "transport permit" for my plants in Fortin, Vera Cruz, showing that the plants were legally obtained, and providing safe passage through all the inspection stations across the border. Of course, I attribute part of my success in avoiding unnecessary hassles to the 'low profile' I maintained while in that country and to the care I took in trying to be as hospitable and friendly as I could while a visitor in that foreign land.

On the state-side, I found the U.S. Department of Agriculture representatives to be cordial, well informed, bromeliad-wise, and interested in speeding my way through as well as doing their job of protecting our country from harmful pests and diseases. With the exception of certain soft-leaved tillandsias, I did not have to disinfect any of the specimens I collected. The arid and semi-arid species, such as T. concolor, ionantha, circinnata, fasciculata, and tricolor, to name a few, present no problem with regard to rust and scale (the most prevalent diseases encountered with the more rainforest varieties.)

Finally, a personal note. With my first article the Journal I recounted my modest collecting trip to Kingsville, Texas, for the purpose of studying T. baileyii (see Sept./Oct. 1976 issue). In that article I promised that I would surely journey to Mexico in search of the numerous species found there. This article is a fulfillment of that promise. In the future, I intend to return to that land for a more indepth investigation of Mexican tillandsias, and I will report further at the conclusion of that event. I am already looking forward to it, for isn't this "the very hobby"?

Austin, Texas

Those Americans interested in joining the International Association for Plant Tissue Culture and receive its newsletter should write to Dr. Donald K. Dougall, National Correspondent, W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Old Barn Road, Lake Placid, New York 12946. Membership is $5.00.

Newly Registered Bromeliad Hybrids

A. calyculata Χ A. Χ Royal Wine
Hybridizer — Grace M. Goode, Queensland, Australia

A. mariae-reginae Χ Dichlamydea var. trinitensis
Hybridized by Luis Ariza-Julia, Dominican Republic

Oeser's Bi-Generic Hyb. Χ B. Χ Catherine Wilson
Hybridizer — Grace M. Goode, Australia

B. Χ Bobtail Χ B. Χ Catherine Wilson
Hybridized by Grace M. Goode, Australia

Neo. vulcan Χ Neo. ampullacea tigrina var. midget
Hybridizer — Joseph F. Carrone, Jr., Metairie, Louisiana

Neo. vulcan Χ Neo. johannis
Hybridized by Joseph F. Carrone, Louisiana

Neo. concentrica, compact-select var. Χ Neo. Χ Black Knight
Hybridizer — Joseph F. Carrone, Jr., Louisiana

Neo. vulcan Χ Neo. carolinae var. marechallii
Hybridizer — Joseph F. Carrone, Jr., Louisiana

Neo. wurdackii Χ Neo. Concentrica
Hybridizer — Grace M. Goode, Australia

Neo. carolinae Χ Neo Χ Vulcan
Hybridized by Grace M. Goode, Australia

Nidularium fulgens Χ Neoregelia Χ Vulcan
Hybridized by Grace M. Goode, Australia

An Aechmea Hybrid


The Hybrid

It is always tempting to cross-pollinate two species of bromeliads when they happen to flower at the same time. If the cross is successful and seed is produced, there is still a long wait, usually several years, before the result of the cross can be seen. Fortunately, the percentage of worth-while plants resulting from this process appears to be reasonably high, so the number of hybrid plants in cultivation is increasing quite fast.

Many of those which are now being distributed don't seem to have a registered name, and no details of the parentage are given. This seems to me to be rather unfortunate and can only lead to much confusion. As I understand the rules of nomenclature, it would seem that when a name is given to a hybrid, it is a general name applicable to the grex as a whole and we very seldom see a selected clone of a cross given a varietal name. I would have thought that it was essential to name an individual clone, or clones, to prevent confusion.

The Parents:   Right — Aechmea cylindrata   Left — Aechmea caudata

One of the problems which confronts us when naming a hybrid is that we have to be quite certain of the identity of the parents. This is possibly one reason why many hybrids are not registered; the parents may themselves be unnamed hybrids or unidentified species. This is the case with the hybrid described in this article. The seed parent is known and agrees with the published descriptions of Aechmea cylindrata. However, the pollen parent is a problem plant. It is usually grown in Australia under the name of Aechmea caudata, but the description of both the plant and the inflorescence differ from those given in the books and keys. The plant, for instance, has large blue-black tips to the leaves. The inflorescence is glabrous but still flocculose. Both parents are strong, vigorous plants with rather dark green glossy leaves and both have attractive flowers, so it was hoped that something worth while would turn up in the hybrids. The cross was made in 1972 and so far two of the seedlings, selected for their vigor, have flowered. The plants resemble Aechmea cylindrata closely, except that some leaves have a little black at the tip. The flowers are similar in both clones, differing slightly in color, being paler in one plant. The scape is robust as in cylindrata, but more or less brown in color. The inflorescence is simple and about eight inches long. It is more open than that of cylindrata, due to the individual flowers being smaller. The actual flowers are more of the form of the Aechmea caudata-type parent, rather narrow with a small ovary. The color is orange-red with blue petals in one seedling, light orange with pale blue-green petals in the other. After flowering the whole inflorescence turned more or less green, but later this changed to a nice shade of pink which appears to be long lasting. The plants are hardy and produce offsets freely.

Another interesting hybrid flowered at the same time; this is the plant known as Aechmea 'Nallyii,' the parents of which are unknown. There are several points of resemblance between this old favorite and the hybrid just described. Both have more or less orange flowers, and in both cases the flowers near the center of the inflorescence open first. 'Nallyii' has pea-green petals and a very dense spike. I wonder if Aechmea cylindrata could be one parent with the other A. calyculata or something of the sort. I think this cross — A. cylindrata Χ A. calyculata would be worth trying if it has not already been made.

Margaret River, West Australia

Regional Reflections


If space is a problem and yet you'd like to grow enough plants so that there are always some in bloom, you might try growing a number of small tillandsias on a cork log. Once you have mastered the technique, you'll find perpetual enjoyment and fascination in watching your cork log community flower, pup, cluster and colonize with minimal work required on your part.

A one-foot long log can accommodate a dozen or more tillandsias, depending on size. When mounting the plants, leave some space around those that will cluster rapidly (but not too much, as your plants will enjoy the proximity and contact with their neighbors.)

The cork bark feels inhospitably dry and incapable of absorbing and retaining moisture, yet those hardy and adaptable epiphytes will soon manage to push roots into the bark. Very small plants can be easily mounted by pinning the lower base of the stem to the cork with a straight pin and then placing a small glob of glue to Duco cement around the pinned area. To secure larger plants, push a hole through the cork on either side of the base with an awl and loop a plastic tie through them. Then drop the base of the stem through the loop, pull the tie tight from the back and fasten by twisting the ends.

These plants will thrive either under Optima fluorescent tubes or on a window sill. Watering is best done with a fine-mist sprayer, the number of times depending on the humidity in your home. If possible, misting should be more frequent after mounting, when you are trying to establish the plants, perhaps once or twice a day. Once the tillandsias have adapted and are growing on the bark, a heavy misting once a week plus an occasional quick spray will suffice. Place a few drops of any weak liquid fertilizer in your quart sprayer for the weekly watering and watch your plants flourish.

There are literally hundreds of species to choose from, but for starters try some of the following: T. argentea, ionantha, atroviridipetala, andreana, araujei, bandensis, bryoides, bergeri, aizoides, recurvata, rectangula, pruinosa, tricholepis, myosura, argentina, subulifera, circinnata.

Herb Plever, New York City


Many bromeliads make excellent hanging pot plants which drip over the sides of the pots. The classic examples are Cryptanthus 'Cascade' and Aechmea filicaulis, though they are far from common. Swinging plants, especially in macrame hangers, are very popular now and the shops are full of them, but I have yet to see a bromeliad in one. Why not?

The most spectacular hanging bromeliads I have ever seen were in Brazil last summer. We were fortunate enough to be with a group of Palm and Bromeliad Society members who visited with Roberto Burle-Marx at his country home outside Rio. Luckily, Lucita Waite, one of our group, is a friend of his. We didn't know beforehand that he was celebrating his 65th birthday that day.

He is the world's most famous landscape architect and everything he does is something special whether at home, elsewhere in Brazil as in Brasilia, or in other parts of the world. He had what seems to be acres of very high slat houses supported by tall cement posts — as far as one could see in all directions are plants, mostly natives, including bromeliads, which he is trying to preserve from destruction by "progress." Hanging from the roof were several masses of Neoregelia 'Fireball'. The pups had climbed all over the 12-inch treefern ball which the plants were growing in, then dripped all around in masses hanging down about 6 feet — a veritable fountain of plants. I am sorry I did not ask him how long it took the plant to grow that way. I planted two in a smaller ball and now have five, so I have hopes. Other small neoregelias might be planted the same way. I am trying Neoregelia ampullacea var. glauca and N. zonata.

In the Rio Botanical Garden we saw a big overhead arbor with potted tillandsias of all kinds hanging from wires stretched between the wooden beams. The blooming T. stricta, T. araujei, and tiny T. tricholepis were especially nice.

Years ago at an Apopka Plant Festival show, I saw a large tree fern ball smothered with red blooming T. ionanthas. I have never forgotten that sight. I started such a ball several years ago, but it was pretty sparse until I collected enough in Guatemala this year to cover it. I could not wait for it to cover naturally; maybe the pups will start dripping from it.

A plant I like as a hanger is Vriesea corcovadensis. I planted one in a five-inch clay pot in 1967. I now has 18 plants clustered about it. It would be more of a sight if I hadn't given away a dozen or more pups over the years. The flaring six-inch dark green leaves showing the maroon centers and the new plants with splotched or mostly maroon leaves make it interesting. So far the plant has never bloomed.

Among my other favorite hanging plants are the look-alikes — Aechmea gamosepala and A. cylindrata var. micrantha. They climb about with stolons and soon form clusters with their lovely long-lasting blooms and berry stalks sticking out in all directions. Of course, old plants have to be removed, but new pups soon replace them. Some of the stoloniferous aechmeas that like to climb on trees, such as A. fosteriana, A. orlandiana, and A. chantinii, might be trained with wires as in bonsai work to climb down a pot. The possibilities are endless, and I hope other growers will try to grow more "swinging bromeliads."

Glenna Simmons, Mt. Dora, Florida


As a beginning bromeliad enthusiast, I didn't expect many of my plants to bloom, especially since I could not provide greenhouse conditions. To complicate matters, my plants suffered a move in the back of a van during the memorable weather of last January. But they adjusted beautifully to their new home under fluorescent grow-lights, and in the spring and summer I was delighted to find blooms on Aechmea racinae, A. miniata var. discolor, A. fasciata, Guzmania zahnii, G. 'Meyer's Favorite', Neoregelia carolinae, N. carolinae, var. tricolor, N. spectabilis, T. ionantha, and several species of billbergias and cryptanthus.

To store rain for watering my bromeliads, I polished a copper tub from an old washing machine and lined it with sheet plastic. This makes a decorative storage tank that is also home for several goldfish. Occasionally I add a little dissolved fish emulsion while watering my plants. They are potted in my own leaf compost mixed with a little sand.

My plants sit on a layer of rounded pebbles over sand in a built-in planter. A sprinkling system just above the layer of pebbles allows me to soak the rocks and sand without wetting the bromeliads themselves. This keeps the humidity between 40 and 60 percent. They get supplemental light from an east-facing window wall. They went without watering during our two-week absence this summer with no ill effects. What wonderful house plants!

Charlotte Opsahl, Wilmington


Winter has successfully descended on Central Texas in earnest, as of this writing (mid-January 1978). And, as it has progressed I have followed a little experiment with tillandsias and the temperatures they will tolerate that may be of interest to my fellow Society members. I have a large piece of driftwood (Juniper to be precise) that is too large to go indoors during a hard freeze. To this I have affixed two species of tillandsia — baileyi (the Texas variety) and juncea. They have been in residence on this wood since last spring.

About two weeks ago, after we had already several nights of subfreezing weather (which did not damage either species), our area received a true-blue ice storm. Frankly, if I had known that the ice storm was coming I would have made some move to shield these plants. But as it was, I did not, and so upon leaving my home the next morning I was appalled to find this tillandsia design encased in ice — plants and all.

Well, I took a moment to lament the certain death of my T. baileyi and juncea. Subsequently, the weather warmed, the plants thawed out, and I watched daily to see when the plants would register their insult and duly die. They didn't! Making allowances for the baileyi, which grows far enough north to be rather rugged, I could in no way at all understand how the juncea had survived. All the literature I've read states that Mexican tillandsias cannot live through subfreezing temperatures, much less endure encasement in ice! In addition and for the record, I have left outdoors through the freezes of this Central Texas winter T. schiedeana (major) ionantha, concolor, fasciculata, and butzii. They were never "iced over," but they live today.

I conclude in assuming, given my own experience, that tillandsias are very hardy creatures that can and have adapted themselves to low temperatures that they would never encounter in their natural environs.

F. G. Breckenridge III. Austin

Tillandsia Araujei Mez

J. Padilla

This attractive species was first described by Mez in 1894, who named it after the Araua River in central Brazil. Though it has been found growing on trees as an epiphyte, it seems to be primarily a saxicolous species and does well on rocks and boulders, the roots having enlarged tips which fix them to rocks.

It is an unusual species, its needlelike, light green leaves, 1 to 1½ inches long, emerge from a long stem, giving this plant the appearance of a small plume. New stems branch out from the tips of the old one after the plant has flowered. The inflorescence, appearing at the end of the stem, bears five to ten pink and white petaled flowers. The plant, if left to itself, will eventually attain a length of 4 to 5 feet, sending out a few roots from time to time.

Despite the fact that this tillandsia comes from a hot, humid area, it appears to be hardy outdoors in southern California and it blooms and grows without any difficulty. However, the specimen growing in the greenhouse seems to be the more attractive plant, the plant being more graceful and plumelike and the foliage a lighter green and lighter in texture. It has also multiplied profusely.

Affiliates of the Bromeliad Society, Inc.

Thelma O'Reilly, Director of Affiliates
10942 Sunray Place, La Mesa, Ca 92041

Bromeliad Society of Tucson — Mrs. D. W. Smith, Pres.
2141 E. Spring St., Tucson 95719. Meetings: Tucson Botanic Gardens, 4th Sunday

Bromeliad Society of Australia-South Wales Branch
Mrs. E. E. Edwards
24 Dumphries Ave., Seaton 5023, S. Australia
Bromeliad Society of Australia-Victoria Branch Mr. Maurice Kellett
75 Porter St., Templeshows 3106, Victoria
Bromeliad Society of Queensland — Mrs. Mary Grasselli, Pres.
11 Holmes St., Moorooka 4105, Brisbane, Queensland. Meetings: Uniting Church Hall, Warner St., Fortitude Valley

Bromeliad Guild of Los Angeles
Mrs. Jeanne Woodbury
1811 Edgecliff Dr., Los Angeles 90026
Central Coast Bromeliad Society Mr. Richard Cleeves, President
570 Higuera #12, San Luis Obispo 93401
East Bay Bromeliad Society — Mrs. Delores Elia, Pres.
4011 Grand Ave., Oakland 94610. Meetings: 1324 Grand Ave., Piedmont, 2nd Monday, 8:00 p.m.
Bromeliad Society of La Ballona Valley — Mr. Paul T. Isley
3964 Grandview Blvd., Mar Vista, CA 90066. Meetings: Veteran's Memorial Aud.. 4117 Overland Ave., Culver City, 4th Wednesday, 8:00 p.m.
Long Beach-Lakewood Bromeliad Study Group — Mr. Roger L. Vandermeer, Pres.
9892 Orangewood Ave., Garden Grove 92641. Meetings: St. Luke's Lutheran Church, 5633 E. Wardlow Rd., Long Beach, 2nd Thursday, 7:30 p.m.
Orange County Bromeliad Society — Joseph Gierman, Jr., Pres.
1773 Yorba Drive, Pomona 91766. Meetings: Mira Linda School 8699 Holder Ave., Buena Park, 1st Thursday, 7:30 p.m.
Sacramento Bromeliad Society — Ms. Virginia Owens, Pres.
2363 A St., Oroville 95965. Meetings: Shepard Garden Arts Center 3rd Wednesday
Saddleback Valley Bromeliad Society of El Toro — Ms. Pat Myers
734 Barsby St., Vista 92083. Meetings: Peoples Federal Savings & Loan, 23688 El Toro Rd., El Toro, 2nd Wednesday
San Diego Bromeliad Society — Mrs. Vincent F. Lang, Pres.
9160 Lemon Ave., La Mesa 92041. Meetings: United Church of Christ, Kelton St., La Mesa, 1 Thursday, 8:00 p.m.
San Fernando Valley Bromeliad Society
Ms. Lottie E. Cave, Pres.
7453 Denny Ave., Sun Valley 91352
Bromeliad Society of San Francisco
Mr. Stan Rice, Pres.
514 Castro St., San Francisco 94114
San Gabriel Valley Bromeliad Study Group — Mrs. Kathy Dorr, Pres.
6153 Hayter Ave., Lakewood 94707. Meetings: Los Angeles County Arboretum, Arcadia, 2nd Tuesday, 7:30 p.m.
South Bay Bromeliad Associates — Mr. George J. Crouchet, Pres.
3201 W. 110th St., Inglewood 90303. Meetings: South Coast Botanic Garden, Palos Verdes, 1st Sunday

High Country Bromeliad Society — Mr. Gary Davis. Pres.
Denver Botanic Gardens, 909 York St., Denver 80206. Meetings: Denver Botanic Gardens, 3rd Monday, 7:30 p.m.

British Bromeliad Society Mr. W. F. Wall, Pres.
4 Selbourne Close, New Haw, Weybridge, Surrey

Bromeliad Society of Broward County, Inc.
Mrs. M. S. Frazel. Pres.
1060 Iroquois Ave., Ft. Lauderdale 33312
Bromeliad Society of Central Florida — Mrs. Laurel Stone, Secretary
P.O. Box 1643, Orlando 32750. Meetings: First Federal Savings & Loan, Orange & Michigan Sts., Orlando, 4th Monday, 7:30 p.m.
Bromeliad Society of South Florida
Mrs. Lon Sniffen, Pres.
23140 S.W. 117th Ave., Miami 33170
Florida West Coast Bromeliad Society — Mr. H. Alton Lee,
Pres. 5813 19th Ave., Gulfport 33707. Meetings: Various locations, 4th Thursday, 7:00 p.m.
Imperial Polk Bromeliad Society — Mr. William Carr, Pres.
P.O. Box 3186. Lakeland 33801. Meetings: Various locations, 4th Sunday, 3:00 p.m.
Sarasota Bromeliad Society — Mrs. Rita J. Roehr, Pres.
1306 N. Orange Ave., Sarasota 33577. Meetings: Church of the Redeemer, 222 Palm Ave., Sarasota, 2nd Sunday, 2:00 p.m.

Atlanta Bromeliad Society — Ms. Liliame H. Grant, Pres.
3480 Northside Parkway, Atlanta 30327. Meetings: Fernbanks Science Center, 3rd Thursday

Bromeliad Society of Greater Chicago, Inc. — James J. Doheny, Corr. Sec.
P. O. Box A 3797, Chicago 60690. Meetings: Various locations, 2nd Sunday, 2:00 p.m.

Indianapolis Bromeliad Society
Mrs. Raymond J. Hafsten, Jr., Pres.
155 W. 73rd St., Indianapolis 46260

Acadiana Bromeliad Society — Mr. Macy Dennis, Pres.
#2 Brentwood Circle, Lafayette 70503. Meetings: U.S.L. Horticultural Center, Johnston St., 1st Monday, 7:00 p.m.
Bromeliad Society of Baton Rouge
Bayou Bromeliad Society
Mr. Fred G. Arce, Pres.
211 Audubon Drive, Slidell 70458
Delta Bromeliad Society — Mr. Jack B. Grubb, Pres.
10008 Hyde Place, River Ridge 70123. Meetings: La. Power & Light Bldg., 1001 Virgil St., Gretna, 2nd Tuesday
Greater New Orleans Bromeliad Society — Dr. Timothy A. Calamari, Jr., Pres.
1016 Rosa Ave., Metairie 70005. Meetings: Room 1000 Science Engineering Bldg., Univ. of New Orleans, 2nd Thursday, 8:00 p.m.
Louisiana Bromeliad Society
Southwest Louisiana Bromeliad Society
Mr. Harold S. Jenkins, Pres.
#17 Horseshoe Lane, Sulphur 70663
Morris Henry Hobbs Bromeliad Asso. — Ms. Aggie Ledet
P. O. Box 26661, New Orleans 70186. Meetings: Delgado College, East, Michoud Blvd., 1st Tuesday, 8:00 p.m.
River Bend Bromeliad Society
Mr. Darrell Hahn, Pres.
1317 Fredericks Street, Gretna 70053

New England Bromeliad Society
Mr. Warren Schwartz
246 Brattle St., Cambridge 02138

Southeastern Michigan Bromeliad Society — Mr. William Vilders, Sr., Pres.
18106 Hamburg St., Detroit 48205. Meetings: Various locations, 3rd Sunday, 2:00 p.m.

Bromeliad Society of Minnesota
Ms. Linda Fite, Corr. Secretary
12474 Genessee Way, Apple Valley 55124

Mississippi Bromeliad Society — Ms. Jane S. Mathews, Corr. Sec.
4326 Ridgewood Rd., Jackson 39211. Meetings: 2nd Sunday, 2:30 p.m.

New York Bromeliad Society — Ms. Theresa Begley, Corr. Sec.
130 Vanderbilt Ave., Staten Island 10304. Meetings: New York Horticultural Soc., 128 W. 58th St., New York, 1st Tuesday, 7:30 p.m.

Bromeliad Society of New Zealand Mr. H. Martin, Pres.
15 Taiere Terrace, Onehunga, Auckland, 6

Northeastern Oklahoma Bromeliad Society — Rev. George G. McCullach, Pres.
789 N. Moccasin Place, Sapulpa 74066. Meetings: Tulsa Garden Center, 2435 S. Peoria St., Tulsa, 3rd Sunday, 2:30 p.m.

Bromeliad Society of Austin Alamo Bromeliad Society
Ms. Betty Schulte
125 Primrose St., San Antonio 78209
Corpus Christi Bromeliad Society — Ms. Olive Saddler, Pres.
Box 8212, Corpus Christi 78412. Meetings: Garden Center Bldg., 5325 Greely Drive, 2nd Thursday
Golden Triangle Bromeliad Society
Mr. J. E. Zingleman
3936 29th St., Port Arthur 77640
Greater Dallas-Fort Worth Bromeliad Society — Mr. Allen Crenshaw, Pres.
6622 Desco Drive, Dallas 75225. Meetings: Coca Cola Co., Lemon Ave., at Inwood Rd., Dallas, 4th Monday
Bromeliad Society/Houston, Inc. — Mrs. Doris Curry, Pres.
3622 Woodvalley Dr., Houston 77025. Meetings: Hermann Park Garden Center, 3rd Tuesday, 7:30 p.m.
Tarrant County Bromeliad Society — Mr. Rod French, Pres.
1206 Foster St., Weatherford 76086. Meetings: Fort Worth Botanic Garden Center, 2nd Wednesday
Tejas Bromeliad Study Group — Mr. Wallace Symns, Pres.
9419 Homeplace Ave., Dallas 75217. Meetings: Various locations, 2nd Tuesday.

Streptocalyx fuerstenbergii has been in cultivation for a century, having been grown by Prince Fuerstenberg, who first flowered this plant in 1877.

As is the case with most members of this genus this plant requires warm treatment, growing as an epiphyte in habitat under hot, humid conditions in Baia, Brazil at 2,000 feet. However, it has grown outdoors in the ground in the editor's southern California garden, putting out blooms and offsets.

The inflorescences of this genus are among the most colorful in the entire bromeliad family, and it is perhaps because the various species are so large that they are not seen more often. This particular species can attain a width of over four feet. When well grown the flower spike will measure three to four inches in diameter and up to eighteen inches in height.

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